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Full-Text Articles in Demography, Population, and Ecology

Recent Changes In Us Mortality: Continued Deterioration Relative To Peers, Yana Vierboom, Samuel Preston Sep 2017

Recent Changes In Us Mortality: Continued Deterioration Relative To Peers, Yana Vierboom, Samuel Preston

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Several recent studies have documented a slowdown in rates of improvement in mortality in the United States (Case and Deaton 2017; Crimmins et al. 2011; Institute of Medicine and National Research Council 2013; Kochanek et al. 2016; Squires and Blumenthal 2016). Middle-aged white women have actually experienced rising mortality over much of the past several decades (Astone et al. 2015; Case and Deaton 2015; Kochanek 2016). The relatively slow declines in US mortality occur against a background in which US mortality was already high by standards of other OECD countries (Crimmins et al. 2011; Institute of Medicine and National Research ...


Walking As Ontological Shifter: Thoughts In The Key Of Life, Bibi (Silvina) Calderaro Sep 2017

Walking As Ontological Shifter: Thoughts In The Key Of Life, Bibi (Silvina) Calderaro

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

With walking as ontological shifter I pursue an alternative to the dominant modernist episteme that offers either/or onto-epistemologies of opposition and their reifying engagements. I propose this type of walking is an intentional turning towards a set of radical positions that, as integrative aesthetic and therapeutic practice, brings multiplicity and synchronicity to experience and being in an expanded sociality. This practice facilitates the conditions of possibility for recurring points of contact between the interiority perceived as ‘body’ and the exteriority perceived as ‘world.’ While making evident the self’s at once incoherence with it-self, it opens to a space ...


The Retention Of International Students To Their Place Of Study Upon Permanent Resident Status, Sonia P. Nguyen Aug 2017

The Retention Of International Students To Their Place Of Study Upon Permanent Resident Status, Sonia P. Nguyen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

International students have become an increasingly important source of permanent migration in meeting regionalization policy goals. However, little is known about their retention to their place of study after they transition to permanent resident status. Using data from the Longitudinal Immigrant Database (IMDB), this study examines how elements of international students’ pre-landed experience in Canada are related to their retention when they later become permanent residents in Canada. Results show that length of study and region of study are positively associated with the likelihood of international students landing in their place of study. Conversely, higher Canadian educational attainment and Canadian ...


Developmental Idealism: The Cultural Foundations Of World Development Programs, Arland Thornton, Shawn F. Dorius, Jeffrey Swindle Aug 2017

Developmental Idealism: The Cultural Foundations Of World Development Programs, Arland Thornton, Shawn F. Dorius, Jeffrey Swindle

Shawn Dorius

This paper extends theory and research concerning cultural models of development beyond family and demographic matters to a broad range of additional factors, including government, education, human rights, daily social conventions, and religion. Developmental idealism is a cultural model—a set of beliefs and values—that identifies the appropriate goals of development and the ends for achieving these goals. It includes beliefs about positive cause-and-effect relationships among such factors as economic growth, educational achievement, health, and political governance, as well as strong values regarding many attributes, including economic growth, education, small families, gender equality, and democratic governance. This cultural model ...


Twentieth Century Intercohort Trends In Verbal Ability In The United States, Shawn F. Dorius, Duane F. Alwin, Julianna Pachedo Aug 2017

Twentieth Century Intercohort Trends In Verbal Ability In The United States, Shawn F. Dorius, Duane F. Alwin, Julianna Pachedo

Shawn Dorius

Vocabulary test score trends from the General Social Survey contradict the widespread conclusion that scores on standardized intelligence tests have systematically increased over the past century. We use a vocabulary test included in 20 nationally representative surveys administered since 1974 to test three hypotheses proposed to account for these trends, including changes in the formal measurement properties of the test, over-time changes in the meaning of education, and intercohort differences in exposure to words on the test. We find no support for the idea that test scores have declined because of changes in the structure of the test. Instead, our ...


Swedish Social Welfare And Its Application To American Welfare Systems, Ben Wilson Galloway Aug 2017

Swedish Social Welfare And Its Application To American Welfare Systems, Ben Wilson Galloway

Theses and Dissertations

Swedish Social Welfare and its Application to American Welfare Systems concerns itself with the issue of determining the origins of the modern Swedish social welfare system. Additionally, the causes behind the formation of the system are evaluated for their relevancy concerning the formation of the American welfare system. Multiple areas of study are considered, including racial impacts, economic factors, sociological impactors, and demographic variables.


