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Exploring Multiple Operating Scenarios To Identify Low-Cost, High Nitrate Removal Strategies For Electrically-Stimulated Woodchip Bioreactors, Ji-Yeow Law, Michelle L. Soupir, D. Raj Raman, Thomas Moorman 2018 Iowa State University

Exploring Multiple Operating Scenarios To Identify Low-Cost, High Nitrate Removal Strategies For Electrically-Stimulated Woodchip Bioreactors, Ji-Yeow Law, Michelle L. Soupir, D. Raj Raman, Thomas Moorman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Woodchip bioreactors are recognized as an effective best management practice in the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy. This edge-of-field practice intercepts and removes NO3-N, thereby reducing the NO3-N concentration in tile drainage before being discharged into surface water. Actual NO3-N load reductions realized by woodchip bioreactors are impacted by bioreactor size, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and denitrification efficiency. A typical woodchip bioreactor in Iowa may have 0.07% bioreactor area with respect to treatment area, 4–8 h HRT, and 43% mean denitrification efficiency. Here, we explored the potential of using electrically stimulated woodchip bioreactors to achieve greater NO3-N removal, and ...


Anaerobic Digestion Of Aqueous Pyrolysis Condensate, Connie Wen 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Anaerobic Digestion Of Aqueous Pyrolysis Condensate, Connie Wen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lignocellulosic material can be subjected to pyrolysis to yield pyrolysis liquid, biochar, and gas. The pyrolysis liquid resulting from the condensation of vapours can be separated into a rich organic condensate and an acidic “aqueous pyrolysis condensate” (APC) which may be considered a waste. The target of this research is subjecting APC to anaerobic digestion to produce biogas that can be energy purposed, and to reduce the organic load of APC to acceptable levels for possible disposal. From this study, it was found that without any treatment, the inoculum requires 50 to 60 days of adaptation period to reduce the ...


Assessing Pathogen Presence In An Intensively Tile Drained, Agricultural Watershed, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Thomas Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, F. Yang, Adina Howe 2018 Iowa State University

Assessing Pathogen Presence In An Intensively Tile Drained, Agricultural Watershed, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Thomas Moorman, Michelle L. Soupir, F. Yang, Adina Howe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Increases in swine production and concomitant manure application provide beneficial nutrients for crops but also include the potential to spread pathogenic bacteria in the environment. While manure is known to contain a variety of pathogens, little is known regarding the long-term effect of manure application on fate and transport of this diverse set of pathogens into surrounding waterways. We report on the use of 16S-rRNA gene sequencing to detect pathogen-containing genera in the agriculturally dominated South Fork Iowa River watershed, home to approximately 840,000 swine in the 76,000-ha basin. DNA was extracted from monthly grab samples collected from ...


Causal Loop Development Activity, Ali Mirchi 2018 Utah State University

Causal Loop Development Activity, Ali Mirchi

All ECSTATIC Materials

Students will work in groups to develop a causal loop diagram (CLD) to illustrate the structure and expected behavior of the fictional water short state of Nevizonato facilitate qualitative discussion of expected outcomes of a proposed water management strategy. This activity requires familiarity with systems thinking and system dynamics modeling. CLDs are introduced as a fundamental systems thinking tool for conceptual modeling.


Cultivating Ecosystems: Microbial Communities In Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, Ryan Bartelme 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Cultivating Ecosystems: Microbial Communities In Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, Ryan Bartelme

Theses and Dissertations

Intensive cultivation of fish is necessary to meet future global market demands. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) enable dense growth of fish, while occupying less space than traditional aquaculture farms. However, RAS often experience complications and high fish mortalities due to disease and improper waste management. In properly functioning systems, the microorganisms associated with fish (gut, scales) as well as those found in the system environment (water, component surfaces) remove waste and maintain fish health by discouraging growth of opportunistic pathogens. Previous RAS microbiome studies are small in scope, utilize coarse methods, and contain limited long-term spatial or temporal data. With ...


Advancing The Open Modeling Interface (Openmi) For Integrated Water Resources Modeling, Caleb A. Buahin, Jeffery S. Horsburgh 2018 Utah State University

Advancing The Open Modeling Interface (Openmi) For Integrated Water Resources Modeling, Caleb A. Buahin, Jeffery S. Horsburgh

Publications

The use of existing component-based modeling frameworks for integrated water resources modeling is currently hampered for some important use cases because they lack support for commonly used, topology-aware, spatiotemporal data structures. Additionally, existing frameworks are often accompanied by large software stacks with steep learning curves. Others lack specifications for deploying them on high performance, heterogeneous computing (HPC) infrastructure. This puts their use beyond the reach of many water resources modelers. In this paper, we describe new advances in component-based modeling using a framework called HydroCouple. This framework largely adopts the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI) 2.0 interface definitions but demonstrates ...


