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Machine Learning Classification Of Traumatic Brain Injury Patients Versus Healthy Controls Using Arterial Spin Labeled Perfusion Mri, Vanessa I. Grass 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Machine Learning Classification Of Traumatic Brain Injury Patients Versus Healthy Controls Using Arterial Spin Labeled Perfusion Mri, Vanessa I. Grass

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of death and disability worldwide, yet accurate in vivo detection of TBI neuropathology remains challenging due to complexities in the structural and functional changes observed post-injury as well as limitations in conventional neuroimaging modalities. Although advanced neuroimaging techniques such as arterial spin labeling (ASL) can noninvasively assess cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes observed post-injury, this technique is underutilized in TBI research partly due to the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) inherent in ASL imaging. The aim of the current study is to examine the use of machine learning, specifically a Support ...


Vitamin B12 Deficiency Does Not Stimulate Amyloid-Beta Toxicity In A Ceanorhabditis Elegans Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Opeyemi F. Showemimo 2021 East Tennessee State University

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Does Not Stimulate Amyloid-Beta Toxicity In A Ceanorhabditis Elegans Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Opeyemi F. Showemimo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is symptomized by amyloid-beta plaques in the brain and accounts for more than 65 percent of dementia cases. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency can result in similar cognitive impairment and roughly 15% of the elderly are vitamin B12 deficient. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in the accumulation of toxic methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a strong risk factor for AD. To test if vitamin B12 deficiency stimulates amyloid-beta toxicity, Caenorhabditis elegans expressing amyloid-beta in muscle were fed either vitamin B12-deficient OP50-1 or vitamin B12-rich HT115(DE3) E. coli bacteria. Increased amyloid-beta toxicity was found in worms fed ...


Psychedelics Can Save: The Scientific And Social Case For Rescheduling Psychedelic Compounds, Galen M. Fader 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Psychedelics Can Save: The Scientific And Social Case For Rescheduling Psychedelic Compounds, Galen M. Fader

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Development And Validation Of A Predictive Model For Childhood Mortality After A Traumatic Brain Injury: Analysis Of The National Trauma Data Bank, Jooby Joy, Axel Moreira, Kevin Chorath, Karthik Rajasekaran, Alvaro Moreira 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Development And Validation Of A Predictive Model For Childhood Mortality After A Traumatic Brain Injury: Analysis Of The National Trauma Data Bank, Jooby Joy, Axel Moreira, Kevin Chorath, Karthik Rajasekaran, Alvaro Moreira

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. While most TBI-related admissions are mild, identifying early predictors of poor outcome may assist clinicians with timely medical decisions and effective triage utilization.

Objective: We sought to develop and validate a clinical tool for predicting in-hospital death in children after a traumatic brain injury.

Methods: Data was collected for children (≤18 years) from the National Trauma Data Bank between the years of 2007 to 2015. We included children who sustained any TBI, defined as: (i) open and closed skull fractures, (ii) cerebellar, cortical, or brain ...


C25: The “Spot Sign”: A Predictor Of Hematoma Expansion, Mckenzie Merritt 2021 Roseman University of Health Sciences

C25: The “Spot Sign”: A Predictor Of Hematoma Expansion, Mckenzie Merritt

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Quantitative Analysis Of Phonatory Dysfunction In Female Fmr1 Premutation Carriers As A Potential Biomarker Of Preclinical Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome Symptoms, Meagan Lauber 2021 University of South Carolina

Quantitative Analysis Of Phonatory Dysfunction In Female Fmr1 Premutation Carriers As A Potential Biomarker Of Preclinical Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome Symptoms, Meagan Lauber

Senior Theses

While fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals possessing >200 CGG repeats on the FMR1 gene, those possessing 55-200 repeats are classified as FMR1 premutation carriers. Previously, FMR1 premutation carriers were believed to be unaffected; however, research now shows they display distinct phenotypes, with a large concern being their risk of developing fragile-X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) as they age. FXTAS is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors, parkinsonism, cerebellar-gait ataxia, brain atrophy, and neuropathy. Given that the premutation effects 1 in 148 women and 1 in 290 men and the inability to reliably predict which carriers will develop FXTAS later ...


