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Anthelmintic Resistance In Sheep Across Ireland And The Uk: A Literature Review Of The In Vivo Versus In Vitro Methods, Megan Tumulty 2022 Technological University of the Shannon

Anthelmintic Resistance In Sheep Across Ireland And The Uk: A Literature Review Of The In Vivo Versus In Vitro Methods, Megan Tumulty

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Background: The animal welfare and production consequences of gastrointestinal nematode infections, namely Nematodirus battus, on sheep are compelling. The control of gastrointestinal infections has been heavily reliant on the administration of anthelmintics since their introduction into mainstream use in 1960. However, their frequent and often excessive use has resulted in anthelmintic resistance being reported extensively in several gastrointestinal nematode species. The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance as well as the increase in the number of cases of multiple-drug resistance in nematode populations now poses substantial hindrance on the viability of sheep production systems. However, despite the threat N. battus poses …


Characterizing The Cutaneous Microbiome Of Eurycea Lucifuga As A Potential Defense Against Chytridiomycosis, Madeline Key 2022 Liberty University

Characterizing The Cutaneous Microbiome Of Eurycea Lucifuga As A Potential Defense Against Chytridiomycosis, Madeline Key

Senior Honors Theses

Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease that is significantly reducing global amphibian populations. The disease is caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungus that lethally modifies amphibian skin. Recent research has suggested that the cutaneous microbiome of individual amphibians may play a role in susceptibility to the pathogen. In this study, twelve cave salamanders (Eurycea lucifuga) were collected. Cutaneous bacteria from each salamander were isolated and identified using Sanger Sequencing. Additionally, a Bd-challenge assay was performed to determine each isolate’s antifungal activity. Results indicated many microbial isolates possessed inhibitory capabilities against Bd, which may …


Resource Document On The Nexus Between Animal Welfare, The Environment, And Sustainable Development, WellBeing International 2022 WellBeing International

Resource Document On The Nexus Between Animal Welfare, The Environment, And Sustainable Development, Wellbeing International

Nexus – UNEP – Animal Welfare, Environment, Sustainable Development

This Resource Document has been developed to explore the Nexus (links) between Animal Welfare, the Environment, and Sustainable Development. The document includes relevant citations and reports addressing the topics encompassed by the Nexus. It will be maintained as a “living document” (subject to revision) in the WellBeing International Studies Repository. The original document and subsequent revisions will be kept in the Repository to provide a record of the changes.


Stochastic Models Of Zoonotic Avian Influenza With Multiple Hosts, Environmental Transmission, And Migration In The Natural Reservoir, Kaia Smith 2022 Illinois State University

Stochastic Models Of Zoonotic Avian Influenza With Multiple Hosts, Environmental Transmission, And Migration In The Natural Reservoir, Kaia Smith

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Histomonosis In Turkeys – Factors Influencing Transmission, Pathogenesis, And The Search For Prophylactic Or Therapeutic Compounds, Thainá Landim de Barros 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Histomonosis In Turkeys – Factors Influencing Transmission, Pathogenesis, And The Search For Prophylactic Or Therapeutic Compounds, Thainá Landim De Barros

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The incidence of histomonosis has been increasing in poultry since the ban of prophylactic and therapeutic compounds. Histomonosis is caused by the protozoa Histomonas meleagridis. The objective of this dissertation was to investigate factors impacting the pathogenesis and transmission of histomonosis and to evaluate compounds that could potentially prevent or reduce the severity of histomonosis in turkeys. In the first study, the effect of sodium chlorate and sodium nitrate on reducing histomonads growth was tested in vitro and added to a basal turkey diet. A decrease in the growth of histomonads in vitro was observed, but no in vivo effect …


Intestinal Microbiota Analysis Of Broiler Chickens Under Necrotic Enteritis Challenge And Tributyrin Supplementation, Taylor Nicole McKinney 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Intestinal Microbiota Analysis Of Broiler Chickens Under Necrotic Enteritis Challenge And Tributyrin Supplementation, Taylor Nicole Mckinney

