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Infection And Transmission Determinants Of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses, Hanna J. Laukaitis 2022 University of South Alabama

Infection And Transmission Determinants Of Flea-Borne Rickettsioses, Hanna J. Laukaitis

Theses and Dissertations

The genus Rickettsia is comprised of Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are spread by hematophagous arthropods. Elucidating the factors conferring rickettsial virulence has perplexed investigators for decades, complicated by the lack of efficient genetic tools necessary to uncover rickettsial- and vector-specific factors contributing to persistence. The advent of transposon mutagenesis has enabled the field to make vast developments in uncovering novel rickettsial mechanisms utilized in various host backgrounds. Thus, the aim of this study was to generate Rickettsia felis transposon mutants and characterize novel phenotypes associated with genetic disruption in an arthropod background. Distribution of rickettsiae is reliant on the ...


What About Anosmia From Covid-19 ?, Sharanya S E Santhi, Sara Elnour, Steven B Lippmann 2022 University of Louisville

What About Anosmia From Covid-19 ?, Sharanya S E Santhi, Sara Elnour, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Sepsis: Do The Clinical Criteria Support The Medical Coding?, April M. Insco 2022 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Sepsis: Do The Clinical Criteria Support The Medical Coding?, April M. Insco

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Background: Sepsis is a condition that can be very costly and very deadly. Diagnosing sepsis can be challenging as there is not one specific test that will identify whether a patient has sepsis and there are varying opinions as to the true definition of sepsis. The definition of sepsis used for this research is a combination of System Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) with an identified infection. Medical Coders must review the documentation provided in a medical record to accurately assign an ICD-10-CM code. Administrative data is then used to provide statistical information for research purposes. When coded data is not ...


Implementation And Evaluation Of A Syphilis Screening Tool To Increase Patient Testing For Syphilis Among Adults 18 Years And Older In A Rural Primary Care Clinic, Valeria S. Wiggins 2022 Jacksonville State University

Implementation And Evaluation Of A Syphilis Screening Tool To Increase Patient Testing For Syphilis Among Adults 18 Years And Older In A Rural Primary Care Clinic, Valeria S. Wiggins

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are an increasing epidemic in the United States (U.S.) that need immediate interventions to reverse the effects of syphilis on the sexual health of adults in rural populations. Many are unaware of the growing rate of syphilis and the overall impact it causes nationally. When syphilis is detected early, it can be easily treated and cured. Rural primary care providers are ideal candidates for implementing education, screening, testing, and treatment.

Purpose: The Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) project aims to increase the frequency of screening patients in rural primary care clinics for high-risk sexual ...


Treating Cytokine Storm In Patients With Covid-19, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Deekshitha Turaka, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Steven B Lippmann 2022 University of Louisville

Treating Cytokine Storm In Patients With Covid-19, Ahmed Abdelhaleem, Deekshitha Turaka, Shameera Shaik Masthan, Steven B Lippmann

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations Of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin And Trimethoprim On In-Vitro Biofilm Formation In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Shane Whelan 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Effect Of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations Of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin And Trimethoprim On In-Vitro Biofilm Formation In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Shane Whelan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of sublethal concentrations of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim on biofilm formation in 57 uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains (UPEC).

The MIC of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was determined for 57 UPEC isolates. Biofilm formation for each isolate with and without sub-lethal concentrations of each antibiotic was then quantified, and the statistical significance of changes in biofilm formation was ascertained by way of a Dunnett's test.

The effects of sub-MIC antibiotics on biofilm formation of UPEC were variable. A total of 22.8% of strains were induced to form biofilm ...


Staph Infection: Hospitals Battle Against A Deadly Menace, Mckenzie Lamos 2022 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Staph Infection: Hospitals Battle Against A Deadly Menace, Mckenzie Lamos

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Staph infection is caused by the staphylococcus bacteria, which is found on the skin or within the nose of even healthy individuals. This bacteria is usually harmless, but deadly infectious diseases may arise when it enters deep within the body. Staph infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, however the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain is resistant to antibiotics which further complicates treatment. This research provides insight on preventative measures to stop and slow the spread of staph infection in hospitals, along with what is being done to limit the number of MRSA infections. The CDC and NCBI both outline strategies ...


Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz PhD, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial ...


