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Close Contacts Of Xenograft Recipients: Ethical Considerations Due To Risk Of Xenozoonosis, Daniel J Hurst, Luz Padilla, Daniel Rodger, Tamar Schiff, David K C Cooper 2024 Rowan University

Close Contacts Of Xenograft Recipients: Ethical Considerations Due To Risk Of Xenozoonosis, Daniel J Hurst, Luz Padilla, Daniel Rodger, Tamar Schiff, David K C Cooper

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

With decades of pre-clinical studies culminating in the recent clinical application of xenotransplantation, it would appear timely to provide recommendations for operationalizing oversight of xenotransplantation clinical trials. Ethical issues with clinical xenotransplantation have been described for decades, largely centering on animal welfare, the risks posed to the recipient, and public health risks posed by potential spread of xenozoonosis. Much less attention has been given to considerations relating to potentially elevated risks faced by those who may care for or otherwise have close contact with xenograft recipients. This paper examines the ethical and logistical issues raised by the potential exposure to …


Streptococcus Canis Native Aortic Valve Endocarditis Linked To Cat Exposure: A Case Report And Review, Michael S. Wang, Maria Huaringa, Lauren Feld, Ken Ochiai, Tiffany Whelan, Nicholas M. Frazier 2024 Corewell Health South

Streptococcus Canis Native Aortic Valve Endocarditis Linked To Cat Exposure: A Case Report And Review, Michael S. Wang, Maria Huaringa, Lauren Feld, Ken Ochiai, Tiffany Whelan, Nicholas M. Frazier

Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

Streptococcus canis is an uncommon human pathogen, but documented infections have been mostly associated with exposure to dogs. There are only five documented cases of endocarditis secondary to streptococcus canis, with all cases except one documenting exposure to a canine. We present a 74-year-old male with a history of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, CKD 3, moderate aortic stenosis and remote exposure to agent orange, who was found to have Streptococcus canis native valve endocarditis without exposure to a dog. To the best of our knowledge this case is the first case of endocarditis linked to feline exposure.


Distribution Of Tick Species On Free-Ranging Ungulates In Northern New England, Karisa Graham 2024 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Distribution Of Tick Species On Free-Ranging Ungulates In Northern New England, Karisa Graham

Honors Theses and Capstones

In Northern New England, ungulates are often parasitized by ticks, which is one of the leading causes for the decline in population. Ungulates are a good host for ticks, specifically deer ticks and winter ticks, and these ticks cause many tick-borne diseases in humans as well. The purpose of this study was to assess passive sampling from harvested animals as a means of tick surveillance in Vermont and New Hampshire. Ticks were collected from deer and moose and mapped throughout the two states by ArcGIS to visualize the trends in distribution. Relative abundance was greater in southeastern Vermont, with no …


Impacts Of Environmental Stressors On Native South Dakota Amphibian Physiology And Survival, Danielle Jean Galvin 2023 University of South Dakota

Impacts Of Environmental Stressors On Native South Dakota Amphibian Physiology And Survival, Danielle Jean Galvin

Dissertations and Theses

Amphibian populations around the world are declining, with some of the most likely drivers behind these declines including emerging infectious diseases and environmental contaminants. To address major gaps in the current literature, I sought to evaluate the effect of two major environmental stressors on various aspects of amphibian physiology: emerging infectious diseases and environmental contaminants. Emerging infectious diseases of amphibians include fungal, viral, and parasitic pathogens which have expanded in host range, either geographically or in competent host species. Environmental contaminants include chemicals which may be naturally occurring in the environment, or which may be introduced to the environment, often …


Human-Bat Interactions In A Disease Emergence Hotspot: Implications For Human Health And Bat Conservation, Reilly Tempest Jackson 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Human-Bat Interactions In A Disease Emergence Hotspot: Implications For Human Health And Bat Conservation, Reilly Tempest Jackson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bats are an ecologically important taxon that can host zoonotic pathogens. Globally, many bat species are synanthropic and live closely with humans, often roosting in man-made structures. The spatial overlap between humans and bats creates opportunities for human-bat contact, which can lead to human exposure to bat-borne pathogens and conflicts that cause bat mortality. Despite this risk, little is known about the drivers and characteristics of these human-bat interactions in buildings and work is needed to understand this aspect of the wildlife-urban interface. In Chapter I, I present a literature review that identifies the geographic and taxonomic trends in reported …