Global Impact Of The Covid-19 On Stroke Care, SVIN COVID-19 global registry, Raul Nogueira, Ajit S. Puri, Anna L. Kuhn, Thanh Nguyen 2021 Emory University

Global Impact Of The Covid-19 On Stroke Care, Svin Covid-19 Global Registry, Raul Nogueira, Ajit S. Puri, Anna L. Kuhn, Thanh Nguyen

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to profound changes in the organization of health care systems worldwide.

AIMS: We sought to measure the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes for mechanical thrombectomy (MT), stroke, and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) hospitalizations over a 3-month period at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to May 31, 2020) compared with two control 3-month periods (immediately preceding and one year prior).

METHODS: Retrospective, observational, international study, across 6 continents, 40 countries, and 187 comprehensive stroke centers. The diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases at participating ...


Decline In Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Volumes Associated With The First Wave Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Thanh N. Nguyen, Ajit S. Puri, Anna L. Kuhn, Raul G. Nogueira 2021 Boston Medical Center

Decline In Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Volumes Associated With The First Wave Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Thanh N. Nguyen, Ajit S. Puri, Anna L. Kuhn, Raul G. Nogueira

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines.

METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the ...


Measurement In Health: Advancing Assessment Of Delirium, Benjamin K.I. Helfand 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Measurement In Health: Advancing Assessment Of Delirium, Benjamin K.I. Helfand

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Rationale: Delirium is a serious, morbid condition affecting 2.6 million older Americans annually. A major problem plaguing delirium research is difficulty in identification, given a plethora of existing tools. The lack of consensus on key features and approaches has stymied progress in delirium research. The goal of this project was to use advanced measurement methods to improve delirium’s identification.

Aims and Findings:

(1) Determine the 4 most commonly used and well-validated instruments for delirium identification. Through a rigorous systematic review, I identified the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), Delirium Observation Screening Scale (DOSS), Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98), and Memorial ...


Residual And Compensatory Changes Of Resting-State Eeg In Successful Recovery After Moderate Tbi, Galina V. Portnova, Irina N. Girzhova, Olga V. Martynova 2021 Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117485, Russia;The Pushkin State Russian Language Institute, Moscow 117485, Russia

Residual And Compensatory Changes Of Resting-State Eeg In Successful Recovery After Moderate Tbi, Galina V. Portnova, Irina N. Girzhova, Olga V. Martynova

Brain Science Advances

Purpose: Even in years after recovery from moderate traumatic brain injury (moderate TBI), patients complain about residual cognitive impairment and fatigue. We hypothesized that non-linear and linear resting-state electroencephalography (rsEEG) features might also reflect neural underpinnings of these deficits. Methods: We analyzed a 10-minute rsEEG in 77 moderate TBI-survivors and 151 healthy volunteers after cognitive and psychological assessment. The rsEEG analysis included linear measures, such as power spectral density and peak alpha frequency, and non-linear parameters such as Higuchi fractal dimension, envelope frequency, and Hjorth complexity. Results: The patients with moderate TBI had higher scores for fatigue and sleepiness and ...


Intrathecal Administration Of Neuronostatin Induces An Antinociceptive Effect In A Mouse Visceral Pain Model, Tingji Shao, Shaobin Yang, Peng Yu 2021 The Department of Pharmacy, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China

Intrathecal Administration Of Neuronostatin Induces An Antinociceptive Effect In A Mouse Visceral Pain Model, Tingji Shao, Shaobin Yang, Peng Yu

Brain Science Advances

Neuronostatin (NST) is a peptide encoded by the somatostatin gene that serves important physiological functions in diverse tissues. Previous studies have shown that intracerebroventricular administration of NST induces antinociceptive effects and hyperalgesic effects as determined by the tail immersion assay and formalin test, respectively. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of intrathecal (i.t.) injection of NST on nociception in a model of visceral pain, and determine possible mechanisms of action in mice. NST (1, 3, 6, or 12 nmol) was administered to mice, leading to a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect as determined by the acetic acid-induced ...


Neurological Diseases Caused By Coronavirus Infection Of The Respiratory Airways, Waqas Ahmed, Adeel Khan, Wish Hal Sundar, Humaira Naseem, Wanghao Chen, Jia Feng, Samran Durrani 2021 Department of Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Center, Cancer Center, Integrated Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510310, Guangdong, China;School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China

Neurological Diseases Caused By Coronavirus Infection Of The Respiratory Airways, Waqas Ahmed, Adeel Khan, Wish Hal Sundar, Humaira Naseem, Wanghao Chen, Jia Feng, Samran Durrani

Brain Science Advances

Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) infections are critical problems for public health. They are caused by several different organisms, including the respiratory coronaviruses (CoVs). CoVs usually infect the upper respiratory tract causing the common cold. However, in infants, and in elderly and immunocompromised persons, they can also affect the lower respiratory tract causing pneumonia and various syndromes of respiratory distress. CoVs also have neuroinvasive capabilities because they can spread from the respiratory tract to the CNS. Once infection begins in the CNS cells, it can cause various CNS problems such as status epilepticus, encephalitis, and long-term neurological disease ...