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Poultry is a staple protein source for most of the planet. Until recently, antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) were used to prevent illnesses in commercial chicken production. Currently, this is not possible due to regulations and consumer concern, but without such a preventative, diseases like necrotic enteritis (NE) have reemerged, posing a threat to bird health, and ultimately, our food source. Necrotic enteritis is a severe gastrointestinal disease caused by the gram-positive pathogen, Clostridium perfringens. Clinical features of this disease are diarrhea, intestinal lesions, and death, with a high transmission rate. In a subclinical form, growth performance is diminished and is …


How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan 2022 The University of San Francisco

How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan

Master's Projects and Capstones

Mosquitos, the most lethal species throughout human history, are the most prevalent source of vector-borne diseases and therefore a major global health burden. Mosquito-borne disease incidence is expected to shift with environmental change. These changes can be predicted using species distribution models. With the wide variety of methods used for models, consensus for improving accuracy and comparability is needed. A comparative analysis of three recent modeling approaches revealed that integrating modeling techniques compensates for trade-offs associated with a singular approach. An area that represents a critical gap in our ability to predict mosquito behavior in response to changing climate factors, …


Locked Nucleic Acid Aptamer And 10 Nm Gold Nanoparticles Increases The Sensitivity Of A Prion Protein Detection Assay, Haley Channell 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Locked Nucleic Acid Aptamer And 10 Nm Gold Nanoparticles Increases The Sensitivity Of A Prion Protein Detection Assay, Haley Channell

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Investigating Molecular Mechanisms Behind Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis (Bco) Pathogenesis In Modern Broilers, Alison Ramser 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating Molecular Mechanisms Behind Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis (Bco) Pathogenesis In Modern Broilers, Alison Ramser

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO), a leading cause of lameness in broiler chickens, is characterized by infection, inflammation, and bone attrition. There are currently no effective treatments and positive diagnosis is only possible through necropsy evaluations. Lameness is also a rising animal welfare and economic concern, making prevention and detection of BCO all the more critical. These challenges are exacerbated by a lack of mechanistic understanding of BCO’s etiology. The question I asked during my dissertation was how bacteria induce bone attrition in BCO pathology. My research has shown that mitochondrial dysfunction is characteristic of BCO conditions along with autophagy …


Monkeypox Virus Hosts And Transmission Routes: A Systematic Review Of A Zoonotic Pathogen, Mary Walker 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Monkeypox Virus Hosts And Transmission Routes: A Systematic Review Of A Zoonotic Pathogen, Mary Walker

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an etiological agent of Monkeypox with origins believed to be of Central/West Africa. As a member of the orthopoxvirus family and due to its increasing emergence, it has become a pathogen in need of research. This paper works to find common trends of transmission routes and reservoir hosts in previous publications through a systematic review. Articles found on Web of Science containing the search term “Monkeypox” were sorted based on relevance to the review topics of potential reservoir hosts and transmission routes of Monkeypox virus. Through Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), 1,036 …


Evaluation Of The Effect Of A Lippia Organoides Essential Oil Extract On Clostridium Perfringens Proliferation In Vitro And Necrotic Enteritis In Broiler Chickens, Makenly E. Coles 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of The Effect Of A Lippia Organoides Essential Oil Extract On Clostridium Perfringens Proliferation In Vitro And Necrotic Enteritis In Broiler Chickens, Makenly E. Coles

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present research was to assess the effects of essential oils derived from the plant Lippia organoides on performance parameters, intestinal integrity, and necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens. To do this, a previously established challenge model for NE was utilized which included challenging with Salmonella Typhimurium on day 0, Eimeria maxima on day 18, and Clostridium perfringens on days 22 and 23. Treatment groups included a 1) non-challenged, negative control, 2) challenged control, and 3) challenged, Lippia origanoides (37ppm in the diet). Group 1 (negative control) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher body weight gain from d8-25 and d0-25 compared to both challenged groups. Feed intake was significantly different for all three groups (P < 0.05) at 8-25 days and 0-25 days with group 1 having the highest feed intake for both time periods. Total mortality was greater in the positive control when compared to both the negative and treatment groups. NE lesion scores were significantly different between all groups with the positive control having the highest mean lesion scores and the negative control having a mean lesion score of 0. The positive control group had the highest FITC-d amounts detected in the sera, being statistically higher than both the treatment group and negative group which were both statistically different from each other. At the present inclusion rate for the essential oil (37 ppm), there was an overall reduction in the negative impact from the NE infection. Further studies should be conducted to reach more significant conclusions.