Cover Crops Have Negligible Impact On Soil Water In Nebraska Maize–Soybean Rotation, J. Burdette Barker, Derek M. Heeren, Katja Koehler-Cole, Charles Shapiro, Humberto Blanco-Canqui, Roger W. Elmore, Christopher A. Proctor, Suat Irmak, Charles Francis, Tim M. Shaver, Ali T. Mohammed 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Cover Crops Have Negligible Impact On Soil Water In Nebraska Maize–Soybean Rotation, J. Burdette Barker, Derek M. Heeren, Katja Koehler-Cole, Charles Shapiro, Humberto Blanco-Canqui, Roger W. Elmore, Christopher A. Proctor, Suat Irmak, Charles Francis, Tim M. Shaver, Ali T. Mohammed

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

One perceived cost of integrating winter cover cropping in maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation systems is the potential negative impact on soil water storage available for primary crop production. The objective of this 3-yr study was to evaluate the effects of winter cover crops on soil water storage and cover crop biomass production following no-till maize and soybean rotations. Locations were near Brule (west-central), Clay Center (south-central), Concord (northeast), and Mead (east-central), NE. Treatments included crop residue only (no cover crop) and a multi-species cover crop mix, both broadcast-seeded before primary crop harvest and ...


Evaluation Of A Solar Powered Variable Flow Tail Water Recovery System For Furrow Irrigation, Vaishali Kandpal 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of A Solar Powered Variable Flow Tail Water Recovery System For Furrow Irrigation, Vaishali Kandpal

Theses and Dissertations

Furrow irrigation is a very common irrigation method for growing crops like soybean, cotton and corn in Arkansas. A major portion of this irrigation water is lost as runoff from the field significantly reducing the irrigation application efficiency. There are various methods of improving irrigation efficiency and one of the methods is using tail-water recovery. A tail-water recovery system utilizes tail-water recovery ditches or pits to collect tail-water which can be re-used for irrigation. However, this method is very labor intensive and has been found to be economically non-feasible for some farms in the past research studies. In order to ...


Plant Community Composition, Floristic Quality, And Establishment Of Roadside Revegetation In Nebraska, Usa., Jonathan M. Soper 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Plant Community Composition, Floristic Quality, And Establishment Of Roadside Revegetation In Nebraska, Usa., Jonathan M. Soper

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Roadside revegetation poses a challenge and opportunity for biodiversity conservation, as the land area occupied by roadsides is not expected to decline in the future. In the context of roadside revegetation activities in rural regions dominated by agricultural land uses, revegetation efforts can establish plant communities that offer unique species that would otherwise be absent on the landscape. To determine the efficacy of roadside revegetation efforts in 1) providing plant communities of high biodiversity value and 2) meeting the expectations of roadside revegetation managers for establishment, we quantified botanical composition, floristic quality, and success in seeding efforts to meet manager ...


Integrating Environmental And Social Sustainability Into Performance Evaluation: A Balanced Scorecard-Based Grey-Danp Approach For The Food Industry, Gazi M. Duman, Murat Taskaynatan, Elif Kongar, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2018 University of Bridgeport

Integrating Environmental And Social Sustainability Into Performance Evaluation: A Balanced Scorecard-Based Grey-Danp Approach For The Food Industry, Gazi M. Duman, Murat Taskaynatan, Elif Kongar, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In addition to retaining high levels of customer satisfaction, sustainability of businesses is also heavily reliant on the efficiency of their internal and external processes. Continuous performance evaluations using key performance metrics to leverage operations are essential in maintaining a sustainable business while achieving growth objectives for revenue and profitability. Traditionally, companies have considered various financial criteria, quality characteristics, and targeted levels of service as their primary factors for performance evaluation. However, increasing environmental and social awareness and accompanying governmental legislations are now requiring companies to integrate these two aspects into their performance evaluations. With this motivation, this study proposes ...