Antimicrobial Stewardship Meets Transitions Of Care: Defining Length Of Therapy For Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cap), Christopher Whitman, Sarah E. Moore PharmD, Matthew Song PharmD, BCIDP, Brian C. Bohn PharmD, BCIDP, Ashley M. Wilde 2022 Infirmary Health

Antimicrobial Stewardship Meets Transitions Of Care: Defining Length Of Therapy For Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cap), Christopher Whitman, Sarah E. Moore Pharmd, Matthew Song Pharmd, Bcidp, Brian C. Bohn Pharmd, Bcidp, Ashley M. Wilde

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Hospital-based antimicrobial stewardship efforts have traditionally focused on inpatient settings. Antibiotic prescribing at discharge is often an overlooked area of focus for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Discharge prescribing optimization is necessary to combat antibiotic overuse.

Methods: This was an observational, retrospective cohort study at a four–adult community hospital system. Four hundred adult patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia and discharged with antibiotics were included. The primary outcome was overall (inpatient and discharge) antibiotic length of therapy. The secondary outcome was percentage of patients discharged on a fluoroquinolone who had not received one in the hospital. Descriptive statistics were utilized.

Results ...


Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: Correspondence, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho 2022 Orlando VA

Covid-19 Case Complicated With Organizing Pneumonia And Pneumothorax: Correspondence, Hammad A. Bhatti, Minh Q. Ho

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Updates In The Pharmacologic Prophylaxis And Treatment Of Invasive Candidiasis In The Pediatric And Neonatal Intensive Care Units, James Hunter Fly, Seerat Kapoor, Kelly Bobo, Jeremy S. Stultz 2022 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Updates In The Pharmacologic Prophylaxis And Treatment Of Invasive Candidiasis In The Pediatric And Neonatal Intensive Care Units, James Hunter Fly, Seerat Kapoor, Kelly Bobo, Jeremy S. Stultz

Faculty Publications

Purpose of review The goal of this review was to provide an update on the prevention and treatment options for invasive candidiasis (IC) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

Recent findings Studies have further validated the use of fluconazole for IC prophylaxis among high-risk patients in the NICU. It remains unclear if prophylaxis leads to resistance development and the ideal dosage regimen is still not clear. Recent studies have been published comparing caspofungin and micafungin to amphotericin B and illustrated similar efficacy outcomes in the NICU. Micafungin now has approval from the United ...


Eskape Pathogens: The Clinical Prevalence And Molecular Mechanisms Of Antibiotic Resistance, Anusha Attre 2022 University of Connecticut

Eskape Pathogens: The Clinical Prevalence And Molecular Mechanisms Of Antibiotic Resistance, Anusha Attre

Honors Scholar Theses

The ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are the leading cause of all nosocomial, or healthcare-associated (HAI), infections (Navidinia, 2016). The purpose of this research study is to determine the burden of ESKAPE infections on healthcare and study the antibiotic resistance in these high-risk pathogens to provide direction for researchers to develop new antimicrobial innovations to reduce ESKAPE infectivity and improve patient outcomes. To study the burden of ESKAPE infections, this review analyzes the current statistics explaining the clinical prevalence of each pathogen in causing HAIs. Additionally, each pathogen is investigated ...


Creating A Guideline For Sti Testing In The Pediatric Population, Alexandria Molaro, Alexandra Evans, Alex Niebrugge 2022 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

Creating A Guideline For Sti Testing In The Pediatric Population, Alexandria Molaro, Alexandra Evans, Alex Niebrugge

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

Sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, education, screening, and management in pediatric primary care settings are of importance due to the increasing number of cases yearly. Almost half of the 26 million new STIs that occurred in 2018 were among young people 15-24. An opportunity existed in a rural pediatric primary clinic, for improved adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations to screen/test patients. An evidence-based project (EBP) was developed to address this concern. Project objectives included: developing STI screening guidelines for pre-teen to young adults, developing a screening algorithm, providing ...


A Case Of Intracranial Empyema After Bacterial Sinusitis, Eric Doane, Bhumi Shah, Robert Belfer 2022 Rowan University

A Case Of Intracranial Empyema After Bacterial Sinusitis, Eric Doane, Bhumi Shah, Robert Belfer

Stratford Campus Research Day

Acute sinusitis in the pediatric population is a common presentation in the emergency department. Most cases are viral and can be managed conservatively and will resolve spontaneously in 7-10 days. Even in cases of bacterial sinusitis, patients can typically be discharged with oral antibiotics and close follow up with the pediatrician.

