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6,049 full-text articles. Page 7 of 151.

Heat Stress Adaptations In Pigs, Edith J. Mayorga, David Renaudeau, Brett C. Ramirez, Jason W. Ross, Lance H. Baumgard 2019 Iowa State University

Heat Stress Adaptations In Pigs, Edith J. Mayorga, David Renaudeau, Brett C. Ramirez, Jason W. Ross, Lance H. Baumgard

Brett Ramirez

Implications

• Heat stress is a global issue constraining animal agriculture productivity, negatively affects welfare, and reduces production efficiency in many countries.

• The effects of heat stress on pig production will intensify, if climate change continues as predicted.

• To date, modifying the environment is the most effective way to mitigate the effects of heat stress.

• Identifying additional strategies (nutritional and genetics) to maximize pork production during the warm summer months is necessary to satiate a growing demand for high quality meat for human consumption.


Development And Evaluation Of An Evaporation Model For Predicting Sprinkler Interval Time, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, John F. Patience 2019 Iowa State University

Development And Evaluation Of An Evaporation Model For Predicting Sprinkler Interval Time, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, John F. Patience

Brett Ramirez

Heat stress in swine causes decreased productivity and economic losses; hence, heat stress mitigation techniques must be developed to be economically and resource efficient. Current cooling strategies for livestock facilities, such as evaporative coolers or sprinklers, are governed by the Water Vapor Pressure (WVP) concentration gradient between the air (a function of dry-bulb temperature; tdb, Relative Humidity; RH, and atmospheric pressure) and the saturated WVP at the wet surface. Traditional sprinkler control systems operate at fixed ‘off’ intervals (i.e., drying) regardless if the thermal environment (TE) has the capacity or not to evaporate the dispersed water. Therefore, the objectives ...


Impact Based Odor Control System, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff 2019 Iowa State University

Impact Based Odor Control System, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff

Brett Ramirez

Biofilters are an effective and economically feasible technique for mitigating odor and other gaseous emissions from livestock production systems. They consist of a media containing a biofilm, where microorganisms break down compounds in livestock building exhaust air into energy and nutrients for growth and reproduction. In addition to capital costs, continuous filtering of exhaust air from mechanically ventilated buildings can be expensive and not always required, if odor is considered nuisance; thus, an automated control system was designed to filter odorous air when surrounding neighbors are most likely to be impacted and bypass the biofilter when odor impact potential is ...


Commissioning Of A Segmented Wand For Evaluating Airflow Performance Of Fans In Livestock And Poultry Housing, Katlyn R. DeVoe, Steven J. Hoff, Yun Gao, Brett C. Ramirez 2019 Iowa State University

Commissioning Of A Segmented Wand For Evaluating Airflow Performance Of Fans In Livestock And Poultry Housing, Katlyn R. Devoe, Steven J. Hoff, Yun Gao, Brett C. Ramirez

Brett Ramirez

Ventilation rate estimates play an important role in evaluating the thermal environment and determining emission rates from livestock and poultry housing. Currently, the standard method to measure in situ ventilation rates is the Fan Assessment Numeration System (FANS). A similar sensing system is needed for extension personnel that eliminates the labor and set-up requirements of FANS. In order to efficiently and cost-effectively estimate ventilation rates, a Segmented Wand for Evaluating Airflow Performance (SWEAP) was developed. The objectives of this research were to: (i) design and construct a hand-held device capable of measuring in situ fan intake flowrate, (ii) evaluate SWEAP ...


Commissioning Of A Novel Animal Thermal Environment Replication And Measurement System, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Yun Gao, Jay D. Harmon 2019 Iowa State University

Commissioning Of A Novel Animal Thermal Environment Replication And Measurement System, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Yun Gao, Jay D. Harmon

Brett Ramirez

Thermal environment (TE) in livestock production systems effects the animal’s thermal comfort, feed efficiency, and the producer’s operating costs. Accurate assessment of the radiative component of TE requires Mean Radiant Temperature (tmr) measurement with a Black Globe Thermometer (BGT); however, these devices are cost prohibitive (if multiple are needed), have limited commercial availability, and lack confidence for a range of conditions commonly found in a swine facility. The objectives were to design, construct and commission a novel and well-documented TE simulation system named Animal Thermal Environment Replication and Measurement System (AThERMS). Simulations of different combinations of dry-bulb ...


