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Improving Antibiotic Prescribing For Acute Respiratory Illnesses, Laurinia Hunter 2021 University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences

Improving Antibiotic Prescribing For Acute Respiratory Illnesses, Laurinia Hunter

Student Scholarly Projects

Practice Problem: Unwarranted antibiotic prescribing practices when treating acute respiratory illnesses contribute to the national health threat of antibiotic resistance.

PICOT: In a pediatric outpatient setting for patients ages 6-25 who have no documented uncontrolled comorbidities, presenting with an acute respiratory illness (P), does provider utilization of clinical guidelines, and patient and (caregivers) utilization of educational pamphlets, to collectively develop a plan of care (I), compared to providers and patients who do not utilize such strategies(C) result in a reduction in antibiotics prescribed for acute respiratory illnesses (O) in a 6-week timeframe (T)?

Evidence: The evidence reviewed reported the ...


Implementation Of A Postdischarge Virtual Visit And Nurse Follow-Up Protocol To Decrease 30-Day Readmission Rates For Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Kimberly Thompson 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Implementation Of A Postdischarge Virtual Visit And Nurse Follow-Up Protocol To Decrease 30-Day Readmission Rates For Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Kimberly Thompson

The Eleanor Mann School of Nursing Student Works

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare, chronic disease with no cure. Patients with this disease have high mortality and morbidity, experience frequent hospitalizations, readmissions, and psychosocial burdens, and require a high degree of self-care management skills (Doyle-Cox et al., 2016; Lattimer et al., 2016; McDevitt & Walter, 2019). More than half of PAH patients are hospitalized within the first year following diagnosis, and about 20% are readmitted to the hospital within thirty days of discharge (Bhattacharya et al., 2019: Tonelli, 2020). These patients also have a high symptom burden, and these symptoms significantly affect their physical and mental quality of ...


Post Covid-19 Tuberculosis: An Emerging Threat Of Pandemic, Aqusa Zahid, Nousheen Iqbal, Sarosh Moeen, Muhammad Irfan 2021 Aga Khan University

Post Covid-19 Tuberculosis: An Emerging Threat Of Pandemic, Aqusa Zahid, Nousheen Iqbal, Sarosh Moeen, Muhammad Irfan

Section of Pulmonary & Critical Care

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) pandemic has hit the world hard. Millions of people have died due to the infection and several have suffered with what are now known as post COVID-19 squeal. Among these squeals one is immunosuppression which leaves patients prone to severe opportunistic infection. We here report a case of young female who was infected by COVID-19 and later developed cavitary pneumonia which upon investigation turned out to be due to mycobacterium tuberculosis. Through this report we aim to highlight the importance of high index of suspicion for infection like Mycobacterium tuberculosis after ...


Facial Mask Use And Covid-19 Protection Measures In Jefferson County, Kentucky: Results From An Observational Survey, November 5−11, 2020, Seyed M. Karimi, Sonali S. Salunkhe, Kelsey B. White, Sahal A. Alzahrani, Bert Little, William P. McKinney, Natalie DuPre, Riten Mitra, YuTing Chen, Martha M Popescu, Emily R. Adkins, Julia A. Barclay, Emmanuel Ezekekwu, Caleb.He X. He, Dylan M Hurst, Aravindreddy Kothagadi, Shaminul H. Shakib, Devin N. Swinney, David A. Johnson, Rebecca Hollenbach, Sarah Moyer 2021 University of Louisville, School of Public Health and Information Sciences

Facial Mask Use And Covid-19 Protection Measures In Jefferson County, Kentucky: Results From An Observational Survey, November 5−11, 2020, Seyed M. Karimi, Sonali S. Salunkhe, Kelsey B. White, Sahal A. Alzahrani, Bert Little, William P. Mckinney, Natalie Dupre, Riten Mitra, Yuting Chen, Martha M Popescu, Emily R. Adkins, Julia A. Barclay, Emmanuel Ezekekwu, Caleb.He X. He, Dylan M Hurst, Aravindreddy Kothagadi, Shaminul H. Shakib, Devin N. Swinney, David A. Johnson, Rebecca Hollenbach, Sarah Moyer

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: The transmission of respiratory infectious diseases such as COVID-19 can significantly decrease by mask-wearing. However, accurate information about the extent and proper use of the facial mask is scarce. This study’s main objective was to observe and analyze mask-wearing behavior and the level of COVID-19 protection measures in indoor public areas (PAs) of Jefferson County, Kentucky.