Introduction To The Special Issue: Reconciling Research: Perspectives On Research Involving Indigenous Peoples, Susan Wingert, Jerry P. White Jul 2017

Introduction To The Special Issue: Reconciling Research: Perspectives On Research Involving Indigenous Peoples, Susan Wingert, Jerry P. White

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

IIPJ is pleased to publish a two part special issue (Volume 8, Issue 2 & Volume 8, Issue 4 [forthcoming]), entitled Reconciling Research: Perspectives on Research Involving Indigenous Peoples, that focuses on issues, debates, and best practices in research with Indigenous Peoples.


Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Cambridge, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos Jul 2017

Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Cambridge, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos

Gastón Institute Publications

This report provides a descriptive snapshot of selected economic, social, educational, and demographic indicators pertaining to Latinos in Cambridge. It reflects a commitment by UMass Boston’s Mauricio Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy to provide periodic updates on the growing Latino population in Massachusetts.

The report on Cambridge is part of a larger series that covers cities and towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts with a significant number of Latinos. Each report analyzes data from the American Community Survey (ACS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. We obtained the data from the American Factfinder website ...


Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Chicopee, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos Jul 2017

Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Chicopee, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos

Gastón Institute Publications

This report provides a descriptive snapshot of selected economic, social, educational, and demographic indicators pertaining to Latinos in Chicopee. It reflects a commitment by UMass Boston’s Mauricio Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy to provide periodic updates on the growing Latino population in Massachusetts.

The report on Chicopee is part of a larger series that covers cities and towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts with a significant number of Latinos. Each report analyzes data from the American Community Survey (ACS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. We obtained the data from the American Factfinder website ...


Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Fitchburg, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos Jul 2017

Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Fitchburg, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos

Gastón Institute Publications

This report provides a descriptive snapshot of selected economic, social, educational, and demographic indicators pertaining to Latinos in Fitchburg. It reflects a commitment by UMass Boston’s Mauricio Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy to provide periodic updates on the growing Latino population in Massachusetts.

The report on Fitchburg is part of a larger series that covers cities and towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts with a significant number of Latinos. Each report analyzes data from the American Community Survey (ACS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. We obtained the data from the American Factfinder website ...


Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Haverhill, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos Jul 2017

Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Haverhill, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos

Gastón Institute Publications

This report provides a descriptive snapshot of selected economic, social, educational, and demographic indicators pertaining to Latinos in Haverhill. It reflects a commitment by UMass Boston’s Mauricio Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy to provide periodic updates on the growing Latino population in Massachusetts.

The report on Haverhill is part of a larger series that covers cities and towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts with a significant number of Latinos. Each report analyzes data from the American Community Survey (ACS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. We obtained the data from the American Factfinder website ...


Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Holyoke, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos Jul 2017

Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Holyoke, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos

Gastón Institute Publications

This report provides a descriptive snapshot of selected economic, social, educational, and demographic indicators pertaining to Latinos in Holyoke. It reflects a commitment by UMass Boston’s Mauricio Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy to provide periodic updates on the growing Latino population in Massachusetts.

The report on Holyoke is part of a larger series that covers cities and towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts with a significant number of Latinos. Each report analyzes data from the American Community Survey (ACS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. We obtained the data from the American Factfinder website ...


Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Lawrence, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos Jul 2017

Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Lawrence, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos

Gastón Institute Publications

This report provides a descriptive snapshot of selected economic, social, educational, and demographic indicators pertaining to Latinos in Lawrence. It reflects a commitment by UMass Boston’s Mauricio Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy to provide periodic updates on the growing Latino population in Massachusetts.

The report on Lawrence is part of a larger series that covers cities and towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts with a significant number of Latinos. Each report analyzes data from the American Community Survey (ACS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. We obtained the data from the American Factfinder website ...


Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Leominster, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos Jul 2017

Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Leominster, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos

Gastón Institute Publications

This report provides a descriptive snapshot of selected economic, social, educational, and demographic indicators pertaining to Latinos in Leominster. It reflects a commitment by UMass Boston’s Mauricio Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy to provide periodic updates on the growing Latino population in Massachusetts.

The report on Leominster is part of a larger series that covers cities and towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts with a significant number of Latinos. Each report analyzes data from the American Community Survey (ACS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. We obtained the data from the American Factfinder website ...


Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Lowell, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos Jul 2017

Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Lowell, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos

Gastón Institute Publications

This report provides a descriptive snapshot of selected economic, social, educational, and demographic indicators pertaining to Latinos in Lowell. It reflects a commitment by UMass Boston’s Mauricio Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy to provide periodic updates on the growing Latino population in Massachusetts.

The report on Lowell is part of a larger series that covers cities and towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts with a significant number of Latinos. Each report analyzes data from the American Community Survey (ACS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. We obtained the data from the American Factfinder website ...


Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Southbridge, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos Jul 2017

Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Southbridge, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos

Gastón Institute Publications

This report provides a descriptive snapshot of selected economic, social, educational, and demographic indicators pertaining to Latinos in Southbridge. It reflects a commitment by UMass Boston’s Mauricio Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy to provide periodic updates on the growing Latino population in Massachusetts.

The report on Southbridge is part of a larger series that covers cities and towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts with a significant number of Latinos. Each report analyzes data from the American Community Survey (ACS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. We obtained the data from the American Factfinder website ...


Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Springfield, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos Jul 2017

Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Springfield, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos

Gastón Institute Publications

This report provides a descriptive snapshot of selected economic, social, educational, and demographic indicators pertaining to Latinos in Springfield. It reflects a commitment by UMass Boston’s Mauricio Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy to provide periodic updates on the growing Latino population in Massachusetts.

The report on Springfield is part of a larger series that covers other cities in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. This report analyzes Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) data from the 2015 American Community Survey (ACS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. Data are analyzed by Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA), which ...


Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Worcester, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos Jul 2017

Latinos In Massachusetts Selected Areas: Worcester, Phillip Granberry, Trevor Mattos

Gastón Institute Publications

This report provides a descriptive snapshot of selected economic, social, educational, and demographic indicators pertaining to Latinos in Worcester. It reflects a commitment by UMass Boston’s Mauricio Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy to provide periodic updates on the growing Latino population in Massachusetts.

The report on Worcester is part of a larger series that covers other cities in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. This report analyzes Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) data from the 2015 American Community Survey (ACS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. Data are analyzed by Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA), which ...


Up, Down And Reciprocal: The Dynamics Of Intergenerational Transfers, Family Structure And Health In A Low-Income Context, Collin F. Payne, Luca Maria Pesando, Hans-Peter Kohler Jun 2017

Up, Down And Reciprocal: The Dynamics Of Intergenerational Transfers, Family Structure And Health In A Low-Income Context, Collin F. Payne, Luca Maria Pesando, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

In the absence of well-functioning public transfer systems and safety nets, the family acts as the key provider of income and support through the intergenerational redistribution of resources. In this paper we use micro-level longitudinal data and a mix of methodologies to document the lifecycle patterns of financial transfers in a rural, sub-Saharan African population. Underneath a well-established age-pattern of intergenerational transfers in which transfer patterns change according to broad stages of the economic life cycle, our analyses document significant heterogeneity and fluidity: Intergenerational transfers are variable and reverse their direction, with individuals moving between the provider and recipient states ...


The Contribution Of Differences In Adiposity To Educational Disparities In Mortality In The United States, Yana Vierboom Jun 2017

The Contribution Of Differences In Adiposity To Educational Disparities In Mortality In The United States, Yana Vierboom

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Background: There are large differences in life expectancy by educational attainment in the United States. Previous research has found obesity’s contribution to these differences to be small. Those findings may be sensitive to how obesity is estimated. Methods: This analysis uses discrete time logistic regressions with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), pooled from 1988-1994 and 1999-2010, to estimate the contribution of differences in adiposity, or body fat, to educational differences in mortality. I show that results depend upon the measure of adiposity used: body mass index (BMI) at survey or lifetime maximum BMI. Results ...


Race, Partisan Gerrymandering And The Constitution, John M. Greabe Jun 2017

Race, Partisan Gerrymandering And The Constitution, John M. Greabe

Legal Scholarship

[Excerpt] “For the most part, the Constitution speaks in generalities. The 14th Amendment, for example, instructs the states to provide all persons the "equal protection of the laws." But obviously, this cannot mean that states are always forbidden from treating a person differently than any other person. Children can, of course, be constitutionally barred from driving, notwithstanding the Equal Protection Clause. Thus, there is a need within our constitutional system to refine the Constitution's abstract provisions.”


Summary Of 2000‐2007 Population Changes In Iowa’S Cities, David Swenson, Liesl Eathington Jun 2017

Summary Of 2000‐2007 Population Changes In Iowa’S Cities, David Swenson, Liesl Eathington

David Swenson

Between 2000 and 2007, 727 or 75 percent of the state’s cities posted net population declines. From 2006 to 2007, city populations grew by 14,800 persons, and that growth was shared by 374 communities.


Prevalence Of Disability: Individual And Household Context, Christiane Von Reichert, University Of Montana Rural Institute Jun 2017

Prevalence Of Disability: Individual And Household Context, Christiane Von Reichert, University Of Montana Rural Institute

Independent Living and Community Participation

The American Community Survey (ACS) is a widely used source of disability data. These data put individual disability rates in the US at 12% -13%, or 1 in 8. However, by considering the household context, the impact of disability is considerably greater than disability data for individuals would suggest. At the household level, disability affects approximately 78 million people, or 25% of the U.S. population. This analysis shows that millions of Americans without disabilities are influenced by household member with disabilities, highlighting that the impact of disability at the household level goes beyond the number of individuals with disabilities.