Surgical Intervention With Adjunctive Cryotherapy For Canine Conjunctival Hemangiosarcomas Versus Hemangiomas, Lisa M. Hoard 2022 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Surgical Intervention With Adjunctive Cryotherapy For Canine Conjunctival Hemangiosarcomas Versus Hemangiomas, Lisa M. Hoard

Biomedical Engineering ETDs

Conjunctival hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas are vascular tumors that affect the tissue in the eyes of canines. While relatively rare, these tumors can be costly to remove, and have a possibility of recurrence. Therefore, more understanding of the nature of these tumors and recurrence rates is of importance to the veterinary ophthalmologist. To date, there is limited data in the literature (2 retrospective studies) that examine the development, treatment, and recurrence of these vascular tumors; furthermore, the analyses do not examine the potential recurrence of tumors after treatment with therapies adjunctive to surgery (such as cryoablation, radiotherapy, and others). For this …


Variations In Antibody Response To Aspergillus Fumigatus Inhalation In Mice, Andrea Wells 2022 Minnesota State University Moorhead

Variations In Antibody Response To Aspergillus Fumigatus Inhalation In Mice, Andrea Wells

Student Academic Conference

Studies have configured immunological responses to Aspergillus fumigatus in mice, leading to advanced understandings. However, the comparisons of the immune responses between juvenile (younger than 6 weeks) male and female C57BL/6J mice after A. fumigatus exposure, remains uninvestigated. In this study, we intranasally inoculated 3 week old male and female mice with Aspergillus fumigatus spores dilution of 2 106spores per 40 l. They were exposed to the allergen once a week for 8 consecutive weeks and euthanized on day 28 post the last inoculation. As compared to our last report, we increased the sample size for each group in this …


The Effect Of Amphibian Host Ecology And Evolution On The Pathogen Dynamics Of Ranavirus, Lauren V. Ash 2022 University of Vermont

The Effect Of Amphibian Host Ecology And Evolution On The Pathogen Dynamics Of Ranavirus, Lauren V. Ash

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Emerging infectious diseases threaten amphibian species around the globe. Ranavirus (Family: Iridoviridae) is associated with the majority of amphibian deaths in North America, with some species exhibiting mass mortality events in short periods of time. In contrast, some amphibian species show the capacity to resist or tolerate infection. Resistant individuals exhibit reduced infection intensity, while tolerant individuals display reduced fitness effects given the infection intensity. My research focused on how amphibian host dynamics at community, population, and individual-level scales relate to the wide variation in Ranavirus prevalence and severity. Through my work, I documented the first reports of Ranavirus in …


Comparative Metabolism Of Aflatoxin B1 In Two Quail Genera Coturnix Japonica And Callipepla Californica, Sean Moody 2021 Utah State University

Comparative Metabolism Of Aflatoxin B1 In Two Quail Genera Coturnix Japonica And Callipepla Californica, Sean Moody

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Avian species are highly susceptible to the hepatotoxic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Domesticated turkeys are exquisitely sensitive, due to a combination of highly-efficient hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated bioactivation, and to dysfunctional alpha-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTAs) which typically detoxify the bioactivated electrophilic metabolite exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Wild turkeys are relatively resistant to AFB1 in large part due to expression of functional GSTAs. Quail, a related Galliforme, are slightly less sensitive in vivo to AFB1, but whether this is related to the hepatic metabolic profiles of these two critical enzymes has not been rigorously evaluated. …