Methods: For conducting the observational survey study, targets were indoor PAs, and zip codes were defined as surveying clusters. The number of selected PAs in each zip code was proportional to the population and the total number of PAs in that zip ...


Lung Epithelial Cell Transcriptional Regulation As A Factor In Covid-19 Associated Coagulopathies, Ethan S. FitzGerald, Yongzhi Chen, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Amanda M. Jamieson 2021 Brown University

Lung Epithelial Cell Transcriptional Regulation As A Factor In Covid-19 Associated Coagulopathies, Ethan S. Fitzgerald, Yongzhi Chen, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Amanda M. Jamieson

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly become a global pandemic. In addition to the acute pulmonary symptoms of COVID-19 (the disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection), pulmonary and distal coagulopathies have caused morbidity and mortality in many patients. Currently, the molecular pathogenesis underlying COVID-19 associated coagulopathies are unknown. Identifying the molecular basis of how SARS-CoV-2 drives coagulation is essential to mitigating short and long term thrombotic risks of sick and recovered COVID-19 patients. We aimed to perform coagulation focused transcriptome analysis of in vitro infected primary respiratory epithelial cells, patient derived bronchial alveolar lavage (BALF) cells, and circulating immune cells during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our ...


H1n1 Influenza Virus (Swine Flu): A Comprehensive Insight Into Escalating Catch-22 Scenarios, Muhammad Shahzaib, Ehsan Ul Haq 2021 University of Sargodha, Sargodha

H1n1 Influenza Virus (Swine Flu): A Comprehensive Insight Into Escalating Catch-22 Scenarios, Muhammad Shahzaib, Ehsan Ul Haq

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Viruses have always been a major cause of various disastrous pandemics in mankind’s history. H1N1 became a threat when its original strain was first discovered back in the swine flu pandemic of 2009. It became highly catastrophic on a large scale because none of the therapeutic interventions and methodologies that were already present at the time were effective against the virus.

Methods: A vast amount of literature and research is available regarding H1N1 influenza from different reputable sources online. The data was gathered following the contrasting and relative situations of 1918 as well as the 2009 pandemic in ...


Role Of Awake Prone Positioning In Patients With Moderate-To-Severe Covid-19: An Experience From A Developing Country, Iffat Khanum, Fatima Samar, Fatimah Yousuf, Safia Awan, Adil Aziz, Kiren Habib, Nosheen Nasir, Syed Faisal Mahmood, Bushra Jamil 2021 Aga Khan University

Role Of Awake Prone Positioning In Patients With Moderate-To-Severe Covid-19: An Experience From A Developing Country, Iffat Khanum, Fatima Samar, Fatimah Yousuf, Safia Awan, Adil Aziz, Kiren Habib, Nosheen Nasir, Syed Faisal Mahmood, Bushra Jamil

Department of Medicine

There is limited evidence on the efficacy of awake prone positioning (PP) in non-ventilated patients with COVID-19 who have hypoxemia. We, therefore, aim to describe our experience with the use of early proning in awake, non-intubated patients with confirmed COVID-19. In our retrospective observational study, 23 patients with confirmed positive PCR test results for Severe Acute respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and hypoxemia that required oxygen therapy with or without non-invasive ventilation were treated with PP. Patients were classified into mild, moderate and severe COVID-19 disease. There were no targeted number of hours for proning per day and patients were kept ...


Pancoast Syndrome Due To High Grade Anaplastic Tumor, Christian Almanzar, Seth Maxwell, Mauricio Gomez, Omar Ansari, Luis Silva 2021 Brandon Regional Hospital

Pancoast Syndrome Due To High Grade Anaplastic Tumor, Christian Almanzar, Seth Maxwell, Mauricio Gomez, Omar Ansari, Luis Silva

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

The Pancoast tumor is an uncommon type of lung cancer that arises from within the superior sulcus. With most clinical manifestations occurring due to mass effect, Pancoast syndrome is a known complication that includes shoulder and arm musculoskeletal pain, Horner’s syndrome and neurological complications of the upper extremities, including weakness and atrophy. Even though adenocarcinoma is the most common cause of Pancoast syndrome among lung cancers, other malignancies can be responsible as well. Treatment is similar to that of other standard NSCLC treatments that include chemotherapy, radiation, immunotherapy and surgery. Here we report a patient with Pancoast syndrome secondary ...


