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How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan 2022 The University of San Francisco

How Environmental Change Will Impact Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Arsal Khan

Master's Projects and Capstones

Mosquitos, the most lethal species throughout human history, are the most prevalent source of vector-borne diseases and therefore a major global health burden. Mosquito-borne disease incidence is expected to shift with environmental change. These changes can be predicted using species distribution models. With the wide variety of methods used for models, consensus for improving accuracy and comparability is needed. A comparative analysis of three recent modeling approaches revealed that integrating modeling techniques compensates for trade-offs associated with a singular approach. An area that represents a critical gap in our ability to predict mosquito behavior in response to changing climate factors ...


Monkeypox Virus Hosts And Transmission Routes: A Systematic Review Of A Zoonotic Pathogen, Mary Walker 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Monkeypox Virus Hosts And Transmission Routes: A Systematic Review Of A Zoonotic Pathogen, Mary Walker

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an etiological agent of Monkeypox with origins believed to be of Central/West Africa. As a member of the orthopoxvirus family and due to its increasing emergence, it has become a pathogen in need of research. This paper works to find common trends of transmission routes and reservoir hosts in previous publications through a systematic review. Articles found on Web of Science containing the search term “Monkeypox” were sorted based on relevance to the review topics of potential reservoir hosts and transmission routes of Monkeypox virus. Through Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA ...


Locked Nucleic Acid Aptamer And 10 Nm Gold Nanoparticles Increases The Sensitivity Of A Prion Protein Detection Assay, Haley Channell 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Locked Nucleic Acid Aptamer And 10 Nm Gold Nanoparticles Increases The Sensitivity Of A Prion Protein Detection Assay, Haley Channell

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Variations In Antibody Response To Aspergillus Fumigatus Inhalation In Mice, Andrea Wells 2022 Minnesota State University Moorhead

Variations In Antibody Response To Aspergillus Fumigatus Inhalation In Mice, Andrea Wells

Student Academic Conference

Studies have configured immunological responses to Aspergillus fumigatus in mice, leading to advanced understandings. However, the comparisons of the immune responses between juvenile (younger than 6 weeks) male and female C57BL/6J mice after A. fumigatus exposure, remains uninvestigated. In this study, we intranasally inoculated 3 week old male and female mice with Aspergillus fumigatus spores dilution of 2 106spores per 40 l. They were exposed to the allergen once a week for 8 consecutive weeks and euthanized on day 28 post the last inoculation. As compared to our last report, we increased the sample size for each group in ...


Evaluation Of Two Neonatal Challenge Models For Broiler Chickens And Their Effects On Early Performance Parameters, Callie Selby 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Two Neonatal Challenge Models For Broiler Chickens And Their Effects On Early Performance Parameters, Callie Selby

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Formaldehyde fumigation in poultry hatch cabinets has been utilized for sanitation of hatching eggs for over a century. Formaldehyde is utilized to minimize pathogenic microbes on the surface of the egg as well as the microbial bloom during the hatching process. While formaldehyde is effective, its use is regulated in the United States and Europe due to its carcinogenic nature. Formaldehyde has been shown to damage the cuticle of the egg, cause embryonic death, and damage the epithelial lining of the respiratory tract of freshly hatched chicks, predisposing them for respiratory infection. Alternatives for formaldehyde fumigation must be identified and ...


Comparative Metabolism Of Aflatoxin B1 In Two Quail Genera Coturnix Japonica And Callipepla Californica, Sean Moody 2021 Utah State University

Comparative Metabolism Of Aflatoxin B1 In Two Quail Genera Coturnix Japonica And Callipepla Californica, Sean Moody

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Avian species are highly susceptible to the hepatotoxic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Domesticated turkeys are exquisitely sensitive, due to a combination of highly-efficient hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated bioactivation, and to dysfunctional alpha-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTAs) which typically detoxify the bioactivated electrophilic metabolite exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Wild turkeys are relatively resistant to AFB1 in large part due to expression of functional GSTAs. Quail, a related Galliforme, are slightly less sensitive in vivo to AFB1, but whether this is related to the hepatic metabolic profiles of these two critical enzymes has not been rigorously evaluated ...