Relative Hepatotoxocity, Carcinogenicity, And Toxicogenomics Of Select Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloids In Mice, Michael J. Clayton 2023 Utah State University

Relative Hepatotoxocity, Carcinogenicity, And Toxicogenomics Of Select Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloids In Mice, Michael J. Clayton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids are arguably the most important plant derived toxins in terms of impact on human and animal health. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids are a large group of chemically related compounds found in 3% of flowering plants worldwide. Human exposure occurs from ingestion of herbal products including teas supplements or contaminated grain. Animals are exposed through contaminated feed or grazing. There are at least 350 identified toxic PAs, from more than 6,000 plants. The toxins primarily cause liver damage, but some are proven to cause cancer. Indidvidual dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids vary in their toxic effects. Riddelliine is the only dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid with extensive …


Evaluation Of The Virulence Potential Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolated From Broiler Breeders With Colibacillosis In Mississippi, Jiddu Joseph 2023 Mississippi State University

Evaluation Of The Virulence Potential Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolated From Broiler Breeders With Colibacillosis In Mississippi, Jiddu Joseph

Theses and Dissertations

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a bacterium that is responsible for colibacillosis in birds. However, information about broiler breeder APEC isolates is limited, but the data is critical due to the transfer of this bacteria down the production pyramid to progenies resulting in high mortality. Therefore, we evaluated the phenotypic virulence characteristics of 28 isolates using embryo lethality and day-old chick challenge assays. Also, the in vitro adhesion and invasion potential of selected nine isolates were identified. Results showed more than 1/3rd of the isolates were highly virulent and the virulence increased as the number of virulence-associated genes …


Investigation Of Orthohantavirus Genetics In Rodent Reservoirs And Clinical Samples, Samuel M Goodfellow 2023 Center for Global Health, Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA

Investigation Of Orthohantavirus Genetics In Rodent Reservoirs And Clinical Samples, Samuel M Goodfellow

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Orthohantaviruses are negative-sense, single stranded RNA viruses with trisegmented genomes that can cause severe disease in humans and are carried by several host reservoirs throughout the world. In the United States, Sin Nombre orthohantavirus (SNV) is the primary cause of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) with a fatality rate of ~36% and the highest cases occuring in the southwest region. The primary SNV host reservoir is thought to be the western deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, however it has been shown that other rodents can carry different orthohantaviruses. We designed a pan-orthohantavirus detection tool to survey several small mammal populations throughout New …


Black Bear Population Health Monitoring In The Southeast, Kathleen Elizabeth Riese 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Black Bear Population Health Monitoring In The Southeast, Kathleen Elizabeth Riese

Masters Theses

Recent growth of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) population in the southeast raises concerns about the potential spread of density-dependent diseases among bears, particularly sarcoptic mange. However, research on the health of bears in this area is limited. We analyzed samples from 169 bears in the region. We performed Knotts tests, skin scrapes, fecal floats; Canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV), and Toxoplasma gondii serology, Trypanosoma, Rickettsia rickettsii, and apicomplexan PCR, and identified ecto- and endoparasites found grossly or histologically. We found that 69% (63 of 91) had microfilaria; genetic analysis identified …


Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis: A Systematic Review Of Hla-Dr In Pigeon Breeder’S Disease, Dylan Thibaut, Ryan A. Witcher, Anitha Kunnath, James Toldi 2023 University of Central Florida; Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Bradenton

Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis: A Systematic Review Of Hla-Dr In Pigeon Breeder’S Disease, Dylan Thibaut, Ryan A. Witcher, Anitha Kunnath, James Toldi

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

Abstract

Introduction: Pigeon Breeder’s Pneumonitis (PBP) results due to a complex pathophysiology that includes exposure to avian antigens. Susceptibility has been linked to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II, though consensus has not been reached. The goal of this systematic review is to further elucidate the association between PBP and HLA-DR subtypes.