Esophageal Cancer Complicated By A Distal Acquired Esophagopulmonary Fistula, Alexander D. Lake, Yousef Almuzaini, Aaron Jaffe, Joseph Staffetti, Mukesh Patel 2021 Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point

Esophageal Cancer Complicated By A Distal Acquired Esophagopulmonary Fistula, Alexander D. Lake, Yousef Almuzaini, Aaron Jaffe, Joseph Staffetti, Mukesh Patel

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Esophageal respiratory fistulas, commonly found as a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), are abnormal connections between the esophagus and trachea. These can be congenital (infants) or acquired (malignancy). A more rare form of an esophageal respiratory fistula is an abnormal connection between the esophagus and the lung parenchyma—also known as an esophagopulmonary fistula. In our case, we present a middle-aged male with a history of esophageal cancer undergoing chemotherapy and radiation presenting into the intensive care unit for increasing shortness of breath and vomiting after eating found to have a rare form of a TEF causing his symptoms.


Analysis Of Covid-19 Prevention And Treatment In Taiwan (Review), Yu-Jen Chiu, Jo‑Hua Chiang, Chih-Wei Fu, Mann-Jen Hour, Hai-Anh Ha, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Jen-Jyh Lin, Ching-Chang Cheng, Shih‑Chang Tsai, Yu‑Shiang Lo, Yu‑Ning Juan, Yih-Dih Cheng, Jai-Sing Yang, Fuu‑Jen Tsai 2021 Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veteran General Hospital

Analysis Of Covid-19 Prevention And Treatment In Taiwan (Review), Yu-Jen Chiu, Jo‑Hua Chiang, Chih-Wei Fu, Mann-Jen Hour, Hai-Anh Ha, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Jen-Jyh Lin, Ching-Chang Cheng, Shih‑Chang Tsai, Yu‑Shiang Lo, Yu‑Ning Juan, Yih-Dih Cheng, Jai-Sing Yang, Fuu‑Jen Tsai

BioMedicine

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) has been spreading worldwide with a mind-boggling speed. According to a statement from World Health Organization (WHO), COVID-19 has infected more than six billions people and caused more than one and half million passing in the world. Based on previous experience with SARS, the Taiwanese government had decided to block viral transmission during its early stages. This review sums up the clinical characteristics, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral infection process, diagnostic methods, preventive strategy, and the executive proportions of COVID-19, as well as the name-based mask distribution system (NBMDS) in Taiwan. We ...


Closing The Loop In Child Tb Contact Management: Completion Of Tb Preventive Therapy Outcomes In Western Kenya, James A. Amisi, E. Jane Carter, Enos Masini, Daria Szkwarko 2021 Moi University

Closing The Loop In Child Tb Contact Management: Completion Of Tb Preventive Therapy Outcomes In Western Kenya, James A. Amisi, E. Jane Carter, Enos Masini, Daria Szkwarko

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

SETTING: Children especially those < 5 years of age exposed to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are at a high risk of severe TB disease and death. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) has been shown to decrease disease progression by up to 90%. Kenya, a high TB burden country experiences numerous operational challenges that limit implementation of TB preventive services. IPT completion in child contacts is not routinely reported in Kenya.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to review the child contact management (CCM) cascade and present IPT outcomes across 10 clinics in western Kenya.

DESIGN: A retrospective chart review of programmatic data of a TB Reach-funded active, clinic-based CCM strategy.

RESULTS: Of 553 child contacts screened, 231 (42%) were reported symptomatic. 74 (13%) of the child contacts were diagnosed with active TB disease. Of those eligible for IPT, 427 (90%) initiated IPT according to TB REACH project data while 249 (58%) were recorded in the IPT register with 49 (11%) recorded as a transfer to other facilities. Of ...


