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Cardiovascular Diseases Commons

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Changes In Body Weight And Serum Albumin Levels In Patients Requiring Home Long-Term Oxygen Therapy, Naomi Kayauchi, Eiji Ojima, Katsunori Kagohashi, Hiroaki Satoh 2021 University of Tsukuba, Mito Medical Center

Changes In Body Weight And Serum Albumin Levels In Patients Requiring Home Long-Term Oxygen Therapy, Naomi Kayauchi, Eiji Ojima, Katsunori Kagohashi, Hiroaki Satoh

Asian / Pacific Island Nursing Journal

Purpose: To investigate the long-term changes in body weight and serum albumin levels in patients with respiratory failure, and those with chronic heart failure, who were treated with home long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) to understand the current status and contribute to future measures.

Methods: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), those with interstitial pneumonia (IP), and those with chronic heart failure (CHF) undergoing home LTOT for 6 months or more between January 2011 and January 2019 were included in the study. Body weight and serum albumin levels were assessed at the start of home LTOT and at the end ...


Accelerated Aging: A Marker For Social Factors Resulting In Cardiovascular Events?, Sarah N. Forrester, Rachel Zmora, Pamela J. Schreiner, David R. Jacobs Jr., Veronique L. Roger, Roland J. Thorpe Jr., Catarina I. Kiefe 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Accelerated Aging: A Marker For Social Factors Resulting In Cardiovascular Events?, Sarah N. Forrester, Rachel Zmora, Pamela J. Schreiner, David R. Jacobs Jr., Veronique L. Roger, Roland J. Thorpe Jr., Catarina I. Kiefe

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

Background: Medicine and public health are shifting away from a purely "personal responsibility" model of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention towards a societal view targeting social and environmental conditions and how these result in disease. Given the strong association between social conditions and CVD outcomes, we hypothesize that accelerated aging, measuring earlier health decline associated with chronological aging through a combination of biomarkers, may be a marker for the association between social conditions and CVD.

Methods: We used data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (CARDIA). Accelerated aging was defined as the difference between biological and chronological ...


Office Blood Pressure Measurement: A Comprehensive Review, Saulat Siddique, Aamir Hameed Khan, Hunaina Shahab, Yu-Qing Zhang, Jam Chin Tay, Peera Buranakitjaroen, Yuda Turana, Narsingh Verma, Chen-Huan Chen, Hao-Min Cheng 2021 Punjab Medical Center, Lahore, Pakistan

Office Blood Pressure Measurement: A Comprehensive Review, Saulat Siddique, Aamir Hameed Khan, Hunaina Shahab, Yu-Qing Zhang, Jam Chin Tay, Peera Buranakitjaroen, Yuda Turana, Narsingh Verma, Chen-Huan Chen, Hao-Min Cheng

Section of Cardiology

The conventional auscultatory methods for measuring blood pressure have been used to screen, diagnose, and manage hypertension since long. However, these have been found to be prone to errors especially the white coat phenomena which cause falsely high blood pressure readings. The Mercury sphygmomanometer and the Aneroid variety are no longer recommended by WHO for varying reasons. The Oscillometric devices are now recommended with preference for the Automated Office Blood Pressure measurement device which was found to have readings nearest to the Awake Ambulatory Blood Pressure readings. The downside for this device is the cost barrier. The alternative is to ...


Association Between Frailty And Atrial Fibrillation In Older Adults: The Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort, Ariela R. Orkaby, Jelena Kornej, Steven A. Lubitz, David D. McManus, Thomas G. Travison, Jason A. Sherer, Ludovic Trinquart, Joanne M. Murabito, Emelia J. Benjamin, Sarah R. Preis 2021 Harvard Medical School

Association Between Frailty And Atrial Fibrillation In Older Adults: The Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort, Ariela R. Orkaby, Jelena Kornej, Steven A. Lubitz, David D. Mcmanus, Thomas G. Travison, Jason A. Sherer, Ludovic Trinquart, Joanne M. Murabito, Emelia J. Benjamin, Sarah R. Preis

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Background: Frailty is associated bidirectionally with cardiovascular disease. However, the relations between frailty and atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been fully elucidated.