Methods: Databases utilized included PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library. Inclusion required a minimum of three studies in English presenting HLA-DR alleles of PBP and control subgroups. Exclusion was due to insufficient data or non-feasible control groups. Forest plots were created for HLA-DR subtypes’ association …


Whole Genome Sequencing Of West Nile Viruses From Animals Submitted To The Connecticut Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (Cvmdl), Usa, 2021, Allison Appel 2023 University of Connecticut

Whole Genome Sequencing Of West Nile Viruses From Animals Submitted To The Connecticut Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (Cvmdl), Usa, 2021, Allison Appel

Honors Scholar Theses

West Nile Virus (WNV) causes a zoonotic disease. WNV was first isolated in Uganda in 1937 and has since become an endemic in countries such as North, South, and Central America [1]. According to the Connecticut Department of Public Health, an average of 8 cases of WNV in humans have been reported since the year 2000 [2]. In this study, we focused on the genetic characterization of the viral genomic RNA of WNVs circulating in birds and mammals in the New England region. Following that aim, the complete genome sequence of two WNVs was obtained via next-generation sequencing. One sample …


Evolution And Epidemiology Of Channel Catfish Virus (Ccv), Arun Venugopalan 2023 Mississippi State University

Evolution And Epidemiology Of Channel Catfish Virus (Ccv), Arun Venugopalan

Theses and Dissertations

Channel catfish virus disease (CCVD) is the principal viral disease in the United States catfish industry. The CCVD is caused by channel catfish virus (CCV), with mortality reaching up to 100% in fingerlings. CCV is assigned taxonomically to the family Alloherpesviridae, genus Ictalurivirus, species Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (IcHV-1). To date, virulence, immunogenicity, and genome plasticity of the CCV field isolates have not been investigated. Three genotypes of CCV (IcHV-1A, IcHV-1B, and BCAHV) were identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Virulence assessment of three representative isolates of RFLP groups suggests that IcHV-1B (pooled survival [mean ± SE]: 58.3% ± …


Evaluation Of The Effect Of Enterococcus Cecorum Exposure During Late Embryogenesis On Systemic Disease And Early Performance In Broiler Chickens, Marcela Arango 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Evaluation Of The Effect Of Enterococcus Cecorum Exposure During Late Embryogenesis On Systemic Disease And Early Performance In Broiler Chickens, Marcela Arango

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this thesis was to investigate the effects of Enterococcus cecorum (EC) administration into the amnion at day 18 of embryogenesis on performance and septicemia development in broiler chickens. Chapter I consists of a brief overview of the thesis. Chapter II provides a literature review on EC-related disease in broiler chickens and methods to isolate, detect, and differentiate between commensal and pathogenic strains of EC. Chapter III consists of a study conducted to determine if different EC strains isolated from field cases that exhibited septicemia and high mortality impacted hatchability, livability, organ colonization, and early performance in broiler …


An Ecological Perspective Of American Rodent-Borne Orthohantavirus Surveillance, Nathaniel Mull 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

An Ecological Perspective Of American Rodent-Borne Orthohantavirus Surveillance, Nathaniel Mull