Aging In Reading, Massachusetts: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler Jun 2017

Aging In Reading, Massachusetts: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes collaborative efforts undertaken by the Town of Reading’s Elder and Human Services Division and the Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging, within the Gerontology Institute at the McCormack Graduate School, University of Massachusetts Boston. During Spring 2017, these organizations partnered to conduct a study to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of the Town’s older resident population, with respect to living and aging in Reading.


Social Isolation And Loneliness In Older People: A Closer Look At Definitions, Mary Lou Ciolfi, Frances Jimenez Jun 2017

Social Isolation And Loneliness In Older People: A Closer Look At Definitions, Mary Lou Ciolfi, Frances Jimenez

Disability and Aging

Social isolation and loneliness are related and the terms are often used interchangeably, but they are distinct concepts with different definitions, health impacts, and interventions. Our population is aging and older people are at increased risk for both social isolation and loneliness and the associated negative health consequences. Understanding the important differences between social isolation and loneliness will help us recognize them earlier in vulnerable populations, engage in more meaningful conversations with older adults about their own risks, and will inform the development and delivery of more individualized, meaningful, and cost-effective interventions.


Bridges Out Of Poverty As An Anti-Poverty Strategy In Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, Katlyn M. Uhler May 2017

Bridges Out Of Poverty As An Anti-Poverty Strategy In Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, Katlyn M. Uhler

Capstone Collection

This paper explores the initial results of the Bridges Out of Poverty (“Bridges”) community framework as implemented by the organization Kennett Area Community Service in Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. The aim of this research is to provide perspective on Bridges Out of Poverty’s contribution to the understanding of poverty in the United States and its potential as an antipoverty intervention. It does so first through an exploration of the historical and current discussion on poverty and anti-poverty interventions in the United States, followed by research on the Bridges model itself and its implementation in Kennett Square. This latter research includes ...


An Analysis Of Ohio School Districts, Ernest M. Oleksy May 2017

An Analysis Of Ohio School Districts, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

Money has recently been posited to be a panacea for education: the more a district spends on its students, the better their results will be. However, actuarial analysis of school districts shows that this ideology is muddled in inconsistency. To determine the effect of money on education, the Ohio Report Cards of four school districts were observed. Upon inspection, explanations for the evident correlations are made to discover that money does not have an additive effect on academic success.


Divine Intervention: Designed For Social Evolution By Integrating Natural Order, Anatoshia L. Wyatt May 2017

Divine Intervention: Designed For Social Evolution By Integrating Natural Order, Anatoshia L. Wyatt

Bachelor of Architecture Theses - 5th Year

There is a long tradition in architecture of using ordering systems found in nature and science to create built space. This thesis builds upon such line of thought to propose new design methods based on ordering systems with a particular focus on social relations. It focuses on the design of a community center in the city of Atlanta which is considered as a catalyst for jumpstarting the betterment of society through improvement of social bonds, community involvement, activism, meditation, and the integration of nature in the community. The design is situated on the Bellwood Quarry site and creates an ecological ...


A Guide For Assessing Older Adults’ Needs On Maine Islands, Beatrice Byrne May 2017

A Guide For Assessing Older Adults’ Needs On Maine Islands, Beatrice Byrne

Muskie School Capstones

This template may help Maine island communities identify older adults’ needs and island resources, in order to allow older adults to age in the island communities.

Three interviews with island health leaders, one community conversation with older islanders, and one pilot test provided information about what to include in the template.

The template includes a demographic survey, guides for conducting semi-structured interviews and group conversations with older adults and caregivers, a guide and worksheet for analyzing the data, a guide for assessing community resources, a guide for dissemination, and a list of additional resources.


Reconstruction Of The Destroyed Sinjali Secondary School, Isabella Kaganowski May 2017

Reconstruction Of The Destroyed Sinjali Secondary School, Isabella Kaganowski

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

This practitioner paper chronicles my involvement of the grant writing proposal that was designed on behalf of a non-for-profit organization, the Association of Dalit Women’s Advancement of Nepal (ADWAN), in order to secure funding and donations for the reconstruction of the destroyed Sinjali Secondary School in Gorkha district, Taklung village, after a 2015 earthquake struck Nepal. The proposal was guided by and collaborated with Professor Jude Fernando of Clark University, as Professor Fernando was able to visit Taklung village and gather information about the needs in the educational sector damaged by the earthquake. Literature review and research was gathered ...