The Effects Of Omega-3 Pufa Infusions During Late Gestation On Developmental Pathologies In The Intrauterine Growth Restricted Fetus, Taylor Lacey 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effects Of Omega-3 Pufa Infusions During Late Gestation On Developmental Pathologies In The Intrauterine Growth Restricted Fetus, Taylor Lacey

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Low birthweight due to intrauterine growth restriction is associated with metabolic disorders after birth. Our 1st study assessed deficits in skeletal muscle glucose metabolism and pancreatic β cell function in IUGR fetal sheep. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of daily intravenous infusions of the anti-inflammatory ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), as a means of improving deficits previously observed in the IUGR fetus by targeting fetal systemic inflammation. The presence of systemic inflammation in IUGR fetuses was evident by increased total circulating populations of total leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes. However, these were decreased by 5-day ω-3 ...


Alpha-Gal Allergy: A New Threat To Appalachia, Adam M. Franks MD, Makala Murphy BS, Madison Griffis MD, Rebekah Franks BA, CWR, Colin M. Franks, Gary Petty MD 2021 Marshall University

Alpha-Gal Allergy: A New Threat To Appalachia, Adam M. Franks Md, Makala Murphy Bs, Madison Griffis Md, Rebekah Franks Ba, Cwr, Colin M. Franks, Gary Petty Md

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Abstract

Alpha-gal allergy, or mammalian meat allergy, is described as the development of IgE antibodies to the oligosaccharide galactose-a-1,3-galactose following a bite from the tick species Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star tick) or Dermacentor variabillis (Wood tick). Dermatologic or gastrointestinal symptoms are usually delayed by four to six hours after exposure, making the diagnosis difficult. Due to the use of mammalian proteins in many common medications, surgical equipment and prosthesis, unexpected reactions can occur. In the United States, this pathology is predominately seen in the southeast, but has been associated with other tick species on every continent except Antarctica. As ...


Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis (BCO) is a debilitating infection that negatively impacts animal welfare and costs the broiler industry billions of dollars annually. We have previously isolated Staphylococcus agnetis 908 from BCO samples obtained from broilers at the University of Arkansas research farm. This isolate can induce BCO lameness at greater than 50% in broilers exposed to the pathogen in drinking water. We found that S. agnetis 908 is capable of surviving and escaping macrophages compared to a closely related cattle isolate,1379. Through Directed Genome Evolution (DGE) we identified that this difference is at least partially associated with an ...


Engineering And Characterization Of Human Β-Defensin-3 And Its Analogues And Microcin J25 Peptides Against Mannheimia Haemolytica And Bovine Neutrophils, Harpreet Dhingra, Kamaljit Kaur, Baljit Singh 2021 University of Saskatchewan

Engineering And Characterization Of Human Β-Defensin-3 And Its Analogues And Microcin J25 Peptides Against Mannheimia Haemolytica And Bovine Neutrophils, Harpreet Dhingra, Kamaljit Kaur, Baljit Singh

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Mannheimia haemolytica-induced bovine respiratory disease causes loss of millions of dollars to Canadian cattle industry. Current antimicrobials are proving to be ineffective and leave residues in meat. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) may be effective against M. haemolytica while minimizing the risk of drug residues. Cationic AMPs can kill bacteria through interactions with the anionic bacterial membrane. Human β-Defensin 3 (HBD3) and microcin J25 (MccJ25) are AMPs with potent activity against many Gram-negative bacteria. We tested the microbicidal activity of wild-type HBD3, three HBD3 peptide analogues (28 amino acid, 20AA, and 10AA) derived from the sequence of natural HBD3, and MccJ25 ...


