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Full-Text Articles in Demography, Population, and Ecology

Book Review: Surrogacy: A Human Rights Violation By Renate Klein, Sheela Saravanan May 2018

Book Review: Surrogacy: A Human Rights Violation By Renate Klein, Sheela Saravanan

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Disentangling The Roles Of Modernization And Secularization On Fertility: The Case Of Turkey, Dogan Hatun May 2018

Disentangling The Roles Of Modernization And Secularization On Fertility: The Case Of Turkey, Dogan Hatun

Sociology Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

Second Demographic Transition (SDT) theory argues very low fertility results from the simultaneous processes of modernization and secularization. However, this theory has primarily only been examined in the Christian countries of Northern and Western Europe. The assumption that modernization and secularization are co-occurring processes may not apply in other non-European, non-Christian contexts. Notably absent are studies of Muslim-majority nations, where modernization has occurred separate from secularization because the primary interpretation of Islam views the pursuit of secular knowledge is as important as the pursuit of religious knowledge. Therefore, there is a critical need to examine the applicability of the SDT ...


Interethnic Marriages In The United States: An In-Depth Look At Marital Challenges, Spring C. Miles May 2018

Interethnic Marriages In The United States: An In-Depth Look At Marital Challenges, Spring C. Miles

Senior Theses

As ethnic diversity increases in the United States, interethnic marriages are becoming increasingly prevalent. Despite their increasing rates, interethnic unions experience lower levels of relationship quality and are at a higher risk of divorce than same-ethnic unions. Other factors that influence marital outcomes include age at marriage, education, religion, and parental divorce. However, factors that influence specifically interethnic marriages include internal stressors, such as conflicting values and relationship expectations, and external stressors, such as a lack of social support and/or legal barriers. The best theoretical framework for studying interethnic unions is interdependence theory because it analyzes these factors and ...


Merging Subsistence Perspective And Buen Vivir: An Alternative To Damming The Mekong, Aaron B. Eisenberg May 2018

Merging Subsistence Perspective And Buen Vivir: An Alternative To Damming The Mekong, Aaron B. Eisenberg

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This paper will examine the planned development on the Mekong by looking at the historical, political, and economic reasons why largescale hydroelectric dams are now being pushed upon the river. It will then critique the international state sovereignty system focusing directly on the Mekong River Commission and ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) for their inabilities to mitigate environmental impact while pursuing development. I analyze how the “global city” discourse cannot rationally be applied to Southeast Asia and how the urban-rural divide in Southeast Asia creates only greater problems as dam production on the Mekong accelerates. I propose an alternative ...


The Cross-Racial Establishment Of Trust Between Transplant Community Organizations And Englewood Residents, Diamond Thompson Apr 2018

The Cross-Racial Establishment Of Trust Between Transplant Community Organizations And Englewood Residents, Diamond Thompson

Senior Theses

Current research lacks holistic understanding of African American trust, and why it differs from the trust of other ethnic/ racial groups. In order to better understand why this is, I will explore how African Americans in underserved and impoverished neighborhoods determine which organizations and institutions to trust. My study finds that the cause of erosion of trust within Englewood may be linked to minimal fiduciary trust between residents and city officials and administration. Further, my study finds that the race of an individual was not significant in determining whether Englewood residents trusted them.


Intergenerational Effects Of Maternal Exposure To Drought In Utero On Newborn Size: Evidence From A Retrospective Cohort Study In Malawi, Thokozani Hanjahanja-Phiri Apr 2018

Intergenerational Effects Of Maternal Exposure To Drought In Utero On Newborn Size: Evidence From A Retrospective Cohort Study In Malawi, Thokozani Hanjahanja-Phiri

Grand Challenges Canada Economic Returns to Mitigating Early Life Risks Project Working Paper Series

Aims: First, the study first assessed the impact of maternal exposure to drought in utero on newborn size. Second, the study assessed the effect of prenatal supplementation in offsetting the negative intergenerational effects of maternal exposure to drought in utero on newborn size. Methods: The present study took advantage of a natural experiment from three droughts (1981/82, 1987/88, and 1992/93) of varying severity in rural Malawi to derive maternal exposure to drought in utero based on maternal date of birth. Other data for outcomes and control variables were sourced from the iLiNS-DYAD-M randomized clinical trial. Results: Among ...