Water And Sediment Microbial Quality Of Mountain And Agricultural Streams, Pramod Pandey, Michelle L. Soupir, Yi Wang, Wenlong Cao, Sagor Biswas, Venkata Vaddella, Robert Atwill, Venkatesh Merwade, Gregory Pasternack 2018 University of California, Davis

Water And Sediment Microbial Quality Of Mountain And Agricultural Streams, Pramod Pandey, Michelle L. Soupir, Yi Wang, Wenlong Cao, Sagor Biswas, Venkata Vaddella, Robert Atwill, Venkatesh Merwade, Gregory Pasternack

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Increased public health risk caused by pathogen contamination in streams is a serious issue, and mitigating the risk requires improvement in existing microbial monitoring of streams. To improve understanding of microbial contamination in streams, we monitored Escherichia coli in stream water columns and streambed sediment. Two distinct streams and their subwatersheds were studied: (i) a mountain stream (Merced River, California), which represents pristine and wild conditions, and (ii) an agricultural stream (Squaw Creek, Iowa), which represents an agricultural setting (i.e., crop, manure application, cattle access). Stream water column and sediment samples were collected in multiple locations in the Merced ...


Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Extruded Aquafeeds, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2018 Sokoine University of Agriculture

Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Extruded Aquafeeds, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The worldwide decline and overexploitation of ocean fisheries stocks had provided an incentive for the rapid growth of aquaculture. The aquaculture industry has been recognized as the fastest-growing food production system globally, with a 10% increase in production per year and is one of the most reliable and sustainable growth markets for manufactured feeds. Extrusion technology has been extensively used in the modern aquatic feed manufacturing, due to nutritional, physical properties improvements and cost effectiveness of feeds. Cost related to aquatic feed remains the biggest challenge, especially for small-scale producers. In order to understand costs and potential breakeven points, a ...


An Evaluation Of Unmanned Aerial System Multispectral And Thermal Infrared Data As Information For Agricultural Crop And Irrigation Management, Mitch Maguire 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

An Evaluation Of Unmanned Aerial System Multispectral And Thermal Infrared Data As Information For Agricultural Crop And Irrigation Management, Mitch Maguire

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Spatial irrigation management has been steadily advancing over the last several years. A current issue with managing irrigation spatially on sub-field scale is the inability to readily collect the spatial field data necessary to properly manage irrigation. Multispectral and thermal infrared imagery used in informing irrigation management decisions was previously collected by satellite and manned aircraft remote sensing platforms. These remote sensing platforms pose issues concerning economic feasibility, revisit intervals, and weather factors that inhibit the collection of data. Recent developments in unmanned aerial systems, which provide an additional means of collecting multispectral and thermal infrared data, have the potential ...


Comparison Of Nitrogen Fertigation Management Strategies For Center-Pivot Irrigated Maize In The Sub-Humid Area Of China, Jingjing Li, Wenjing Zang, Yaojun Li, Derek M. Heeren, Haijun Yan 2018 China Agricultural University, Beijing

Comparison Of Nitrogen Fertigation Management Strategies For Center-Pivot Irrigated Maize In The Sub-Humid Area Of China, Jingjing Li, Wenjing Zang, Yaojun Li, Derek M. Heeren, Haijun Yan

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

In the sub-humid region of Northeast China, increasing use of center-pivot irrigation systems has caused increased interest in sprinkler fertigation technology in maize production to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency and protect the environment. However, the lack of fertigation strategies for maize cultivation restrains the adoption of sprinkler fertigation technology. A field experiment was carried out in a sub-humid region of Northeast China on maize to determine the effect of different fertigation management strategies on plant growth, grain yield and nitrate content in the soil during the maize growing season. Three N rates (200, 160, and 120 kg N ha ...


Autohydrolysis Pretreatment Of Mixed Lignocellulosic Biomass, Claudio Lira 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Autohydrolysis Pretreatment Of Mixed Lignocellulosic Biomass, Claudio Lira

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lignocellulosic biomass, such as agricultural and forestry residues, can be transformed into valuable fuels and chemicals. However, the high cost of feedstock handling and the complex nature of cellulosic biomass processing and conversion remain two major challenges in biorefineries. This thesis aims to tackle these challenges by assessing the transformation of multi-feedstock using autohydrolysis pretreatment.

Corn cobs and stover (residues from corn processing), poplar chips (forestry residue), bagasse and wheat straw (agricultural residues) are abundant and often under-utilized cellulosic residues. These feedstocks were used to investigate the effects of biomass characteristics on the composition of the autohydrolysis pretreatment products. Moreover ...