There is however a small subset of patients who will develop a rare lethal complication, an intracranial empyema. While the incidence in the developed world has decreased as antibiotics become more available, it is still estimated to occur in up to 5% of severe cases requiring hospitalization (1) . In ...


Covid-19, Vaccination, And Heart Transplantation, Forest W. Arnold 2022 University of Louisville

Covid-19, Vaccination, And Heart Transplantation, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Diagnosis, Management, And Treatment Of Lymphadenitis And Deep Neck Space Infections At A Children’S Hospital, Aaron Shaw 2022 Children's Mercy Hospital

Diagnosis, Management, And Treatment Of Lymphadenitis And Deep Neck Space Infections At A Children’S Hospital, Aaron Shaw

Research Days

Background: Although cervical lymphadenitis and deep neck space abscesses (DNSA) are relatively common pediatric diagnoses, no standardized approach exists for management of these infections.

Objectives/Goal: To assess variability in diagnosis and treatment of cervical lymphadenitis and DNSA in a children’s hospital.

Methods/Design: Charts were obtained using ICD9/10 codes for diagnoses of retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscess, and lymphadenitis between 1/1/10-12/31/20. 1,237 charts were identified. Patients with a retropharyngeal and/or parapharyngeal abscess were defined as DNSA. Charts were excluded if the diagnosis was not a bacterial infection (e.g. Kawasaki disease), if ...


Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammation during bacterial infection. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo immune response to LTA, and none of the in vivo studies done have been performed in birds. For this project, the pulp (a skin-derivative) of growing feathers (GFs) of chickens were used as a test site to investigate the in vivo effects of intradermally injected LTA. In Study 1, the pulp of 12 GFs of 11-week-old Light-brown Leghorn (LBL) males were injected with 10 μL of differing concentrations of LTA (0.1, 1.0 ...


Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Ethanol, And Chronic Diseases., Nicholas Alan Short 2022 University of Louisville

Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Ethanol, And Chronic Diseases., Nicholas Alan Short

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is an investigation into the relationships among Porphyromonas gingivalis, ethanol, and a series of chronic diseases, focusing primarily on atherosclerosis. It uses evolutionary theory to understand clinical parameters related to chronic disease biology. The initial research question was, "If people who drink a glass of wine each day have a lower risk for atherosclerosis, could one explanation involve antibacterial effects on pathogens associated with causing atherosclerosis, namely, Porphyromonas gingivalis?". This dissertation is divided into four chapters. Chapter One provides the foundational information pertinent to the dissertation. Chapter Two describes an in- vitro experiment aimed at understanding how ethanol ...


Bartonella Henselea Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Mimicking Vasculitis: A Case Report With Literature Review, Troy J. Fishman, Efrain Irizarry, Ayesha Kaleem, Robert Yancey, Uma Iyer 2022 University of Central Florida, School of Medicine/HCA Florida North Florida Hospital

Bartonella Henselea Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Mimicking Vasculitis: A Case Report With Literature Review, Troy J. Fishman, Efrain Irizarry, Ayesha Kaleem, Robert Yancey, Uma Iyer

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

We present one of the first reported cases of Bartonella henselae prosthetic valve endocarditis, which mimicked p-antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (p-ANCA), an anti-proteinase 3 positive necrotizing glomerulonephritis caused by a cat scratch resulting in temporary dialysis. Documentation of such infections is necessary as zoonotic infections are becoming more prevalent with early identification essential for proper treatment. Although pauci-immune patterns are not a unique finding in bacterial endocarditis associated with glomerulonephritis, they are an atypical finding in Bartonella henselae endocarditis. Furthermore, p-ANCA-associated vasculitis can also be responsible for renal and cardiac disease. Because of the similar disease presentation of different etiologies (autoimmune ...


Predominantly Methicillin-Susceptible S. Aureus Bacteria Found In Csp Students’ S. Aureus Strains, Roma Ambo 2022 Concordia University, St. Paul

Predominantly Methicillin-Susceptible S. Aureus Bacteria Found In Csp Students’ S. Aureus Strains, Roma Ambo

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Positive Staphylococcus aureus strains from CSP students were tested for methicillin resistance (MRSA) using the Kirby-bauer assay. Kirby-bauer assay technique was used to determine the sensitivity of staphylococcus aureus bacteria against oxacillin. MRSA infection is the result of a bacteria that has built resistance against the antibiotics used to treat staph infections. The results of this experiment concludes that majority of the strains tested are methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA).


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