The Predictors Of Juvenile Recidivism: Testimonies Of Adult Students 18 Years And Older Exiting From Alternative Education, La Toshia Palmer Apr 2018

The Predictors Of Juvenile Recidivism: Testimonies Of Adult Students 18 Years And Older Exiting From Alternative Education, La Toshia Palmer

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to identify and describe the importance of the predictors of juvenile recidivism and the effectiveness of efforts to prevent/avoid juvenile recidivism as perceived by previously detained, arrested, convicted, and/or incarcerated adult students 18 years of age and older exiting from alternative education in Northern California. A second purpose was to explore the types of support provided by alternative schools and the perceived importance of the support to avoid recidivism according to adult students 18 years of age and older exiting from alternative education.

Methodology: This qualitative, descriptive research design ...


Using Ego Network Data To Inform Agent-Based Models Of Diffusion, Jeffrey A. Smith, Jessica Burow Apr 2018

Using Ego Network Data To Inform Agent-Based Models Of Diffusion, Jeffrey A. Smith, Jessica Burow

Sociology Department, Faculty Publications

Agent-based modeling holds great potential as an analytical tool. Agent-based models (ABMs) are, however, also vulnerable to critique, as they often employ stylized social worlds, with little connection to the actual environment in question. Given these concerns, there has been a recent call to more fully incorporate empirical data into ABMs. This article falls in this tradition, exploring the benefits of using sampled ego network data in ABMs of cultural diffusion. Thus, instead of relying on full network data, which can be difficult and costly to collect, or no empirical network data, which is convenient but not empirically grounded, we ...


Household Determinants Of Teen Marriage And Childbearing: Sister Effects Across Four Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Luca Maria Pesando, Alejandra Abufhele Mar 2018

Household Determinants Of Teen Marriage And Childbearing: Sister Effects Across Four Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Luca Maria Pesando, Alejandra Abufhele

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Using data from the “Young Lives” study of childhood poverty tracking a cohort of children from the ages of 8 to 19, this paper aims to investigate the household determinants of teen marriage and teen pregnancy in four low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), namely Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam. Its contribution is twofold. First, we offer a descriptive and comparative overview of the prevalence of teen marriage and childbearing in geographically selected areas across the four countries of interest, together with their socio-demographic determinants. Second, we place a specific focus on the role of gender and sibling sex-composition in shaping ...


Stephen Hawking As Accidental Ambassador For Assistive Technologies, Martin E. Blair Mar 2018

Stephen Hawking As Accidental Ambassador For Assistive Technologies, Martin E. Blair

Independent Living and Community Participation

An article about Stephen Hawking and his "role as a “spokesmodel” for the use of assistive technologies."

Note that the video embedded in the original article can be found on YouTube.


Embracing The Transitioning Workforce Into The Civilian Work Force, Eric Pethtel Mar 2018

Embracing The Transitioning Workforce Into The Civilian Work Force, Eric Pethtel

Purdue Road School

The City of Fishers created a program (RISE: Reentry Initiative through Structured Employment) to recruit motivated employees into public works positions and aid rehabilitation of citizens who are faced with finding meaningful employment after paying their debt to society. After completing a training regimen developed by the city, they’re offered an opportunity to apply for full-time employment. Join us to learn about this innovative program.


02_香港人口的組成與流動, Chi Pang Lau Feb 2018

02_香港人口的組成與流動, Chi Pang Lau

Prof. LAU Chi-pang

No abstract provided.


Global Family Change: Persistent Diversity With Development, Luca Maria Pesando, Andrés F. Castro, Liliana Andriano, Julia A. Behrman, Francesco Billari, Christiaan Monden, Frank Furstenberg, Hans-Peter Kohler Feb 2018

Global Family Change: Persistent Diversity With Development, Luca Maria Pesando, Andrés F. Castro, Liliana Andriano, Julia A. Behrman, Francesco Billari, Christiaan Monden, Frank Furstenberg, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

This paper provides a broad empirical overview of the relationship between family change and socio-economic development drawing on 30+ years of Demographic and Health Survey data from 3.5 million respondents across 84 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conduct two sets of analyses. First, we document global and regional-level associations between the Human Development Index (HDI) and novel indicators reflecting multidimensional family change. Second, we use methods from the growth convergence literature to examine whether – and in which domains – there is evidence of cross-country convergence in family indicators over levels of development. We show that families in LMICs have ...