A Multiplex Visibility Graph Motif-Based Convolutional Neural Network For Characterizing Sleep Stages Using Eeg Signals, Qing Cai, Jianpeng An, Zhongke Gao 2021 School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China

A Multiplex Visibility Graph Motif-Based Convolutional Neural Network For Characterizing Sleep Stages Using Eeg Signals, Qing Cai, Jianpeng An, Zhongke Gao

Brain Science Advances

Sleep is an essential integrant in everyone’s daily life; therefore, it is an important but challenging problem to characterize sleep stages from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The network motif has been developed as a useful tool to investigate complex networks. In this study, we developed a multiplex visibility graph motif-based convolutional neural network (CNN) for characterizing sleep stages using EEG signals and then introduced the multiplex motif entropy as the quantitative index to distinguish the six sleep stages. The independent samples t-test shows that the multiplex motif entropy values have significant differences among the six sleep stages. Furthermore, we developed ...


Tumor-Associated Macrophages As Treatment Targets In Glioma, Yichen Peng, Feng Chen, Shenglan Li, Xiu Liu, Can Wang, Chunna Yu, Wenbin Li 2021 Department of Neuro-Oncology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China

Tumor-Associated Macrophages As Treatment Targets In Glioma, Yichen Peng, Feng Chen, Shenglan Li, Xiu Liu, Can Wang, Chunna Yu, Wenbin Li

Brain Science Advances

Gliomas, the most common primary tumors in the central nervous system (CNS), can be categorized into 4 grades according to the World Health Organization. The most malignant glioma type is grade Ⅳ, also named glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, the standard treatment of concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy and radiotherapy after maximum resection does not improve overall survival in patients with GBM. Targeting components of the CNS microenvironment represents a new strategy for improving the efficacy of glioma treatment. Most recent studies focused on T cells. However, there is a growing body of evidence that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role ...


Diffuse Optical Tomography In The Human Brain: A Briefly Review From The Neurophysiology To Its Applications, Estefania Hernandez-Martin, José Luis Gonzalez-Mora 2021 Department of Basic Medical Science, Faculty of Health Science, Medicine Section, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071, Spain

Diffuse Optical Tomography In The Human Brain: A Briefly Review From The Neurophysiology To Its Applications, Estefania Hernandez-Martin, José Luis Gonzalez-Mora

Brain Science Advances

The present work describes the use of noninvasive diffuse optical tomography (DOT) technology to measure hemodynamic changes, providing relevant information which helps to understand the basis of neurophysiology in the human brain. Advantages such as portability, direct measurements of hemoglobin state, temporal resolution, non-restricted movements as occurs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices mean that DOT technology can be used in research and clinical fields. In this review we covered the neurophysiology, physical principles underlying optical imaging during tissue-light interactions, and technology commonly used during the construction of a DOT device including the source-detector requirements to improve the image quality ...


Video-Triggered Eeg-Emotion Public Databases And Current Methods: A Survey, Wanrou Hu, Gan Huang, Linling Li, Li Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Zhen Liang 2021 School of Biomedical Engineering, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, Guangdong, China;Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, Shenzhen 518060, Guangdong, China

Video-Triggered Eeg-Emotion Public Databases And Current Methods: A Survey, Wanrou Hu, Gan Huang, Linling Li, Li Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Zhen Liang

Brain Science Advances

Emotions, formed in the process of perceiving external environment, directly affect human daily life, such as social interaction, work efficiency, physical wellness, and mental health. In recent decades, emotion recognition has become a promising research direction with significant application values. Taking the advantages of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals (i.e., high time resolution) and video-based external emotion evoking (i.e., rich media information), video-triggered emotion recognition with EEG signals has been proven as a useful tool to conduct emotion-related studies in a laboratory environment, which provides constructive technical supports for establishing real-time emotion interaction systems. In this paper, we will focus ...