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Orthohantaviruses are a global group of viruses found primarily in rodents, though several viruses have also been found in shrews and moles. Many rodent-borne orthohantaviruses are capable of causing one of several diseases in humans, and the mortality associated with these diseases ranges from < 0.1% - 50% depending on the specific etiological virus. In North and South America, orthohantavirus research was ignited by an outbreak of severe disease in the Four Corners region of the United States in 1993. However, despite the discovery of over 20 orthohantaviruses in the Americas, our understanding of orthohantavirus ecology and virus-host dynamics in this region is still limited, and orthohantavirus surveillance is generally restricted in scope to select regions and small portions of host distributional ranges. In Chapter I, I present a literature review on the current understanding of American rodent-borne orthohantavirus ecology. This review focused on under-studied orthohantaviruses, addressing gaps in knowledge by extrapolating information from well-studied orthohantaviruses, general rodent ecology, and occassionally from Eurasian orthohantavirus-host ecology. There were several key conclusions generated from this review that warrant further research: 1) the large number of putative orthohantaviruses and gaps in orthohantavirus evolution necessitate further surveillance and characterization, 2) orthohantavirus traits differ and are more generalizable based on host taxonomy rather than geography, and 3) orthohantavirus host species are disproportionately found in grasslands and disturbed habitats. In Chapter II, I present a prioritized list of rodent species to target for orthohantavirus surveillance based on predictive modeling using machine learning. Probable orthohantavirus hosts were predicted based on traits of known orthohantavirus hosts using two different types of evidence: RT-PCR and virus isolation. Predicted host distributions were also mapped to identify geographic hotspots to spatially guide future surveillance efforts. In Chapter III, I present a framework for understanding and predicting orthohantavirus traits based on reservoir host phylogeny, as opposed to the traditional geographic dichotomy used to group orthohantaviruses. This framework establishes three distinct orthohantavirus groups: murid-borne orthohantaviruses, arvicoline-borne orthohantaviruses, and non-arvicoline cricetid-borne orthohantaviruses, which differ in several key traits, including the human disease they cause, transmission routes, and virus-host fidelity. In Chapter IV, I compare rodent communities and orthohantavirus prevalence among grassland management regimes. Sites that were periodically burned had high rodent diversity and a high proportion of grassland species. However, rodent seroprevalence for orthohantavirus was also highest in burned sites, representing a trade-off in habitat management outcomes. The high seroprevalence in burned sites is likely due to the robust populations supported by the high quality habitat resulting from prescribed burning. In Chapters V and VI, I describe Ozark virus and Sager Creek virus, two novel orthohantaviruses discovered from specimens collected during Chapter IV. Both chapters report full genome sequences of the respective viruses and compare both nucleotide and protein phylogenies with related orthohantaviruses. Additionally in Chapter VI, I support the genetic analyses with molecular and ecological characterizations, including seasonal fluctuations in host abundance, correlates of prevalence, evidence of virus shedding, and information on host cell susceptibility to Sager Creek virus.


Leptospira Seroprevalence In Companion Animals In Tennessee, Kellie Anne McCreight 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Leptospira Seroprevalence In Companion Animals In Tennessee, Kellie Anne Mccreight

Masters Theses

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in humans and animals. The bacteria Leptospira spp. causing this disease is maintained in the kidneys of animals such as rodents and cattle as well as in the environment. Animals harboring Leptospira spp. in the kidneys frequently shed the bacteria in their urine, contaminating the environment. Contact with contaminated soil and water may result in infection. Animals and humans may develop serious life threatening disease from Leptospira infection. Approximately 1 million new human cases and over 50,000 deaths are reported worldwide. Numerous animal species including rodents, cattle, and dogs may serve as reservoir …


Effect Of Temperature On The Microbiome Of A Laboratory Reared Colony Of Haemaphysalis Longicornis Ticks, Brianna Mitchell 2023 University of South Alabama

Effect Of Temperature On The Microbiome Of A Laboratory Reared Colony Of Haemaphysalis Longicornis Ticks, Brianna Mitchell

Poster Presentations

Honors research poster.

Haemaphysalis longicornis is a species of tick native to eastern Asia, including eastern China, Japan, eastern Russia, and Korea. To date, it has invaded and has now established its existence in Australia, New Zealand, and several of the Pacific Islands. This species of tick has recently been introduced to the United States, having a confirmed sighting in November 2017 on a sheep farm in New Jersey and since establishing populations in 18 states along the east coast and Appalachia. Based on the existing locations of H. longicornis in its native regions, as well as in the United …


Lassa Fever: From A Nigerian Town To A Global Threat, Ranya Almasaoudy, Joshelin G. Lopez, Juliana A. Rounds, margarita Avlarado 2023 Concordia College - Selma

Lassa Fever: From A Nigerian Town To A Global Threat, Ranya Almasaoudy, Joshelin G. Lopez, Juliana A. Rounds, Margarita Avlarado

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Lassa fever is associated with high morbidity and mortality rate. This is due to the primary host of Lassa virus being a rodent of the genus Mastomy’s, also referred to as ‘multimammate rat’. Once infected, Mastomy’s rats do not become ill but can shed the virus in their urine and feces. Thus, there has been a call for educational interventions to improve the knowledge of Lassa fever among community members. It is important to point out that health workers have a prominent role to play in realizing this. In conclusion, Lassa Fever hasn't been a main global threat in the …


Switch-Like Behavior Of Lysosomes And Vcp Supports Spermatocyte Health And Development In Drosophila, Tyler James Butsch 2023 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Switch-Like Behavior Of Lysosomes And Vcp Supports Spermatocyte Health And Development In Drosophila, Tyler James Butsch