Lack Of Association Of The Abo Blood Group With Covid-19 Risk And Severity In Hospitalized Patients In Louisville, Ky, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Meredith Cahill, Raghava S. Ambadapoodi, Evelyn Exposito Gonzalez, Stephen P. Furmanek, Ruth Carrico, Jose Bordon, Julio A. Ramirez 2021 University of Louisville, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

Lack Of Association Of The Abo Blood Group With Covid-19 Risk And Severity In Hospitalized Patients In Louisville, Ky, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Meredith Cahill, Raghava S. Ambadapoodi, Evelyn Exposito Gonzalez, Stephen P. Furmanek, Ruth Carrico, Jose Bordon, Julio A. Ramirez

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background: The potential association of the ABO blood group with the risk of COVID-19 and its severity has attracted a lot of interest since the start of the pandemic. While a number of studies have reported an increased risk associated with blood type A and a reduced risk with type O, other studies have did not found a significant effect. This study aimed to define the prevalence of different ABO blood groups in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the Louisville, KY area and to investigate whether an association exists between the blood group and disease severity.

Methods: This was a retrospective ...


Environmentally Marginalized Populations: The "Perfect Storm" For Infectious Disease Pandemics, Including Covid-19, Gabriella Y. Meltzer, Oyemwenosa Avenbuan, Christina Awada, Oluwakemi B. Oyetade, Tricia Blackman, Simona Kwon DrPH, MPH, Esther Erdei PhD, Judith T. Zelikoff PhD 2021 New York University School of Global Public Health

Environmentally Marginalized Populations: The "Perfect Storm" For Infectious Disease Pandemics, Including Covid-19, Gabriella Y. Meltzer, Oyemwenosa Avenbuan, Christina Awada, Oluwakemi B. Oyetade, Tricia Blackman, Simona Kwon Drph, Mph, Esther Erdei Phd, Judith T. Zelikoff Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

COVID-19 has exacted a severe toll on the United States population’s physical and mental health and its effects have been felt most severely among people of color and low socioeconomic status. Using illustrative case studies, this commentary argues that in addition to COVID-19 health disparities created by psychosocial stressors such as the inability to socially distance and access quality healthcare, environmental justice communities have the additional burden of disproportionate exposure to toxic contaminants that contribute to their higher risk of COVID-19. Environmental contaminants including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants found contaminating their nearby environments can alter the immune ...


40-Year-Old Female With Sudden Onset Dyspnea, Breanna M. Kebort, Aleta Hong, Laura J. Bontempo, Zachary D. W. Dezman 2021 University of Maryland Medical Center

40-Year-Old Female With Sudden Onset Dyspnea, Breanna M. Kebort, Aleta Hong, Laura J. Bontempo, Zachary D. W. Dezman

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

A 40-year-old female presented to the emergency department (ED) after the acute onset of dyspnea. The patient was tachypneic with accessory muscle usage and diffuse wheezing on initial examination. Despite aggressive treatment, the patient deteriorated and was intubated. This case takes the reader through the differential diagnosis and systematic workup of a patient presenting to the ED with dyspnea and arrives at the unexpected cause for this patient's presentation.


Changes In Body Weight And Serum Albumin Levels In Patients Requiring Home Long-Term Oxygen Therapy, Naomi Kayauchi, Eiji Ojima, Katsunori Kagohashi, Hiroaki Satoh 2021 University of Tsukuba, Mito Medical Center

Changes In Body Weight And Serum Albumin Levels In Patients Requiring Home Long-Term Oxygen Therapy, Naomi Kayauchi, Eiji Ojima, Katsunori Kagohashi, Hiroaki Satoh

Asian / Pacific Island Nursing Journal

Purpose: To investigate the long-term changes in body weight and serum albumin levels in patients with respiratory failure, and those with chronic heart failure, who were treated with home long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) to understand the current status and contribute to future measures.

Methods: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), those with interstitial pneumonia (IP), and those with chronic heart failure (CHF) undergoing home LTOT for 6 months or more between January 2011 and January 2019 were included in the study. Body weight and serum albumin levels were assessed at the start of home LTOT and at the end ...