Methods and Results: Using the FHS (Framingham Heart Study) Offspring cohort, we sought to examine both the association between frailty (2005-2008) and incident AF through 2016 and the association between prevalent AF and frailty status (2011-2014). Frailty was defined using the Fried phenotype. Models adjusted for age, sex, and smoking. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for competing risk of death, assessed the association between prevalent frailty and incident AF. Logistic regression models assessed the association between prevalent AF ...


Cardiac Arrest And Global Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Role Of Mitochondria And Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Signaling., Jennifer L. Bradley 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Cardiac Arrest And Global Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Role Of Mitochondria And Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Signaling., Jennifer L. Bradley

Theses and Dissertations

We explored the effects of cardiac arrest on mitochondria populations and heart whole tissue lysate proteomics utilizing the Weil Institute’s in vivo rat model of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We have discovered that brain mitochondria are more sensitive to global ischemia compared to heart mitochondria. Additionally, complex I is the most sensitive electron transport chain complex to ischemic injury and is a major control point of the rate of oxidative phosphorylation following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Preservation of brain mitochondrial activity and function during cardiac arrest may enhance outcomes and recovery.

A recent article focusing on acute ...


Validity Of The Actigraph Gt9x Accelerometer Step-Count Function In Adults With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction, Jonathan D. Kenyon, Hayley Billingsley, Natalie J. Bohmke, Danielle Kirkman, Salvatore Carbone, Youngdeok Kim 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Validity Of The Actigraph Gt9x Accelerometer Step-Count Function In Adults With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction, Jonathan D. Kenyon, Hayley Billingsley, Natalie J. Bohmke, Danielle Kirkman, Salvatore Carbone, Youngdeok Kim

Graduate Research Posters

Low physical activity is associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Step-counts, a measure of physical activity, can be measured via accelerometry. To date, few studies have examined validity of accelerometer-derived step-counts in the adults with HFpEF.

PURPOSE To assess criterion validity of the Actigraph GT9X accelerometer step-count function in adults with HFpEF via ankle, waist, and wrist placement, compared with manually counted, directly observed steps.

METHODS Six adults with HFpEF (age: 57.2 ± 9.4 y; African American: 50%; females: 100%) completed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on a treadmill while wearing synchronized GT9X accelerometers on the ...


Lifestyle Changes In Covid-19 Pandemic And Impact On Modifiable Stroke Risk Factors, Kelly J. Chan 2021 Larner College of Medicine

Lifestyle Changes In Covid-19 Pandemic And Impact On Modifiable Stroke Risk Factors, Kelly J. Chan

Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects

Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and disability in the USA. Underlying conditions such as hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease predispose an individual to increased risk of stroke. In addition, the Covid-19 pandemic presents many challenges to these patients in terms of active health management and maintenance. A screening tool was developed to assess patient patterns of lifestyle behavioral changes measured by modifiable risk factors for stroke (medical condition management, diet, exercise, and smoking habits).


Biometric Prognosticators Of Future Myocardial Infarction: Bmi Vs. Waist To Hip Ratio, Christopher Hover 2021 Arcadia University

Biometric Prognosticators Of Future Myocardial Infarction: Bmi Vs. Waist To Hip Ratio, Christopher Hover

Capstone Showcase

Introduction: Myocardial Infarction (MI), better known as a heart attack, occurs when one or more of the coronary arteries becomes blocked or clogged to the point of being unable to perfuse myocardial tissue. Standard biometric measurements when visiting an outpatient care provider include height and weight which are converted into body mass index (BMI). BMI can sometimes be misleading in judging future health outcomes such as heart attacks. Therefore, this review analyzes the use of waist to hip ratio (I) to predict future myocardial infarctions (P) subsequently to prevent such events (O) compared to the traditionally used metric of BMI ...


