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396 full-text articles. Page 1 of 17.

The Effect Of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva On The Tongue, Amy Backal, Amanda Harrop, David J. Goldhamer Dr. 2022 University of Connecticut - Storrs

The Effect Of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva On The Tongue, Amy Backal, Amanda Harrop, David J. Goldhamer Dr.

Honors Scholar Theses

FOP is a rare genetic disorder in which skeletal muscle and associated connective tissue progressively turn to bone through a process called heterotopic ossification (HO). The extra skeletal bone growth is cumulative, eventually trapping patients in a second skeleton that eventually leads to death by asphyxiation. The FOP mutation is autosomal dominant that can be inherited or acquired sporadically. Unfortunately, FOP is currently incurable with no therapeutic options to inhibit bone growth or reduce existing bone nodules. My project intends to further our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of the disease within the tongue muscle. A population of cells known ...


Leveraging Single Cell Technologies For The Characterization And Treatment Of Refractory Pancreatic Cancer, Maria Monberg 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Leveraging Single Cell Technologies For The Characterization And Treatment Of Refractory Pancreatic Cancer, Maria Monberg

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Heterogeneity is a hallmark of cancer, and the advent of multimodal single-cell technologies has helped uncover heterogeneity in a high-throughput manner in different cancers across varied contexts at an unprecedented resolution. In an effort to improve precision medicine approaches in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a highly lethal malignancy with a mere 11% 5-year survival rate, this dissertation focuses on first questioning the assumptions of the most basic models used to study PDAC via multimodal single-cell characterization methods at multiple levels of biological organization (scCNVseq and snATACseq for DNA assays, scRNAseq for transcriptomics, and paired protein assays such as multiplexed immunofluorescence ...


Primary Cilia Of The Cardiac Neural Crest & Hedgehog-Mediated Mechanisms Of Congenital Heart Disease, Lindsey A. Fitzsimons 2022 University of Maine

Primary Cilia Of The Cardiac Neural Crest & Hedgehog-Mediated Mechanisms Of Congenital Heart Disease, Lindsey A. Fitzsimons

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Elimination of primary cilia in cardiac neural crest cell (CNCC) progenitors is hypothesized to cause a variety of congenital heart defects (CHDs), including atrioventricular septal defects, and malformations of the developing cardiac outflow tract. We present an in vivo model of CHD resulting from the conditional elimination of primary cilia from CNCC using multiple, Wnt1:Cre-loxP, neural crest-specific systems, targeting two distinctive, but critical, primary cilia structural genes: Intraflagellar transport protein 88 (Ift88) or kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a). CNCC loss of primary cilia leads to widespread CHD, where homozygous mutant embryos (MUT) display a variety of outflow tract malformations ...


How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan 2022 The University of San Francisco

How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan

Master's Projects and Capstones

Mosquitos, the most lethal species throughout human history, are the most prevalent source of vector-borne diseases and therefore a major global health burden. Mosquito-borne disease incidence is expected to shift with environmental change. These changes can be predicted using species distribution models. With the wide variety of methods used for models, consensus for improving accuracy and comparability is needed. A comparative analysis of three recent modeling approaches revealed that integrating modeling techniques compensates for trade-offs associated with a singular approach. An area that represents a critical gap in our ability to predict mosquito behavior in response to changing climate factors ...


Multi-Strain Epidemic Model With Infected Vaccinated And Re-Infected Recovered Population: Application To Covid-19 Pandemic, Olusegun Michael Otunuga 2022 Augusta University

Multi-Strain Epidemic Model With Infected Vaccinated And Re-Infected Recovered Population: Application To Covid-19 Pandemic, Olusegun Michael Otunuga

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Dynamics Of The Climax And Attack Communities In Cystic Fibrosis, Peter Uhl 2022 San Diego State University