Pulmonary Restriction Predicts Long-Term Pulmonary Impairment In People With Hiv And Tuberculosis, Sara C. Auld, Hardy Kornfeld, Pholo Maenetje, Mandla Mlotshwa, William Chase, Mboyo di-Tamba Vangu, Drew A. Torigian, Robert S. Wallis, Gavin Churchyard, Gregory P. Bisson 2021 Emory University

Pulmonary Restriction Predicts Long-Term Pulmonary Impairment In People With Hiv And Tuberculosis, Sara C. Auld, Hardy Kornfeld, Pholo Maenetje, Mandla Mlotshwa, William Chase, Mboyo Di-Tamba Vangu, Drew A. Torigian, Robert S. Wallis, Gavin Churchyard, Gregory P. Bisson

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: While tuberculosis is considered a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a restrictive pattern of pulmonary impairment may actually be more common among tuberculosis survivors. We aimed to determine the nature of pulmonary impairment before and after treatment among people with HIV and tuberculosis and identify risk factors for long-term impairment.

METHODS: In this prospective cohort study conducted in South Africa, we enrolled adults newly diagnosed with HIV and tuberculosis who were initiating antiretroviral therapy and tuberculosis treatment. We measured lung function and symptoms at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We compared participants with and without pulmonary impairment ...


Application Of One-, Three-, And Seven-Day Forecasts During Early Onset On The Covid-19 Epidemic Dataset Using Moving Average, Autoregressive, Autoregressive Moving Average, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average, And Naïve Forecasting Methods, Christopher J. Lynch, Ross Gore 2021 Old Dominion University

Application Of One-, Three-, And Seven-Day Forecasts During Early Onset On The Covid-19 Epidemic Dataset Using Moving Average, Autoregressive, Autoregressive Moving Average, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average, And Naïve Forecasting Methods, Christopher J. Lynch, Ross Gore

VMASC Publications

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread rapidly across the world since its appearance in December 2019. This data set creates one-, three-, and seven-day forecasts of the COVID-19 pandemic's cumulative case counts at the county, health district, and state geographic levels for the state of Virginia. Forecasts are created over the first 46 days of reported COVID-19 cases using the cumulative case count data provided by The New York Times as of April 22, 2020. From this historical data, one-, three-, seven, and all-days prior to the forecast start date are used to generate the forecasts. Forecasts are created ...


High Flow Nasal Cannula Therapy In Children With Acute Respiratory Insufficiency In The Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Of A Resource-Limited Country: A Preliminary Experience, Bushra Saeed, Asim Azim, Anwar Ul Haque, Qalab Abbas 2021 Children's Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan

High Flow Nasal Cannula Therapy In Children With Acute Respiratory Insufficiency In The Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Of A Resource-Limited Country: A Preliminary Experience, Bushra Saeed, Asim Azim, Anwar Ul Haque, Qalab Abbas

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

A retrospective study was performed in children (aged one month - 16 years) receiving HFNC to determine the frequency, efficacy and adverse effects of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), from January to December 2017. Treatment failure was defined as clinical deterioration on HFNC therapy such that mechanical ventilation (MV) was required. Clinical parameters before and after HFNC were assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance. A total of 120 patients received HFNC therapy (21% of total admissions). Primary diagnosis were respiratory disease (50%), central nervous system diseases (14.2%), sepsis (10.8%), and ...


A Model For Inhalation Of Infectious Aerosol Contaminants In An Aircraft Passenger Cabin, Bert A. Silich 2021 Vector Vantage LLC

A Model For Inhalation Of Infectious Aerosol Contaminants In An Aircraft Passenger Cabin, Bert A. Silich

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Aerosol contamination of an aircraft cabin by infectious passengers is a concern of passengers, aircrew and the aviation industry. This may be especially important during a pandemic, such as COVID-19, where the full extent of aerosol transmission is not well understood. A statistical method to determine the number of infectious passengers on board along with a mathematical model estimating the contaminant concentration of aerosols in the cabin and the number of inhaled infectious particles by passengers is presented. An example is used to demonstrated how the results can be estimated during normal operations and emergency conditions with malfunctions of the ...


Intellectual Property As A Determinant Of Health, Ana Santos Rutschman 2021 Saint Louis University - School of Law

Intellectual Property As A Determinant Of Health, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

Public health literature has long recognized the existence of determinants of health, a set of socio-economic conditions that affect health risks and health outcomes across the world. The World Health Organization defines these determinants as “forces and systems” consisting of “factors combin[ing] together to affect the health of individuals and communities.” Frameworks relying on determinants of health have been widely adopted by countries in the global South and North alike, as well as international institutional players, several of which are direct or indirect players in transnational intellectual property (IP) policymaking. Issues raised by the implementation of IP policies, however ...


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