Comparing Melatonin Use To Bright Light Therapy In Mitigating Cardiovascular Effects Due To Shift Work Disorder In Shift Working Adults, Alexandra Hirt 2021 Arcadia University

Comparing Melatonin Use To Bright Light Therapy In Mitigating Cardiovascular Effects Due To Shift Work Disorder In Shift Working Adults, Alexandra Hirt

Capstone Showcase

Introduction: Circadian Misalignment is a term used to describe a mismatch in one’s physiologically determined sleep patters and their actual sleep wake behaviors. Shift workers often end up in a vicious cycle of being in a state of chronic circadian misalignment, which then can lead to health problems, extreme fatigue, and insomnia, known as Shift Work Disorder (SWD).This has been studied in night shift workers who, when compared to daytime workers, have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease.These results are not dependent on any behavioral risk factors, such as ...


Primary Aortic Valve Replacement In Adults From Age 45 To 65 And How Their Survivability, Post Replacement, May Be Affected By Opting For A Bioprosthetic Or Mechanical Valve., Chandler Hutchinson 2021 Arcadia University

Primary Aortic Valve Replacement In Adults From Age 45 To 65 And How Their Survivability, Post Replacement, May Be Affected By Opting For A Bioprosthetic Or Mechanical Valve., Chandler Hutchinson

Capstone Showcase

Abstract:

Introduction: Aortic valve replacement in middle-aged adults is a procedure done when the aortic valve becomes so incompetent, that replacement is the only viable option for the patient. A bioprosthetic or a mechanical valve is then chosen and replaces the patients’ native aortic valve. For these adults, this procedure is life-extending and the only option for prolonged survival. This paper will address whether a bioprosthetic or mechanical valve would be the better option for prolonging a middle-aged patients’ life.

Methods: A literature search was completed in November of 2019 using PubMed and Google Scholar. Seven articles were chosen based ...


Evaluating The Effect Of An Electronic Health Record Patient Portal On The Management Of Hypertension, Ashley Hall 2021 University of Kentucky

Evaluating The Effect Of An Electronic Health Record Patient Portal On The Management Of Hypertension, Ashley Hall

DNP Projects

Background: Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease and affects individuals globally, nationally, and locally. Consequences of uncontrolled hypertension include atherosclerosis, heart failure, stroke, and renal disease. The electronic health portal is a patient-specific, interactive tool that has been shown to promote adherence to provider recommendations and improve chronic disease management.

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of education via an electronic healthcare portal on the blood pressure management of adults at a primary care clinic in a small town in Kentucky.

Methods: This study was a one-group pre/post intervention designed to evaluate ...


Rad Modulation Of The L-Type Calcium Channel Confers Systolic Advantage In The Heart, Brooke Mildred Ahern 2021 University of Kentucky

Rad Modulation Of The L-Type Calcium Channel Confers Systolic Advantage In The Heart, Brooke Mildred Ahern

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Heart failure is a major public health problem and a leading cause of mortality. This clinical condition affects populations of all ages, and is the result of various cardiomyopathies. Almost half of these patients suffer specifically from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; these hearts have decreased performance due to a failure of the heart to contract with sufficient force to meet demand. While there are therapies available to increase contractility, none of these enhance contraction without also further promoting pathological signaling and remodeling.

Under normal physiological conditions, the body elevates cardiac output through the fight-or-flight response. This response activates ...


Total Brachial Artery Reactivity And Incident Heart Failure And Heart Failure Sub-Types: Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Daniela Charry Segura 2021 University of North Florida

Total Brachial Artery Reactivity And Incident Heart Failure And Heart Failure Sub-Types: Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Daniela Charry Segura

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between total brachial artery reactivity (TBAR) and the cumulative risk of incident heart failure (HF), HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in a community-based study. Methods: Sample included 5,499 participants (45-84 years of age) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Brachial artery ultrasound was performed after five minutes of cuff occlusion at the right forearm. TBAR was calculated as the difference between maximum and minimum brachial artery diameters following cuff release, divided by ...