Out-Group Threat Or Inter-Group Contact Theory? Out-Group Attitudes And Interaction In Times Of Diversity Growth, Annette Jacoby Feb 2018

Out-Group Threat Or Inter-Group Contact Theory? Out-Group Attitudes And Interaction In Times Of Diversity Growth, Annette Jacoby

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Much attention has been devoted to the presumed negative effect of diversity growth on various dimensions of attitudes and interaction between different racial and ethnic groups. However, whether the claims hold true is unclear- there is a considerable controversy over the impact of changing diversity on societal behavior. With ongoing migration, the United States are becoming more and more ethnically diverse but a sound debate on racial and ethnic composition and its consequences for inter-group interactions and attitudes towards others has not yet been possible due to a lack of causally-oriented panel studies.

In this study, two important features are ...


Aging On Nantucket: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler Jan 2018

Aging On Nantucket: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes efforts undertaken by the Nantucket Center for Elder Affairs, Inc. (NCEA), in partnership with the Center for Social & Demographic Research on Aging within the Gerontology Institute at the University of Massachusetts Boston. The purpose of these efforts was to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of Nantucket’s older residents. The focus of this report is on the cohort of Nantucket’s residents age 60 and older. The contents of this report are intended to inform NCEA, the Saltmarsh Senior Center, the Council on Aging, the Town of Nantucket, and organizations that provide services to older ...


There's No Place Like Home? Understanding The Relationship Between Racial Residential Segregation And Self-Reported Health, Abigail Gramaglia Jan 2018

There's No Place Like Home? Understanding The Relationship Between Racial Residential Segregation And Self-Reported Health, Abigail Gramaglia

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

How does context influence health? County racial composition and racial residential segregation shape health outcomes by creating different contexts that influence access to health-related resources. White Americans disproportionately possess these material and intangible resources. Therefore, I propose that the higher the percent of non-Hispanic white residents in U.S. counties, and the higher the racial residential segregation in U.S. counties, the lower the percent of adult residents who report poor or fair health in U.S. counties. To explore these hypotheses, I analyze 2014 demographic and survey data from 2946 U.S. counties. Findings provide mixed support for my ...


Do Baby Boomers Want Another Baby Boom?: A Gendered Generational Analysis Of Abortion Attitudes, Dyanna Washington Jan 2018

Do Baby Boomers Want Another Baby Boom?: A Gendered Generational Analysis Of Abortion Attitudes, Dyanna Washington

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Building on research conducted by sociologists on the predictors of abortion attitudes, through a secondary analysis of 2016 General Social Survey (GSS) data, with a total of 1571 respondents, I investigate the relationship between demographic identifiers, specifically age, sex, and religious fundamentalism, and approval rates of legal abortion. Using the age variable in GSS and drawing from Generational Cohort Theory, I isolate the generational cohorts baby boomers and millennials and hypothesize that baby boomers will approve of legal abortion in fewer instances than millennials. Moreover, I create Abortion Attitude Indexes from GSS questions on abortion, which enable me to separate ...


Neighborhood Racial Discrimination And The Development Of Major Depression, Daniel W. Rusell, Frederick D. Clavel, Carolyn Cutrona, William T. Abraham, Rebecca G. Burzette Jan 2018

Neighborhood Racial Discrimination And The Development Of Major Depression, Daniel W. Rusell, Frederick D. Clavel, Carolyn Cutrona, William T. Abraham, Rebecca G. Burzette

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

This study examined the impact of neighborhood racial discrimination on the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) in a sample of African American women. Participants were 499 women from Georgia and Iowa with no history of MDD who were followed for 9 to 11 years. Several neighborhood characteristics (community social disorder, community cohesion, and community racism) and individual characteristics (negative life events, financial strain, personal outlook, religious involvement, relationship quality, negative affectivity, and individual experiences of racism) were employed as predictors of whether or not the women met criteria for MDD during this period of time. In a multilevel logistic ...