Functional Performance Evaluation Of A Novel Thermal Environment Sensor Array, Brett C. Ramirez, Y. Gao, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon 2019 Iowa State University

Functional Performance Evaluation Of A Novel Thermal Environment Sensor Array, Brett C. Ramirez, Y. Gao, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon

Brett Ramirez

The thermal environment (TE) inside livestock and poultry facilities has a substantial impact on animal growth performance and facility energy usage; therefore, the TE must be quantified correctly to maintain the optimal TE that maximizes feed efficiency and consumes minimal resources. To achieve this goal, a TE sensor array (TESA) and accompanying data acquisition system were previously developed to measure dry-bulb temperature (tdb), black globe temperature, airspeed, and relative humidity (RH). While measurement of each parameter is useful individually, it is more informative when they are combined to estimate and assess the total impact that the TE has on an ...


Thermal Environment Performance And Uniformity Assessment For A Novel Swine Breeding And Gestation Facility, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff 2019 Iowa State University

Thermal Environment Performance And Uniformity Assessment For A Novel Swine Breeding And Gestation Facility, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff

Brett Ramirez

The Thermal Environment (TE) inside swine facilities has a substantial impact on animal performance and facility energy usage; therefore, proper control and measurement are required to maintain the optimal TE that maximizes performance and consumes minimal energy. Currently, controllers only monitor and describe the TE with dry-bulb temperature (tdb); however, tdb does not account for all the factors that influence the TE. Therefore, a novel Thermal Environment Sensor Array (TESA) network and accompanying data acquisition systems were developed for a preliminary investigation inside a commercial, ~800 hd, positive pressure ventilated, filtered breeding facility located in central Iowa. Data from the ...


An Image Acquisition System For Studying Behaviors Of Sows And Piglets In Farrowing Barns, Suzanne Leonard, Hongwei Xin, Tami Brown-Brandl, Brett C. Ramirez 2019 Iowa State University

An Image Acquisition System For Studying Behaviors Of Sows And Piglets In Farrowing Barns, Suzanne Leonard, Hongwei Xin, Tami Brown-Brandl, Brett C. Ramirez

Brett Ramirez

Behavior studies in commercial swine farrowing room environments often need to monitor each set of sow and piglets individually and simultaneously. Autonomous computer imaging systems can overcome this challenge. The system presented here utilizes a time of flight depth sensor and a digital camera to capture depth and digital images of each sow and litter, housed in individual farrowing stalls. Depth sensors were centered above the stalls on a triangular truss spanning the length of the farrowing room and mounted in waterproof boxes with attached lids, enabling them to easily be waterproofed when cleaning the farrowing room. Each depth sensor ...


Development, Validation And Application Of A Mobile Air Filter Testing Unit, Jay D. Harmon, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, John P. Stinn 2019 Iowa State University

Development, Validation And Application Of A Mobile Air Filter Testing Unit, Jay D. Harmon, Benjamin C. Smith, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, John P. Stinn

Brett Ramirez

The recent shift in commercial swine breeding-gestation-farrowing facilities to incorporate filtered ventilation systems raises numerous questions about system performance and longevity of filters. It has been shown that air filtration with ASHRAE standard MERV 14, 15 and 16 type filters are effective at reducing the aerosol spread of PRRSV and Mycoplasma hypopneumonia. The areas that are lacking in current literature is relevant filter testing methodology and criteria for determining filter end of life in an agricultural setting. To address this, a mobile air filter testing unit (MAFT) was developed to address the testing needs for the swine industry to evaluate ...