Innovation In Surgical Training: Simulating Prosthetic Heart Valves And Annuloplasty Rings Using Pacifiers For Cardiac Surgery Wet-Labs In A Resource Limited Setting, Sara Iqbal, Waris Ahmad 2021 Aga Khan University

Innovation In Surgical Training: Simulating Prosthetic Heart Valves And Annuloplasty Rings Using Pacifiers For Cardiac Surgery Wet-Labs In A Resource Limited Setting, Sara Iqbal, Waris Ahmad

Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery

Conducting a hands-on cardiac wet-lab on valvular surgeries in a resource-limited setting is restricted by the lack of prosthetic heart valves and annuloplasty rings for developing cognitive and technical skills required to understand and protect the three-dimensional cardiac anatomy. In recent times, simulation is regarded as an effective tool in surgical education and has proven to improve the technical skills of trainees. The current short report presents a novel simulator to mimic heart valve replacement surgeries by using a pacifier as a prosthetic valve and annuloplasty ring. Considering resource-constraints in the local context, pacifier-based valve simulators can be usedful as ...


Analyzing Exercise And Subsequent Health Discrepancies Among Those Of Lower Socioeconomic Status In Los Angeles, Nathan Wetmore 2021 Iowa State University

Analyzing Exercise And Subsequent Health Discrepancies Among Those Of Lower Socioeconomic Status In Los Angeles, Nathan Wetmore

Creative Components

Humans living today are stone age hunter-gatherers displaced through time. An adaption of sedentary activities has contributed to the decline in energy expenditure. In the past century, it has been well documented that regular physical activity has a positive effect on skeletal muscle, pulmonary function, the heart and vascular system, and the circulatory system. With 28% of the U.S population considered by the American College of Sports Medicine to be physically inactive- 61% of adults considered to be of low socioeconomic status (SES) are physically inactive. Using a person’s social and economic status to define socioeconomic status, this ...


Association Of Fatal And Nonfatal Cardiovascular Outcomes With 24-Hour Mean Arterial Pressure, Jesus D. Melgarejo, Wen-Yi Yang, Lutgarde Thijs, Kei Asayama, Tine W. Hansen, Fang-Fei Wei, Masahiro Kikuya, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Eamon Dolan, Gladys E. Maestre 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Association Of Fatal And Nonfatal Cardiovascular Outcomes With 24-Hour Mean Arterial Pressure, Jesus D. Melgarejo, Wen-Yi Yang, Lutgarde Thijs, Kei Asayama, Tine W. Hansen, Fang-Fei Wei, Masahiro Kikuya, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Eamon Dolan, Gladys E. Maestre

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Major adverse cardiovascular events are closely associated with 24-hour blood pressure (BP). We determined outcome-driven thresholds for 24-hour mean arterial pressure (MAP), a BP index estimated by oscillometric devices. We assessed the association of major adverse cardiovascular events with 24-hour MAP, systolic BP (SBP), and diastolic BP (DBP) in a population-based cohort (n=11 596). Statistics included multivariable Cox regression and the generalized R2 statistic to test model fit. Baseline office and 24-hour MAP averaged 97.4 and 90.4 mm Hg. Over 13.6 years (median), 2034 major adverse cardiovascular events occurred. Twenty-four-hour MAP levels of <90 (normotension, n=6183), 90 to <92 (elevated MAP, n=909), 92 to <96 (stage-1 hypertension, n=1544), and ≥96 (stage-2 hypertension, n=2960) mm Hg yielded equivalent 10-year major adverse cardiovascular events risks as office MAP categorized using 2017 American thresholds for office SBP and DBP. Compared with 24-hour MAP normotension, hazard ratios were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.80–1.16), 1.32 (1.15–1.51), and 1.77 (1.59–1.97), for elevated and stage-1 and stage-2 hypertensive MAP. On top of 24-hour MAP, higher 24-hour SBP increased, whereas higher 24-hour DBP attenuated risk (P<0.001). Considering the 24-hour measurements, R2 statistics were similar for SBP (1.34) and MAP (1.28), lower for DBP than for MAP (0.47), and reduced to null, if the base model included SBP and DBP; if the ambulatory BP indexes were dichotomized according to the 2017 American guideline and the proposed 92 mm Hg for MAP, the R2 values were 0.71, 0.89, 0.32, and 0.10, respectively. In conclusion, the clinical application of 24-hour MAP thresholds in conjunction with SBP and DBP refines risk estimates.