Survey Of Ticks And Tick-Borne Pathogens Associated With Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) In Arkansas, Haylee Campbell 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Survey Of Ticks And Tick-Borne Pathogens Associated With Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) In Arkansas, Haylee Campbell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Feral hogs (Sus scrofa L.) are an invasive species throughout the southeast United States and found in every Arkansas county. As feral hogs invade new habitat, they can disrupt ecosystems, damage agriculture systems, and bring ticks and tick-borne pathogens with them. There are no surveys of the tick species parasitizing the Arkansas feral hog populations or the pathogens they carry. This is a public health concern because feral hogs occupy often same geographical regions as humans and livestock and can harbor over 45 animal diseases and parasites. The ticks carried by feral hogs can carry tick-borne pathogens that can cause ...


Determination Of Ownership Practices And Cytauxzoon Felis Prevalence In Domestic Felines Of Northwest Arkansas, Daniella M. Duran 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Determination Of Ownership Practices And Cytauxzoon Felis Prevalence In Domestic Felines Of Northwest Arkansas, Daniella M. Duran

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cytauxzoon felis is a protozoan pathogen that causes the infectious disease, cytauxzoonosis in wild and domestic felines. The natural host of this pathogen is the bobcat (Lynx rufus), which is why this disease is also commonly referred to as “bobcat fever”. The C. felis pathogen infects wild and domestic cats upon transmission by infected ticks. Amblyomma americanum, also known as the Lone Star tick, the primary transmission vector for C. felis. This tick species is largely populated throughout the state of Arkansas, making C. felis a large threat to wild and domestic felines in these areas. Cytauxzoonosis is commonly thought ...


Identifying Risk Factors Of Anaplasma Infection In Plains Zebra Of Etosha National Park, Namibia, Madison Stahle 2021 University of Maine - Main

Identifying Risk Factors Of Anaplasma Infection In Plains Zebra Of Etosha National Park, Namibia, Madison Stahle

Honors College

Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne illness that is caused by bacteria from the genus Anaplasma which infect the blood cells of their hosts. Anaplasmosis can affect the health and life expectancy of zebra, however, little is known about what makes drives the variability in infection within this species. The purpose of this study is to (1) determine the prevalence, and (2) identify risk factors for Anaplasma infections in plains zebra (Equus quagga) from the Etosha National Park, Namibia, including whether Anaplasma infections correlate with other parasite infections (ectoparasites and gastrointestinal parasites).Other possible risk factors for Anaplasma infection that are investigated ...


Decline In Amphibian Health In Local Stream, Elyse Vetter, Elise DeArment, Colton Russell, Audrey Fontes, Lee Kats 2021 Pepperdine University

Decline In Amphibian Health In Local Stream, Elyse Vetter, Elise Dearment, Colton Russell, Audrey Fontes, Lee Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Many local streams of the Santa Monica Mountains are populated by the native California Newt, Taricha torosa, a species of special concern. Arroyo Sequit is one of these streams, the upper and lower portions of which are split by a culvert and the Mulholland Highway. This stream and the surrounding areas burned during the Woolsey fire of 2018. Since the fire, construction has been ongoing in and around the stream. Two years post-fire (during the summer of 2020) significantly more newts were found in the stream than years prior. A large proportion of these newts were unhealthy in appearance, presenting ...


Challenges And Opportunities In Food Safety-A Review, Iram Asim, Humaira Yasmeen 2021 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Women University Multan, Pakistan

Challenges And Opportunities In Food Safety-A Review, Iram Asim, Humaira Yasmeen

Journal of Bioresource Management

Food-borne diseases are the group of disorders that are caused by consuming food having microbial existence in it. So safe food handling is to make sure the lessening of detrimental effects in growth to the packaging of food to minimize health issues on consumers which otherwise can lead to large scale disease outburst. This review concludes the findings of the studies on how food is being handled from farm to fork, how airlines are contributing towards the spreading of diseases, how any negligence in any one of the steps can cause havoc to mankind in the light of the recent ...