Thermal Environment Assessment And Controller Performance Comparison For A Wean-Finish Barn, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff 2019 Iowa State University

Thermal Environment Assessment And Controller Performance Comparison For A Wean-Finish Barn, Jay D. Harmon, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff

Brett Ramirez

The thermal environment (TE) inside swine facilities has a substantial impact on animal growth performance and facility energy usage; therefore, proper control and measurement are required to maintain the optimal TE that maximizes feed efficiency and consumes minimal resources. An inexpensive and novel network of 44 thermal environment sensor arrays (TESAs) capable of capturing the spatial and temporal distribution of the TE were deployed in August 2016 inside a two-room (designated as North; N and South; S), wean-finish barn (~1200 hd and 22 TESAs per room) and placed about 1.8 m above the slatted floor. All TESAs simultaneously measured ...


Design And Feasibility Of An Impact-Based Odor Control System, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Lun Tong 2019 Iowa State University

Design And Feasibility Of An Impact-Based Odor Control System, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Lun Tong

Brett Ramirez

Legislation and rural communities are increasingly requesting reductions in odor emitted from swine production facilities. If odor is regarded solely as a nuisance, and not an environmental hazard (as in this research), such that the objective of treating ventilation exhaust air is to prevent odor from impacting nearby receptors, it is unnecessary to treat exhaust air when dispersed odor is not identifiable. This approach maximizes odor reduction potential when most needed, with economic benefit through decreased energy and resource usage by simply operating the mitigation device for less time. The objectives of this article were: to develop an on-off, real-time ...


Automated Finishing Pig Feeder Adjustment, Ryan Godfredsen, Kelley Mabeus, Michael Meyer, Brett C. Ramirez, Shweta Chopra, Jacek A. Koziel 2019 Iowa State University

Automated Finishing Pig Feeder Adjustment, Ryan Godfredsen, Kelley Mabeus, Michael Meyer, Brett C. Ramirez, Shweta Chopra, Jacek A. Koziel

Brett Ramirez

Feed costs in the swine industry are typically 60-70% of the total swine production costs. Feeder adjustment is used to decrease feed costs. When feeders are properly adjusted, the growth rate can be improved while the wasted feed is minimized. Currently, feeders are manually monitored and adjusted by daily caretaker inspection, which is very laborious. Automated adjustment would reduce labor need and allow for the integration of precision management in the future.


Design And Feasibility Of A Novel Sprinkler Control Algorithm For Swine Heat Stress Alleviation, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon 2019 Iowa State University

Design And Feasibility Of A Novel Sprinkler Control Algorithm For Swine Heat Stress Alleviation, Brett C. Ramirez, Steven J. Hoff, Jay D. Harmon

Brett Ramirez

No abstract provided.


Nitrate Removal And Placement Of Floating Treatment Wetlands In The Midwest, Mary G. Keilhauer 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Nitrate Removal And Placement Of Floating Treatment Wetlands In The Midwest, Mary G. Keilhauer

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The Midwestern United States is vulnerable to eutrophic conditions from high nutrient concentrations. Recommendations for nonpoint source pollution management include runoff treatment (i.e., filter strips, riparian buffers) and in-situ lake treatment practices (i.e., aluminum sulfate (alum) treatments, aeration, up/downdraft pumping, floating treatment wetlands). Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) are an innovative wetland design for nutrient removal from nonpoint sources and provide a unique in-situ treatment. Best management practice studies have commonly focused on adjacent to water practices, which have resulted in a gap for guidance for in-situ treatment placement and design. Therefore, the objectives of this project were ...


Evaluating Machine Learning Performance In Predicting Injury Severity In Agribusiness Industries, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher 2019 San Jose State University

Evaluating Machine Learning Performance In Predicting Injury Severity In Agribusiness Industries, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Although machine learning methods have been used as an outcome prediction tool in many fields, their utilization in predicting incident outcome in occupational safety is relatively new. This study tests the performance of machine learning techniques in modeling and predicting occupational incidents severity with respect to accessible information of injured workers in agribusiness industries using workers’ compensation claims. More than 33,000 incidents within agribusiness industries in the Midwest of the United States for 2008–2016 were analyzed. The total cost of incidents was extracted and classified from workers’ compensation claims. Supervised machine learning algorithms for classification (support vector machines ...