Dynamics Of The Climax And Attack Communities In Cystic Fibrosis, Peter Uhl

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Prep Uptake And Adherence On The Spread Of Hiv In The Presence Of Casual And Long-Term Partnerships, Sylvia J. Gutowska, Katharine Gurski, Kathleen Hoffman 2022 University of Maryland - Baltimore County

The Effect Of Prep Uptake And Adherence On The Spread Of Hiv In The Presence Of Casual And Long-Term Partnerships, Sylvia J. Gutowska, Katharine Gurski, Kathleen Hoffman

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Alternate Site Pacing And The Impact On Intracellular Calcium Handling During The Post-Extrasystolic Cardiac Cycle, Kent Ozcan, Lawrence Mulligan 2022 Rowan University

Alternate Site Pacing And The Impact On Intracellular Calcium Handling During The Post-Extrasystolic Cardiac Cycle, Kent Ozcan, Lawrence Mulligan

Stratford Campus Research Day

Objective: Previous work has shown that alternate site (RV apex) results in myocardial dysfunction. With the development of tools to place endocardial pacing leads in locations that create physiological pacing activation, we sought to evaluate how ventricular trans-septal or left ventricular apical placement pacing differs from right atrial pacing. We will evaluate how these chronic pacing modes impact the PR and RF at baseline, 0, and 16 weeks in the canine heart.

Methods: Quantitative analysis will be performed on previously generated data. The data set includes pacing of 15 dogs total (8 with trans-septal leads & 7 with left ventricular apical ...


When Problems Become Solutions: Harnessing The Osteogenic Capacity Of Disease-Causing Stem Cells To Repair Bone Fractures, Mehreen Pasha 2022 University of Connecticut

When Problems Become Solutions: Harnessing The Osteogenic Capacity Of Disease-Causing Stem Cells To Repair Bone Fractures, Mehreen Pasha

Honors Scholar Theses

While we often perceive disease as negative, there is potential to engineer seemingly negative biological phenomena into therapeutics to treat a variety of human illnesses. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a genetic disorder involving uncontrolled, widespread, extraskeletal bone growth, or heterotopic ossification (HO). In FOP patients, stem cells called fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) follow an abnormal, osteogenic pathway. In the present study, we investigate whether we can adapt these Acvr1 mutant FAPs, which are exceptional at producing bone, to repair bone fractures in otherwise normal patients. The primary aims of this study are (1) to devise and optimize a novel ...


“Pandemias Políticas: The Effects Of Political And Social Instability On Infectious Disease Epidemiology In Latin America"”, Sarah H. Noonan 2022 University of South Carolina - Columbia

“Pandemias Políticas: The Effects Of Political And Social Instability On Infectious Disease Epidemiology In Latin America"”, Sarah H. Noonan

Senior Theses

This paper seeks to analyze the relationship between political and social unrest and conflict and infectious disease epidemiology in Latin America. An analysis of published literature regarding epidemiological, biomedical, political, and historical content was conducted to highlight potential connections between infectious disease epidemics and sociopolitical conflict in the region. Specific analyses of Smallpox, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, Chagas disease, Cholera, Dengue, and COVID-19 were conducted, in an effort to uncover potential causations and context of epidemics of these conditions. Results of this analysis depict a necessity for further research into public health and disease control mechanisms during times of conflict and ...


The Pandemic From Above: Estimating Covid-19 Cases Using Deep Learning And Satellite Imagery, John Hennin 2022 William & Mary

The Pandemic From Above: Estimating Covid-19 Cases Using Deep Learning And Satellite Imagery, John Hennin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Monitoring the spread of an outbreak of disease (such as COVID-19) is an important component of any coordinated pandemic response. Across the globe, our ability to conduct such monitoring - especially at early stages of the COVID- 19 pandemic - was highly limited due to a lack of public reporting mechanisms. Today, the process of case data collection remains expensive and, in some regions, is subject to political considerations. Researchers have turned to some techniques leveraging Google Trends and Twitter data to overcome limitations in public data sources. Here, we provide another approach which leverages satellite information to provide estimates of case ...