Paradigm Shift In The Surgical Training: The Era Of Innovation, Simulation And Beyond, Syed Shahabuddin, Shiraz Hashmi, Yasir Khan, Shahid Ahmed Sami 2021 Aga Khan University

Paradigm Shift In The Surgical Training: The Era Of Innovation, Simulation And Beyond, Syed Shahabuddin, Shiraz Hashmi, Yasir Khan, Shahid Ahmed Sami

Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery

This is an era of transformation of surgical education and training. Modern methods of training are being introduced at a rapid pace and are being adopted in surgical practice not only to improve the outcomes and patient satisfaction, but also to provide an opportunity to develop a new well-structured training curriculum by integrating both traditional and modern approaches to teach and learn surgical skills. Various surgical simulators are in use as training aids and are constantly undergoing further refinement and development. To achieve a smooth transition in surgical training to modern methods, a structured programme has to be developed and ...


Harassment And Mental Health In Surgical Training: A Pilot Survey Of Surgical Trainees In Pakistan, Russell Seth Martins, Syeda Amrah Hashmi, Hina Inam, Mahin Janjua, Mahim Malik 2021 Aga Khan University

Harassment And Mental Health In Surgical Training: A Pilot Survey Of Surgical Trainees In Pakistan, Russell Seth Martins, Syeda Amrah Hashmi, Hina Inam, Mahin Janjua, Mahim Malik

Medical College Documents

Objective: To assess harassment among surgical trainees and its effects on mental health, and to explore its association with gender.
Methods: The nationwide cross-sectional pilot study was conducted by the Association of Women Surgeons of Pakistan from July to September 2019, and included surgical trainees of either gender working in both public and private hospitals. Data was collected using an anonymous online survey form to assess harassment and self-perceived burnout and depression. Data was analysed using SPSS 22.
Results: Of the 147 respondents, 49(33.3%) were males; 98(66.6%) were females; and 118(80.3%) were residents. Workplace ...


Surgical Education And Training During The Covid-19 Pandemic: Strategies And Solutions For Pakistan, Edward Anthony Joseph, Russell Seth Martins, Javeria Tariq, Namrah Aziz, Hina Inam, Mahim Malik 2021 Aga Khan University

Surgical Education And Training During The Covid-19 Pandemic: Strategies And Solutions For Pakistan, Edward Anthony Joseph, Russell Seth Martins, Javeria Tariq, Namrah Aziz, Hina Inam, Mahim Malik

Medical College Documents

The coronovirus disease-2019 pandemic has severely impacted surgical education and training in Pakistan and worldwide, causing problems, such as risk of infection, limited hands-on training, examination delays, and trainee redeployment to non-surgical specialties. The current review was planned to describe innovative strategies adopted by surgical training programmes worldwide in order to suggest comprehensive recommendations at the level of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan and individual institutions to counter the challenges presented by the pandemic in Pakistan. The innovative use of technology, including open-access online educational portals, virtual educational activities and simulation-based learning, can help reform education delivery during ...


Management Of Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation With Double Sequential Defibrillation, Kaitlyn A. Brown 2021 Arcadia University

Management Of Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation With Double Sequential Defibrillation, Kaitlyn A. Brown

Capstone Showcase

Patients experiencing cardiac arrest are treated according to ACLS protocols, however current protocols lack recommendations for the treatment of refractory Ventricular Fibrillation which persists after more than 3 cycles of CPR and defibrillation. One potential intervention for these cases that is being researched is the use of simultaneous or sequential activation of two defibrillators. This literature review analyzed the results of several studies to determine if double sequential defibrillation (DSD) is a viable treatment to achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and improved patient survival. The results of the studies were mixed with some showing positive outcomes, and others showing ...


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