Extending The Utility Of Public Use Microdata, Eric Gutherie Jan 2018

Extending The Utility Of Public Use Microdata, Eric Gutherie

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Applied demography employs population studies in the effort to answer real world questions and provide insights for the problems that business and civic leaders face on an ongoing basis. To answer these questions the applied demographer sometimes performs primary research, but more often they attempt to leverage and extend the use of publicly available data to answer the questions presented in an efficient and timeconstrained manner. The work described here looks at a problem presented by the Michigan Department of Education and the solution presented by the Michigan State Demographer. The problem required estimates for a single-year age group at ...


“The Problem With The Haitians Is Their Language”: Language As Color-Blind Racism, Ruthie Wienk Jan 2018

“The Problem With The Haitians Is Their Language”: Language As Color-Blind Racism, Ruthie Wienk

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This project explores the mechanisms of exclusion and oppression of a Haitian population in a rural community in South West Florida. The analytical approach taken is an analysis of the social field and habitus as dispositions and embodied culture. Language has been identified as a tool to marginalize the population in the general social order. Through this process, language operates as a form of color-blind racism which justifies the exclusion of the Haitian community but is insufficient in explaining their overall social outcomes. Qualitative data were collected for this project in the form of unstructured interviews, focus groups, photographs of ...


Census2020now.Org, Jason R. Jurjevich Dec 2017

Census2020now.Org, Jason R. Jurjevich

Jason R. Jurjevich

No abstract provided.


Total Error And Variability Measures With Integrated Disclosure Limitation For Quarterly Workforce Indicators And Lehd Origin Destination Employment Statistics In Onthe Map, Kevin L. Mckinney, Andrew Green, Lars Vilhuber, John Abowd Dec 2017

Total Error And Variability Measures With Integrated Disclosure Limitation For Quarterly Workforce Indicators And Lehd Origin Destination Employment Statistics In Onthe Map, Kevin L. Mckinney, Andrew Green, Lars Vilhuber, John Abowd

Labor Dynamics Institute

We report results from the first comprehensive total quality evaluation of five major indicators in the U.S. Census Bureau's Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) Program Quarterly Workforce Indicators (QWI): total employment, beginning-of-quarter employment, full-quarter employment, total payroll, and average monthly earnings of full-quarter employees. Beginning-of-quarter employment is also the main tabulation variable in the LEHD Origin-Destination Employment Statistics (LODES) workplace reports as displayed in OnTheMap (OTM). The evaluation is conducted by generating multiple threads of the edit and imputation models used in the LEHD Infrastructure File System. These threads conform to the Rubin (1987) multiple imputation model, with each ...


Race, Ethnicity, Income Concentration And 10-Year Change In Urban Greenness In The United States, Joan A. Casey, Peter James, Lara Cushing, William M. Jesdale, Rachel Morello-Frosch Dec 2017

Race, Ethnicity, Income Concentration And 10-Year Change In Urban Greenness In The United States, Joan A. Casey, Peter James, Lara Cushing, William M. Jesdale, Rachel Morello-Frosch

Open Access Articles

Background: Cross-sectional studies suggest urban greenness is unequally distributed by neighborhood demographics. However, the extent to which inequalities in greenness have changed over time remains unknown.

Methods: We estimated 2001 and 2011 greenness using Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) in 59,483 urban census tracts in the contiguous U.S. We fit spatial error models to estimate the association between baseline census tract demographic composition in 2000 and (1) 2001 greenness and (2) change in greenness between 2001 and 2011.

Results: In models adjusted for population density, climatic factors, housing tenure, and Index of Concentration ...


The Impact Of Extended Reproductive Time Horizons: Evidence From Israel's Expansion Of Access To Ivf, Naomi Gershoni, Corinne Low Dec 2017

The Impact Of Extended Reproductive Time Horizons: Evidence From Israel's Expansion Of Access To Ivf, Naomi Gershoni, Corinne Low

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Women’s time-limited fertility window, compared to men’s longer period of fecundity, could be a key constraint shaping the gender gap in career choices and hence outcomes. Israel’s 1994 policy change to make in vitro fertilization free provides a natural experiment for how fertility time horizons impact women’s investment choices. We find that following the policy change women marry later, complete more college education, achieve more post-college education, and have better labor market outcomes. Additionally, we find the “penalty” in spousal quality for women who get married after thirty substantially dissipates. This suggests that persistent labor market ...