Animated Videos: The Covid-19 Pandemic, Bailey Alspach 2021 Bowling Green State University

Animated Videos: The Covid-19 Pandemic, Bailey Alspach

Honors Projects

This project is a resource created to provide information about the Covid-19 pandemic. This pandemic was caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (AJMC Staff, 2021). The first reported cases began to appear in December 2019, and the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11th, 2020. This pandemic is still active with new cases reported everyday as of April 2021 (AJMC Staff, 2021). This resource consists of four videos ranging from around two and a half to eight minutes long. All videos were created in an animated fashion and were uploaded to YouTube. The first video focuses on ...


Piglet Immunization With A Spike Subunit Vaccine Enhances Disease By Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Jieshi Yu, Chithra Sreenivasan, Tirth Uprety, Rongyuan Gao, Chen Huang, Ella J. Lee, Steven Lawson, Julie Nelson, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Radhey S. Kaushik, Eric Nelson, Diego G. Diel, Ben M. Hause, Feng Li, Dan Wang 2021 University of Kentucky

Piglet Immunization With A Spike Subunit Vaccine Enhances Disease By Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Jieshi Yu, Chithra Sreenivasan, Tirth Uprety, Rongyuan Gao, Chen Huang, Ella J. Lee, Steven Lawson, Julie Nelson, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Radhey S. Kaushik, Eric Nelson, Diego G. Diel, Ben M. Hause, Feng Li, Dan Wang

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Immunization with an insect cell lysate/baculovirus mixture containing recombinant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) spike protein induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies in both mice and piglets. However, immunization of piglets with this vaccine resulted in enhancement of disease symptoms and virus replication in vaccine recipients exposed to PEDV challenge. Thus, these observations demonstrate a previously unrecognized challenge of PEDV vaccine research, which has important implications for coronavirus vaccine development.


Dirofilaria Immitis Prevalence In Canis Latrans In Kentucky, Melanie Ann Brandon 2021 Murray State University

Dirofilaria Immitis Prevalence In Canis Latrans In Kentucky, Melanie Ann Brandon

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

Dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm) was found in forty-two (42) of the two hundred seventy-five (275) Canis latrans (coyote) necropsied in the state of Kentucky from November 27, 2019 through March 3, 2021. Thirty-five (35) of the positive cases were from western Kentucky region with the other seven spread across the state. With this group of coyotes, one hundred fifty-eight (158) were male and the other one hundred six-teen (116) were female. The estimated age ranged from a pup to senior dogs. A little over forty percent of the dogs were obtained through coyote/predator tournaments; the remaining were acquired from ...


An Assessment Of The Carrier State And A Novel Marker Of Leptospira And Abortion In Central Kentucky Horses, Gloria Louise Gellin 2021 University of Kentucky

An Assessment Of The Carrier State And A Novel Marker Of Leptospira And Abortion In Central Kentucky Horses, Gloria Louise Gellin

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Leptospirosis is a reemerging zoonotic infection of worldwide importance and affects all mammals. The bacterium is transmitted to animals and humans by urine, fetal membranes and body fluids. Leptospira shedding in the urine contaminates both soil and water, exposing both humans and animals to the bacterium. Leptospirosis in horses can cause abortion and is one of the etiologies of equine recurrent uveitis which can lead to blindness. Equine leptospiral abortion in Central Kentucky is primarily caused by serovar Pomona, with occasional cases attributed to serovar Grippotyphosa. There are a few reports in the literature attributing abortion to serovar Bratislava in ...


Effects Of Season And Nutrition On Insulinemic Responses In Insulin Dysregulated Horses, Erica Lyn Macon 2021 University of Kentucky

Effects Of Season And Nutrition On Insulinemic Responses In Insulin Dysregulated Horses, Erica Lyn Macon

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Insulin dysregulation (ID) is the main risk factor for the development of hyperinsulinemia-associated laminitis (HAL). ID in the equid has been extensively researched; however, recommendations for diagnosing and managing ID horses have originated from work completed in other models, such as the ID pony and healthy horse. Therefore, our overall objective was to improve current diagnostic tools and nutritional management strategies by investigating the effect of season, the fed and fasted state on the oral sugar test (OST) and dietary nutrient content on insulinemic responses in the ID horse. To address this, four main objectives with three specific aims were ...


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