The Role Of Mycelium In Bioretention Systems: Evaluation Of Nutrient Retention In Mycorrhizae-Inoculated Mescocosms, Cara J. Poor, Casey Balmes, Michael Freudenthaler, Ashley Martinez 2018 University of Portland

The Role Of Mycelium In Bioretention Systems: Evaluation Of Nutrient Retention In Mycorrhizae-Inoculated Mescocosms, Cara J. Poor, Casey Balmes, Michael Freudenthaler, Ashley Martinez

Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Bioretention systems have become an increasingly common method for treating stormwater in urban areas, which help reduce peak flows and remove contaminants from stormwater. However, nutrients often leach out of the bioretention soil mix, which can contribute to the degradation of receiving waters in bioretention systems with underdrains. Development of mycelium may improve retention of nutrients and increase the water-holding capacity. To evaluate the impact of mycelium on nutrient leaching from bioretention systems, ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal fungi were added to the bioretention soil mix to promote mycelium growth. A proprietary mix with bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi also was tested. Mesocosms ...


Developing An Integrated Model For The Corn, Ethanol, And Beef Systems Using A Loosely Coupled Web Framework, Ryan Anderson 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Developing An Integrated Model For The Corn, Ethanol, And Beef Systems Using A Loosely Coupled Web Framework, Ryan Anderson

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

With the global population approaching 9 billion people by the year 2050, the world’s food, energy, and water (FEW) resources must be used more intelligently to provide for everyone. While we understand how individual FEW systems behave using modeling, we cannot understand the full environmental and production impacts of decisions in each system without understanding how they are all linked together. An approach to coupling these systems is starting with identifying a few highly interconnected FEW systems. The corn, ethanol, and beef systems are large economic and agricultural drivers in the Midwest United States and are highly linked. Many ...


Tradeoffs In Model Performance And Effort For Long-Term Phosphorus Leaching Based On In Situ Field Data, Ryan P. Freiberger, Derek M. Heeren, Dean E. Eisenhauer, Aaron R. Mittelstet, Guillermo Baigorria 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Tradeoffs In Model Performance And Effort For Long-Term Phosphorus Leaching Based On In Situ Field Data, Ryan P. Freiberger, Derek M. Heeren, Dean E. Eisenhauer, Aaron R. Mittelstet, Guillermo Baigorria

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Phosphorus and N are critical nutrients for agriculture but are also responsible for surface water enrichment that leads to toxic algal growth. Although P loading to surface waters has traditionally been thought to occur primarily in surface runoff, contributions from subsurface transport can also be significant. The primary objectives of this research were to evaluate several methods of representing macropore flow and transport in a finite element model using plot-scale infiltration and leaching data and to compare several models of various levels of complexity to simulate long-term P leaching. To determine flow and transport parameters, single- and dual-porosity models in ...


Predication Of The Sources Of Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In China With Distinctive Characteristics Based On Multivariate Analysis, Ruoyu Wang 2018 University of California, Davis

Predication Of The Sources Of Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In China With Distinctive Characteristics Based On Multivariate Analysis, Ruoyu Wang

Ruoyu Wang

Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have the characteristics of high carcinogenicitydegradation resistance, and long-distance transport. It is necessary to determine the critical sources that contribute to PAHs in atmospheric particulatematter (PM), soils, and sediments. In the present study, particulate PAHs were collected from Chinese cooking, biomass combustion, waste incineration, coal combustion, and petroleum combustion in different regions of the Chinese mainland. Through linear regression analysis, the relationships have been investigated between different measurement units, including the mass of particulate PAHs per mass of particle matter, mass of particulate PAHs per volume of air, and emission factors of particulate ...


Evaluation Of Annagnps For Simulating The Inundation Of Drained And Farmed Potholes In The Prairie Pothole Region Of Iowa, Pawan Upadhyaya, L. O. S. Pruski, Amy Kaleita, Michelle L. Soupir 2018 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Annagnps For Simulating The Inundation Of Drained And Farmed Potholes In The Prairie Pothole Region Of Iowa, Pawan Upadhyaya, L. O. S. Pruski, Amy Kaleita, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Closed surface depressions, also known as “potholes” play an important role in the hydrologic cycle and provide multiple environmental services including flood mitigation, water quality improvements and wildlife habitat. In the Prairie Pothole Region, which covers approximately 715,000 km2, including parts of three Canadian provinces (Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta) and five states in the U.S. (Minnesota, Iowa, North and South Dakota, and Montana), these potholes are typically farmed and are a dominant feature in the landscape. In this study, we evaluate the Annualized Agriculture Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) model for simulating the inundation behavior of two farmed potholes, termed ...


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