An Introduction And Review On Innovative Silicon Implementations Of Implantable/Scalp Eeg Chips For Data Acquisition, Seizure/Behavior Detection, And Brain Stimulation, Weiwei Shi, Jinyong Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Lizhi Hu, Yongqian Su 2021 College of Information Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518000, Guangdong, China

An Introduction And Review On Innovative Silicon Implementations Of Implantable/Scalp Eeg Chips For Data Acquisition, Seizure/Behavior Detection, And Brain Stimulation, Weiwei Shi, Jinyong Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Lizhi Hu, Yongqian Su

Brain Science Advances

Technological advances in the semiconductor industry and the increasing demand and development of wearable medical systems have enabled the development of dedicated chips for complex electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing with smart functions and artificial intelligence-based detections/classifications. Around 10 million transistors are integrated into a 1 mm2 silicon wafer surface in the dedicated chip, making wearable EEG systems a powerful dedicated processor instead of a wireless raw data transceiver. The reduction of amplifiers and analog-digital converters on the silicon surface makes it possible to place the analog front-end circuits within a tiny packaged chip; therefore, enabling high-count EEG acquisition channels ...


Subject Inefficiency Phenomenon Of Motor Imagery Brain- Computer Interface: Influence Factors And Potential Solutions, Rui Zhang, Fali Li, Tao Zhang, Dezhong Yao, Peng Xu 2021 Henan Key Laboratory of Brain Science and Brain-Computer Interface Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China

Subject Inefficiency Phenomenon Of Motor Imagery Brain- Computer Interface: Influence Factors And Potential Solutions, Rui Zhang, Fali Li, Tao Zhang, Dezhong Yao, Peng Xu

Brain Science Advances

Motor imagery brain-computer interfaces (MI-BCIs) have great potential value in prosthetics control, neurorehabilitation, and gaming; however, currently, most such systems only operate in controlled laboratory environments. One of the most important obstacles is the MI-BCI inefficiency phenomenon. The accuracy of MI-BCI control varies significantly (from chance level to 100% accuracy) across subjects due to the not easily induced and unstable MI-related EEG features. An MI-BCI inefficient subject is defined as a subject who cannot achieve greater than 70% accuracy after sufficient training time, and multiple survey results indicate that inefficient subjects account for 10%-50% of the experimental population. The ...


Thoughts On Neurophysiological Signal Analysis And Classification, Junhua Li 2021 Laboratory for Brain-Bionic Intelligence and Computational Neuroscience, Wuyi University, Jiangmen 529020, Guangdong, China;Centre for Multidisciplinary Convergence Computing, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, Shaanxi, China;School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Colchester, CO4 3SQ, UK

Thoughts On Neurophysiological Signal Analysis And Classification, Junhua Li

Brain Science Advances

Neurophysiological signals are crucial intermediaries, through which brain activity can be quantitatively measured and brain mechanisms are able to be revealed. In particular, non-invasive neurophysiological signals, such as electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are welcomed and frequently utilised in various studies since these signals can be non-invasively recorded without harming the human brain while they convey abundant information pertaining to brain activity. The recorded neurophysiological signals are analysed to mine meaningful information for the understanding of brain mechanisms or are classified to distinguish different patterns (e.g., different cognitive states, brain diseases versus healthy controls). To date ...


Demystifying Signal Processing Techniques To Extract Resting- State Eeg Features For Psychologists, Zhenjiang Li, Libo Zhang, Fengrui Zhang, Ruolei Gu, Weiwei Peng, Li Hu 2021 School of Psychology, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, Jiangxi, China

Demystifying Signal Processing Techniques To Extract Resting- State Eeg Features For Psychologists, Zhenjiang Li, Libo Zhang, Fengrui Zhang, Ruolei Gu, Weiwei Peng, Li Hu

Brain Science Advances

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a powerful tool for investigating the brain bases of human psychological processes non-invasively. Some important mental functions could be encoded by resting-state EEG activity; that is, the intrinsic neural activity not elicited by a specific task or stimulus. The extraction of informative features from resting-state EEG requires complex signal processing techniques. This review aims to demystify the widely used resting-state EEG signal processing techniques. To this end, we first offer a preprocessing pipeline and discuss how to apply it to resting-state EEG preprocessing. We then examine in detail spectral, connectivity, and microstate analysis, covering the oft-used EEG ...


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