Evaluation Of Two Neonatal Challenge Models For Broiler Chickens And Their Effects On Early Performance Parameters, Callie Selby 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Two Neonatal Challenge Models For Broiler Chickens And Their Effects On Early Performance Parameters, Callie Selby

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Formaldehyde fumigation in poultry hatch cabinets has been utilized for sanitation of hatching eggs for over a century. Formaldehyde is utilized to minimize pathogenic microbes on the surface of the egg as well as the microbial bloom during the hatching process. While formaldehyde is effective, its use is regulated in the United States and Europe due to its carcinogenic nature. Formaldehyde has been shown to damage the cuticle of the egg, cause embryonic death, and damage the epithelial lining of the respiratory tract of freshly hatched chicks, predisposing them for respiratory infection. Alternatives for formaldehyde fumigation must be identified and …


The Effects Of Omega-3 Pufa Infusions During Late Gestation On Developmental Pathologies In The Intrauterine Growth Restricted Fetus, Taylor Lacey 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effects Of Omega-3 Pufa Infusions During Late Gestation On Developmental Pathologies In The Intrauterine Growth Restricted Fetus, Taylor Lacey

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Low birthweight due to intrauterine growth restriction is associated with metabolic disorders after birth. Our 1st study assessed deficits in skeletal muscle glucose metabolism and pancreatic β cell function in IUGR fetal sheep. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of daily intravenous infusions of the anti-inflammatory ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), as a means of improving deficits previously observed in the IUGR fetus by targeting fetal systemic inflammation. The presence of systemic inflammation in IUGR fetuses was evident by increased total circulating populations of total leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes. However, these were …


Alpha-Gal Allergy: A New Threat To Appalachia, Adam M. Franks MD, Makala Murphy BS, Madison Griffis MD, Rebekah Franks BA, CWR, Colin M. Franks, Gary Petty MD 2021 Marshall University

Alpha-Gal Allergy: A New Threat To Appalachia, Adam M. Franks Md, Makala Murphy Bs, Madison Griffis Md, Rebekah Franks Ba, Cwr, Colin M. Franks, Gary Petty Md

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Abstract

Alpha-gal allergy, or mammalian meat allergy, is described as the development of IgE antibodies to the oligosaccharide galactose-a-1,3-galactose following a bite from the tick species Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star tick) or Dermacentor variabillis (Wood tick). Dermatologic or gastrointestinal symptoms are usually delayed by four to six hours after exposure, making the diagnosis difficult. Due to the use of mammalian proteins in many common medications, surgical equipment and prosthesis, unexpected reactions can occur. In the United States, this pathology is predominately seen in the southeast, but has been associated with other tick species on every continent except Antarctica. As the …


Fishing For The Right Probiotic: Investigating The Mechanism Of Mucosal-Bacterial Interactions At The Interface Of Health And Productivity In Salmonid Aquaculture, Luana Langlois 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Fishing For The Right Probiotic: Investigating The Mechanism Of Mucosal-Bacterial Interactions At The Interface Of Health And Productivity In Salmonid Aquaculture, Luana Langlois

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Aquaculture is vital for the global food supply, but the high incidence of infectious diseases threatens the industry’s productivity. The intestinal mucosa is a key port of entry for pathogens and provides an extensive interface for host-microbe interactions. Tight junctions are at the core of gut barrier function and the mucosal health of finfish. Disruption of these complexes gives rise to sepsis, which leads to systemic inflammation and death. The present study employs a combinatorial approach that integrates in vitro and in vivo analyses to gain actionable insights into the mechanism of microbial-mediated modulation of host health. The experiments outlined …


Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis (BCO) is a debilitating infection that negatively impacts animal welfare and costs the broiler industry billions of dollars annually. We have previously isolated Staphylococcus agnetis 908 from BCO samples obtained from broilers at the University of Arkansas research farm. This isolate can induce BCO lameness at greater than 50% in broilers exposed to the pathogen in drinking water. We found that S. agnetis 908 is capable of surviving and escaping macrophages compared to a closely related cattle isolate,1379. Through Directed Genome Evolution (DGE) we identified that this difference is at least partially associated with an alanine …


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