Negative Outcomes Of Teen Sexual Activity: Is There A Regional Effect?, Hannah Latta, Said Shahtahmasebi, Hatim A. Omar Dec 2017

Negative Outcomes Of Teen Sexual Activity: Is There A Regional Effect?, Hannah Latta, Said Shahtahmasebi, Hatim A. Omar

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

A recent victory with respect to teen sexual behavior is the reduction of the national teen birth rate. In 1991, there were 61.8 births per 1000 females aged 15-19. By 2014, this rate plummeted to 24.2 births per 1000 adolescent females. Averages, however, do not reflect state-level variation. For example, in 2014, Kentucky reported 35.3 births per 1000 adolescent females, while New York reported a teen birth rates of 16.1 births per 1000 adolescent females. This report asks: are these discrepancies due to regional factors, and are these differences statistically significant? To examine rural and urban ...


Moving Mountains : A Study Examining Long-Term Impacts Of Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining On Mortality In The Appalachian Region Using Geographic Information Sciences Techniques., James Howard Kent Pugh Dec 2017

Moving Mountains : A Study Examining Long-Term Impacts Of Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining On Mortality In The Appalachian Region Using Geographic Information Sciences Techniques., James Howard Kent Pugh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over the last hundred years, the Appalachian region has been dominated by the coal industry. It has also been and currently is one of the unhealthiest regions in the United States. Recent scholarship has examined the relationship between coal mining and health and mortality rates in the Appalachian region. The first study incorporates air quality and pollution data to examine if coal mining counties have higher levels of pollution and if this pollution contributes to mortality disadvantage. In the second study, I construct a population-based coal-exposure measure to better evaluate the relationship between coal mining and health I find that ...


Betting The House: How Assets Influence Marriage Selection, Marital Stability, And Child Investments, Jeanne Lafortune, Corinne Low Nov 2017

Betting The House: How Assets Influence Marriage Selection, Marital Stability, And Child Investments, Jeanne Lafortune, Corinne Low

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Marriage used to be practically universal, but now persists as an institution for only some groups, while others choose non-marital fertility. This paper posits that if one role of marriage is to insure one partner's investment in children, then home-ownership can be seen as providing the necessary "collateral" for this contract. As easier divorce and paternity enforcement outside of marriage have reduced the relative strength of the marital contract, the division of assets, particularly the family home, post-separation has remained unique to marriage. We provide a model where husbands can "ante up" the marital home to elicit more optimal ...


Beyond The “Haves And Have Nots”: Using An Interdisciplinary Approach To Inform Federal Data Collection Efforts With Indigenous Populations, C. Aujean Lee Nov 2017

Beyond The “Haves And Have Nots”: Using An Interdisciplinary Approach To Inform Federal Data Collection Efforts With Indigenous Populations, C. Aujean Lee

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

This study demonstrates how multiple methods can inform national survey data collection efforts for Indigenous populations using Pacific Islanders as a case study. National data surveys are oftentimes limited in how they collect data on small populations due to data suppression, and they lack nuance in how they aggregate distinct populations. I conduct linear regression models of U.S. Census data to demonstrate that Pacific Islanders lag behind Whites in income, even after controlling for household characteristics and geography. Further analyses of oral histories and interviews with Pacific Islanders demonstrate that income disparities exist in part because of remittances, competing ...


A Country In Crisis: The Changing Demographics Of Japan, Katherine Ziomek Oct 2017

A Country In Crisis: The Changing Demographics Of Japan, Katherine Ziomek

Laurier Undergraduate Journal of the Arts

No abstract provided.


Health Advocacy Intervention For Youth : A Case Study Of Metro Youth Advocates., Tiffany Monyhan, Sasha Belenky, Kristi Mcclary King Oct 2017

Health Advocacy Intervention For Youth : A Case Study Of Metro Youth Advocates., Tiffany Monyhan, Sasha Belenky, Kristi Mcclary King

Kristi King

No abstract provided.