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Changes to societal norms, such as the educational, marital, and child-bearing expectations have coincided with significant increases in infertility worldwide. Surprisingly, male infertility is responsible for approximately half of all infertility cases worldwide. Thus, a better understanding of sperm development, and how it is affected by age, may permit the design and application of therapeutics to treat various cases male infertility. Here, I have found that lysosomes acidify as germ cells enter the spermatocyte stage. Once active, lysosomes turn over E-cadherin, and likely other proteins, to support plasma membrane stability. Notably, aging negatively impacts lysosome acidification, which can be reversed …


Impacts Of Habitat, Resource Addition, And Predator Exclusion On Rodent Community Structure And Hantaviruses In The Neotropics, Briana Spruill-Harrell 2023 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Impacts Of Habitat, Resource Addition, And Predator Exclusion On Rodent Community Structure And Hantaviruses In The Neotropics, Briana Spruill-Harrell

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Understanding how climate and human land use change impacts trophic interactions is essential in the face of ongoing biodiversity loss and the continued emergence of RNA viruses and zoonosis. Human land use changes such as agricultural expansion, deforestation, and habitat degradation all have been linked to zoonotic disease emergence. Despite these commonalities, our mechanistic understanding of what drives them is lacking. Moreover, genomic surveillance in wildlife populations is critical for risk assessment and mitigation. Herein, using data collected from field studies within the Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú (RNBM), a protected area of the Interior Atlantic Forest (IAF), I examined …


Circulating Plasma Exosomal Proteins Of Either Shiv-Infected Rhesus Macaque Or Hiv-Infected Patient Indicates A Link To Neuropathogenesis, Partha K. Chandra, Stephen E. Braun, Sudipa Maity, Jorge A. Castorena-Gonzalez, Hogyoung Kim, Jeffrey G. Shaffer, Sinisa Cikic, Ibolya Rutkai, Jia Fan, Jessie J. Guidry, David K. Worthylake, Chenzhong Li, Asim B. Abdel-Mageed, David W. Busija 2023 Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA

Circulating Plasma Exosomal Proteins Of Either Shiv-Infected Rhesus Macaque Or Hiv-Infected Patient Indicates A Link To Neuropathogenesis, Partha K. Chandra, Stephen E. Braun, Sudipa Maity, Jorge A. Castorena-Gonzalez, Hogyoung Kim, Jeffrey G. Shaffer, Sinisa Cikic, Ibolya Rutkai, Jia Fan, Jessie J. Guidry, David K. Worthylake, Chenzhong Li, Asim B. Abdel-Mageed, David W. Busija

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Despite the suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), 50–60% of HIV-infected patients suffer from HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Studies are uncovering the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs), especially exosomes, in the central nervous system (CNS) due to HIV infection. We investigated links among circulating plasma exosomal (crExo) proteins and neuropathogenesis in simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected rhesus macaques (RM) and HIV-infected and cART treated patients (Patient-Exo). Isolated EVs from SHIV-infected (SHIV-Exo) and uninfected (CTL-Exo) RM were predominantly exosomes (particle size < 150 nm). Proteomic analysis quantified 5654 proteins, of which 236 proteins (~4%) were significantly, differentially expressed (DE) between SHIV-/CTL-Exo. Interestingly, different CNS cell specific markers were abundantly expressed in crExo. Proteins involved in latent viral reactivation, neuroinflammation, neuropathology-associated interactive as well as signaling molecules were expressed at significantly higher levels in SHIV-Exo than CTL-Exo. However, proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, ATP production, autophagy, endocytosis, exocytosis, and cytoskeleton organization were significantly less expressed in SHIV-Exo than CTL-Exo. Interestingly, proteins involved in oxidative stress, mitochondrial biogenesis, ATP production, and autophagy were significantly downregulated in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells exposed with HIV+/cART+ Patient-Exo. We showed that Patient-Exo significantly increased blood–brain barrier permeability, possibly due to loss of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 protein and actin cytoskeleton structure. Our novel findings suggest that circulating exosomal proteins expressed CNS cell markers—possibly associated with viral reactivation and neuropathogenesis—that may elucidate the etiology of HAND.


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