A Mathematical Model Of Vagus Nerve Stimulation In Alzheimer's Disease, Julianne Miranda 2022 William & Mary

A Mathematical Model Of Vagus Nerve Stimulation In Alzheimer's Disease, Julianne Miranda

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Alzheimer’s Disease is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by cognitive decline as a result of brain atrophy. The exact cause of Alzheimer’s is unknown but current theories involve the aggregation of amyloid beta plaques as well as neurofibrillary tangles. Inflammation is emerging as central to the progression of the disease, with increased amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles associated with the Nuclear Factor Kappa B pathway. This project presents a mathematical model of the impact of vagus nerve stimulation in Alzheimer’s Disease, as seen through the Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NFKB) pathway. The model examines several factors involved ...


Decision-Analytic Models Using Reinforcement Learning To Inform Dynamic Sequential Decisions In Public Policy, SEYEDEH NAZANIN KHATAMI 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Decision-Analytic Models Using Reinforcement Learning To Inform Dynamic Sequential Decisions In Public Policy, Seyedeh Nazanin Khatami

Doctoral Dissertations

We developed decision-analytic models specifically suited for long-term sequential decision-making in the context of large-scale dynamic stochastic systems, focusing on public policy investment decisions. We found that while machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms provide the most suitable frameworks for such analyses, multiple challenges arise in its successful adaptation. We address three specific challenges in two public sectors, public health and climate policy, through the following three essays.

In Essay I, we developed a reinforcement learning (RL) model to identify optimal sequence of testing and retention-in-care interventions to inform the national strategic plan “Ending the HIV Epidemic in the US ...


Imyoblasts For Ex Vivo And In Vivo Investigations Of Human Myogenesis And Disease Modeling, Dongsheng Guo, Katelyn Daman, Jennifer Jc Chen, Meng-Jiao Shi, Jing Yan, Zdenka Matijasevic, Rene Maehr, Oliver D. King, Lawrence J. Hayward, Charles P. Emerson Jr. 2022 UMass Chan Medical School

Imyoblasts For Ex Vivo And In Vivo Investigations Of Human Myogenesis And Disease Modeling, Dongsheng Guo, Katelyn Daman, Jennifer Jc Chen, Meng-Jiao Shi, Jing Yan, Zdenka Matijasevic, Rene Maehr, Oliver D. King, Lawrence J. Hayward, Charles P. Emerson Jr.

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Skeletal muscle myoblasts (iMyoblasts) were generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using an efficient and reliable transgene-free induction and stem cell selection protocol. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, qPCR, digital RNA expression profiling, and scRNA-Seq studies identify iMyoblasts as a PAX3+/MYOD1+ skeletal myogenic lineage with a fetal-like transcriptome signature, distinct from adult muscle biopsy myoblasts (bMyoblasts) and iPSC-induced muscle progenitors. iMyoblasts can be stably propagated for > 12 passages or 30 population doublings while retaining their dual commitment for myotube differentiation and regeneration of reserve cells. iMyoblasts also efficiently xenoengrafted into irradiated and injured mouse muscle where they undergo differentiation ...


An Odd-Protocol For Agent-Based Model For The Spread Of Covid-19 In Ireland, Elizabeth Hunter, John D. Kelleher 2022 Technological University Dublin

An Odd-Protocol For Agent-Based Model For The Spread Of Covid-19 In Ireland, Elizabeth Hunter, John D. Kelleher

Reports

No abstract provided.


Quantitative Imaging Of Net Axonal Transport In Vivo: A Biomarker For Motor Neuron Health And Disease, Pin-Tsun Justin Lee 2021 UMass Chan Medical School

Quantitative Imaging Of Net Axonal Transport In Vivo: A Biomarker For Motor Neuron Health And Disease, Pin-Tsun Justin Lee

Morningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal, progressive neurodegenerative disorder that selectively affects both upper and lower motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis and death. Despite recent advances in the identification of genes associated with ALS, the quest for a sensitive biomarker for rapid and accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response monitoring has not been fulfilled. In this thesis, I report a method of quantifying the integrity of motor neurons in vivo using imaging to record uptake and retrograde transport of intramuscularly injected tetanus toxin fragment C (TTC) into spinal motor neurons. This method tracks and profiles progression of ...