Mid To Late Season Weed Detection In Soybean Production Fields Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle And Machine Learning, Arun Narenthiran Veeranampalayam Sivakumar 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Mid To Late Season Weed Detection In Soybean Production Fields Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle And Machine Learning, Arun Narenthiran Veeranampalayam Sivakumar

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Mid-late season weeds are those that escape the early season herbicide applications and those that emerge late in the season. They might not affect the crop yield, but if uncontrolled, will produce a large number of seeds causing problems in the subsequent years. In this study, high-resolution aerial imagery of mid-season weeds in soybean fields was captured using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and the performance of two different automated weed detection approaches – patch-based classification and object detection was studied for site-specific weed management. For the patch-based classification approach, several conventional machine learning models on Haralick texture features were compared ...


Design, Development, And Field Testing A Visnir Integrated Multi-Sensing Soil Penetrometer, Nuwan K. Wijewardane 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Design, Development, And Field Testing A Visnir Integrated Multi-Sensing Soil Penetrometer, Nuwan K. Wijewardane

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The research community in soil science and agriculture lacks a cost-effective and rapid technology for in situ, high resolution vertical soil sensing. Visible and near infra-red (VisNIR) technology has the potential to be used for such sensor development due to its ability to derive multiple soil properties rapidly using a single spectrum. Such efforts must, however, overcome a few challenges: (i) a dry ground soil spectral library that can be used to predict the target soil properties accurately, (ii) a robust design which can acquire high quality VisNIR spectra of soil, (iii) an effective method that can link field intact ...


A Multi-Sensor Phenotyping System: Applications On Wheat Height Estimation And Soybean Trait Early Prediction, Wenan Yuan 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Multi-Sensor Phenotyping System: Applications On Wheat Height Estimation And Soybean Trait Early Prediction, Wenan Yuan

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Phenotyping is an essential aspect for plant breeding research since it is the foundation of the plant selection process. Traditional plant phenotyping methods such as measuring and recording plant traits manually can be inefficient, laborious and prone to error. With the help of modern sensing technologies, high-throughput field phenotyping is becoming popular recently due to its ability of sensing various crop traits non-destructively with high efficiency. A multi-sensor phenotyping system equipped with red-green-blue (RGB) cameras, radiometers, ultrasonic sensors, spectrometers, a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, a pyranometer, a temperature and relative humidity probe and a light detection and ranging (LiDAR ...


Proof-Of-The-Concept Of Spent Mushrooms Compost Torrefaction - Preliminary Studies Of Process Kinetics And The Influence Of Temperature And Duration On Calorific Value Of The Biochar, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec 2019 Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Proof-Of-The-Concept Of Spent Mushrooms Compost Torrefaction - Preliminary Studies Of Process Kinetics And The Influence Of Temperature And Duration On Calorific Value Of The Biochar, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Poland is the 3rd producer of mushrooms in the world. Mushroom production in Poland accounts for nearly 25% of the total production in the EU, and it is still growing. One type of waste generated during mushroom production is mushroom spent compost (MSC), with a 5:1 (MSC: mushrooms) production rate. We investigated valorizing the MSC to produce fuel via torrefaction (‘roasting’, a.k.a. low-temperature pyrolysis). Specifically, we developed models for the MSC torrefaction kinetics using thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and the effects of torrefaction temperature (200~300 °C) and process duration time (20~60 min) on the resulting biochar ...


Effects Of Cage Stocking Density On Feeding Behaviors Of Group-Housed Laying Hens, Rachel Nichole Cook, Hongwei Xin, Dan Nettleton 2019 Iowa State University

Effects Of Cage Stocking Density On Feeding Behaviors Of Group-Housed Laying Hens, Rachel Nichole Cook, Hongwei Xin, Dan Nettleton

Dan Nettleton

Quantitative measurement of animal welfare continues to be a challenging task for both the animal agriculture industry and the scientific community. Characterization of animal feeding behavior provides a comparative elucidation of the animal’s behavioral deviation from its norms and thus carries implications for its welfare. This study examines the effects of cage stocking density (348, 387, 426, and 465 cm2; or 54, 60, 66, and 72 in.2 cage floor space per hen) on feeding behavior of W-36 White Leghorn laying hens kept in groups of six hens. The study employed a specialized instrumentation system and computational algorithm. The ...


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