Modeling Human T1d-Associated Autoimmune Processes, Mohsen Khosravi-Maharlooei, Rachel Madley, Chiara Borsotti, Leonardo M. R. Ferreira, Robert C. Sharp, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner, Audrey V. Parent, Mark S. Anderson, Megan Sykes, Remi J. Creusot 2021 Columbia University Irving Medical Center

Modeling Human T1d-Associated Autoimmune Processes, Mohsen Khosravi-Maharlooei, Rachel Madley, Chiara Borsotti, Leonardo M. R. Ferreira, Robert C. Sharp, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner, Audrey V. Parent, Mark S. Anderson, Megan Sykes, Remi J. Creusot

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by impaired immune tolerance to beta-cell antigens and progressive destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells. Animal models have provided valuable insights for understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease, but they fall short of reflecting the extensive heterogeneity of the disease in humans, which is contributed by various combinations of risk gene alleles and unique environmental factors. Collectively, these factors have been used to define subgroups of patients, termed endotypes, with distinct predominating disease characteristics.

SCOPE OF REVIEW: Here, we review the gaps filled by these models in understanding the intricate ...


Novel Approaches For Enhancing Cell Survival And Function In Vivo, Ou Wang 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Novel Approaches For Enhancing Cell Survival And Function In Vivo, Ou Wang

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

FDA has approved several cell-based therapeutics and hundreds of cell therapy clinical trials are ongoing. Cells will be a significant type of medicine after small molecule and protein drugs. However, several obstacles need to be addressed to achieve the widespread use of cellular therapeutics. The first challenge is the low efficacy of cell transplantation due to low retention, survival, integration, and function of cells in vivo. The second challenge is producing a massive number of cells for clinical treatment with cost-effectively and reproducibly technologies.

In this thesis, we proposed and investigated two approaches to address these challenges. To begin with ...


A Dystrophin Exon‐52 Deleted Miniature Pig Model Of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy And Evaluation Of Exon Skipping, Yusuke Echigoya, Nhu Trieu, William Duddy, Hong M. Moulton, HaiFang Yin, Terence A. Partridge, Eric P. Hoffman, Joe N. Kornegay, Frank A. Rohret, Christopher S. Rogers, Toshifumi Yokota 2021 George Washington University

A Dystrophin Exon‐52 Deleted Miniature Pig Model Of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy And Evaluation Of Exon Skipping, Yusuke Echigoya, Nhu Trieu, William Duddy, Hong M. Moulton, Haifang Yin, Terence A. Partridge, Eric P. Hoffman, Joe N. Kornegay, Frank A. Rohret, Christopher S. Rogers, Toshifumi Yokota

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


4d Ex Vivo Crispr/Cas9 Whole-Genome Screen To Identify Genes Regulating Lung Cancer Metastasis, Alexandria Plumer 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

4d Ex Vivo Crispr/Cas9 Whole-Genome Screen To Identify Genes Regulating Lung Cancer Metastasis, Alexandria Plumer

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Metastatic lung cancer has a 5-year survival rate of 5%. Lung cancers tend to be asymptomatic until late stages, and almost 90% are not diagnosed until they are advanced. Metastases are very rare events, often initiated by a single cell from a primary tumor into a new niche at a distant location. Investigation of the early metastatic process is of urgent need for the development of early diagnostics and targeted therapeutics. We performed a proof-of-concept CRISPR/Cas9 whole genome knockout screen in the A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line and utilized a novel ex vivo 4D lung metastasis model to find ...


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