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Oxytree Pruned Biomass Torrefaction: Mathematical Models Of The Influence Of Temperature And Residence Time On Fuel Properties Improvement, Kacper Świechowski, Marek Liszewski, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec 2019 Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Oxytree Pruned Biomass Torrefaction: Mathematical Models Of The Influence Of Temperature And Residence Time On Fuel Properties Improvement, Kacper Świechowski, Marek Liszewski, Przemysław Bąbelewski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Biowaste generated in the process of Oxytree cultivation and logging represents a potential source of energy. Torrefaction (a.k.a. low-temperature pyrolysis) is one of the methods proposed for the valorization of woody biomass. Still, energy is required for the torrefaction process during which the raw biomass becomes torrefied biomass with fuel properties similar to those of lignite coal. In this work, models describing the influence of torrefaction temperature and residence time on the resulting fuel properties (mass and energy yields, energy densification ratio, organic matter and ash content, combustible parts, lower and higher heating values, CHONS content, H:C ...


First-Order Estimates Of The Costs, Input-Output Energy Analysis, And Energy Returns On Investment Of Conventional And Emerging Biofuels Feedstocks, Katrina Christiansen, D. Raj Raman, Guiping Hu, Robert Anex 2019 Stalende, LLC

First-Order Estimates Of The Costs, Input-Output Energy Analysis, And Energy Returns On Investment Of Conventional And Emerging Biofuels Feedstocks, Katrina Christiansen, D. Raj Raman, Guiping Hu, Robert Anex

Guiping Hu

Here we report on a static, algebraic, spreadsheet-implemented modeling approach to estimate the costs, energy inputs and outputs, and global warming potential of biomass feedstocks. Inputs to the model included literature sourced data for: environmental factors, crop physiological-parameters such as radiation use efficiency and water use efficiency, and crop cost components. Using an energy-input-output life-cycle-assessment approach, we calculated the energy associated with each cost component, allowing an estimate of the total energy required to produce the crop and fuel alongside the energy return on investment. We did this for crop scenarios in the upper Midwest US and Far West US ...


Tailoring Cell-Material Interactions Via Poly(Acrylic Acid) Brushes To Enhance Nonviral Substrate-Mediated Gene Delivery, Amy Mantz 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Tailoring Cell-Material Interactions Via Poly(Acrylic Acid) Brushes To Enhance Nonviral Substrate-Mediated Gene Delivery, Amy Mantz

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Nonviral gene delivery modifies gene expression by transferring exogenous genetic material into cells and tissues, typically through a bolus of complexes formed by electrostatic interactions between cationic lipid or polymer vectors with negatively charged nucleic acids (e.g. DNA). Although nonviral gene delivery is safer, more cost-effective, and more flexible compared to viral systems, nonviral transfection suffers from low efficiency due to extracellular and intracellular barriers. Much research has focused on tuning physiochemical properties of the complexing vectors to improve transfection, yet the cell-material interface may prove a better platform to immobilize DNA complexes for substrate-mediated delivery (SMD) and modulate ...


In Vivo Human-Like Robotic Phenotyping Of Leaf And Stem Traits In Maize And Sorghum In Greenhouse, Abbas Atefi 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

In Vivo Human-Like Robotic Phenotyping Of Leaf And Stem Traits In Maize And Sorghum In Greenhouse, Abbas Atefi

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

In plant phenotyping, the measurement of morphological, physiological and chemical traits of leaves and stems is needed to investigate and monitor the condition of plants. The manual measurement of these properties is time consuming, tedious, error prone, and laborious. The use of robots is a new approach to accomplish such endeavors, which enables automatic monitoring with minimal human intervention. In this study, two plant phenotyping robotic systems were developed to realize automated measurement of plant leaf properties and stem diameter which could reduce the tediousness of data collection compare to manual measurements. The robotic systems comprised of a four degree ...


Growing South Dakota, College of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences 2019 South Dakota State University

Growing South Dakota, College Of Agriculture, Food And Environmental Sciences

Growing South Dakota (Publication of the College of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences)

[Page] 3 Celebration of Faculty Excellence
[Page] 6 Ag and Biosystems Engineering
- Quarter Scale Tractor Team Named Reserve National Champs - Jackrabbit Wrestler Passionate About Sharing the Story of Pork - Mesonet Spray Tool Aids Precision Application Decisions
[Page] 10 Ag Business and Economics
-POET Commodity Trading Fund
[Page] 12 Ag Education, Communication and Leadership
- Leadership Opportunities Launch Recent Graduate to Career Readiness
[Page] 14 Agronomy, Horticulture & Plant Science
- Local Foods Education Center Donates Over 5,000 Pumpkins - Seeding Success - Doug Malo Retires After 43 Years of Teaching - Howard Woodard's 29-Year Career Had a Global Impact - Judging Teams
[Page] 21 Animal ...


Microbial Transport As Affected By Residue Cover And Manure Application Rate, Lisa M. Durso, John E. Gilley, Dave B. Marx, Chance A. Thayer, Brian L. Woodbury 2019 USDA, ARS, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Microbial Transport As Affected By Residue Cover And Manure Application Rate, Lisa M. Durso, John E. Gilley, Dave B. Marx, Chance A. Thayer, Brian L. Woodbury

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Manure is applied to cropland areas with varying surface cover to meet single- or multiple-year crop nutrient requirements. The objectives of this field study were to (1) examine microbial transport following land application of manure to sites with and without wheat residue, (2) compare microbial loads following land application to meet the 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8-year P-based requirements for corn, and (3) evaluate the effects of rainfall simulation run on microbial transport. Manure was added and incorporated by disking plots that were 0.75 m wide by 2.0 m long. Three 30 min simulated rainfall events, separated ...


Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) And Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of Maize Storage For Small And Middle Sized Farmers, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2019 Sokoine University of Agriculture

Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) And Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of Maize Storage For Small And Middle Sized Farmers, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Maize is the most widely cultivated cereal crop worldwide, currently ranked the third most important crop globally after wheat and rice. It is a key staple food in many developing countries. However, maize is produced on a seasonal basis, usually harvest once per year. To maintain a constant supply throughout the year, maize should be properly stored. But this may entail high cost and high-energy consumption, which can contribute significant amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, three storage capacities (25,000 bu, 250,000 bu and 2,500,000 bu) of maize were evaluated for economic analysis and ...


High‑Throughput Analysis Of Leaf Physiological And Chemical Traits With Vis–Nir–Swir Spectroscopy: A Case Study With A Maize Diversity Panel, Yufeng Ge, Abbas Atefi, Huichun Zhang, Chenyong Miao, Raghuprakash Kastoori Ramamurthy, Brandi Sigmon, Jinliang Yang, James C. Schnable 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

High‑Throughput Analysis Of Leaf Physiological And Chemical Traits With Vis–Nir–Swir Spectroscopy: A Case Study With A Maize Diversity Panel, Yufeng Ge, Abbas Atefi, Huichun Zhang, Chenyong Miao, Raghuprakash Kastoori Ramamurthy, Brandi Sigmon, Jinliang Yang, James C. Schnable

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Hyperspectral reflectance data in the visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared range (VIS–NIR– SWIR, 400–2500 nm) are commonly used to nondestructively measure plant leaf properties. We investigated the usefulness of VIS–NIR–SWIR as a high-throughput tool to measure six leaf properties of maize plants including chlorophyll content (CHL), leaf water content (LWC), specific leaf area (SLA), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). This assessment was performed using the lines of the maize diversity panel. Data were collected from plants grown in greenhouse condition, as well as in the field under two nitrogen application regimes. Leaf-level hyperspectral ...


Reduced-Dimension Clustering For Vegetation Segmentation, Brian L. Steward, Lei F. Tian, Dan Nettleton, Lie Tang 2019 Iowa State University

Reduced-Dimension Clustering For Vegetation Segmentation, Brian L. Steward, Lei F. Tian, Dan Nettleton, Lie Tang

Dan Nettleton

Segmentation of vegetation is a critical step in using machine vision for field automation tasks. A new method called reduced-dimension clustering (RDC) was developed based on theoretical considerations about the color distribution of field images. RDC performed unsupervised classification of pixels in field images into vegetation and background classes. Bayes classifiers were then trained and used for vegetation segmentation. The performance of the classifiers trained using the RDC method was compared with that of other segmentation methods. The RDC method produced segmentation performance that was consistently high, with average segmentation success rates of 89.6% and 91.9% across both ...


Water In South Dakota Stakeholder Guided Strategies For Moving Forward, Rachel McDaniel, John McMaine, David Kringen 2019 South Dakota State University

Water In South Dakota Stakeholder Guided Strategies For Moving Forward, Rachel Mcdaniel, John Mcmaine, David Kringen

SDWRI Publications and Papers

The 2017 Eastern South Dakota Water Conference included a stakeholder working session that resulted in over 350 comments. This paper reflects the challenges, goals and action items pertaining to South Dakota’s water resources as identified by the state’s diverse stakeholders.


Waste To Carbon: Preliminary Research On Mushroom Spent Compost Torrefaction, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec 2019 Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Waste To Carbon: Preliminary Research On Mushroom Spent Compost Torrefaction, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Mushroom production in Poland is an important and dynamically developing element of diverse agriculture. Mushroom spent compost (MSC) is major waste generated during production, i.e., MSC: mushrooms is ~5:1. To date, the main use of MSC is soil application as organic fertilizer. To date, several methods of MSC treatment have been researched and developed including production of compost, bioethanol, biogas, enzyme lactase, xylo-saccharides, and hydrogen. Torrefaction may be considered a novel approach for biomass valorization. Thus, we are pioneering the potential use of MSC valorization via torrefaction. We explored valorizing the waste biomass of MSC via thermal treatment ...


A Review Of Pesticide Fate And Transport Simulation At Watershed Level Using Swat: Current Status And Research Concerns, Ruoyu Wang 2019 University of California, Davis

A Review Of Pesticide Fate And Transport Simulation At Watershed Level Using Swat: Current Status And Research Concerns, Ruoyu Wang

Ruoyu Wang

The application of pesticides in agriculture is a widely-used way to alleviate pest stresses. However, it also introduces various environmental concerns due to the offsite movement of pesticide residues towards receiving water bodies. While the application of process-based modeling approaches can provide quantitative information on pesticide exposure, there are nonetheless growing requirements for model development and improvement to better represent various hydrological and physico-chemical conditions at watershed scale, and for better model integration to address environmental, ecological and economic concerns. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is an ecohydrological model used in over 3,000 published studies, including about ...


Biomethane Production From Distillery Wastewater, Zachary Christman 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Biomethane Production From Distillery Wastewater, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Distillery wastewater treatment is a great ecological problem, for example, India produces 2.7 billion liters of alcohol that results in 40 billion liters of wastewater. However, this material can be seen as a resource since 11 million cubic meters of biogas at 60% methane could be produced in addition to cleaning the water. The distillery has two options of what to do with the biogas. The first is to use the biogas to fuel the distillery making the production plant more energy efficient and removing some of the need to buy natural gas. The other is to upgrade the ...


A Spatially Enhanced Data‐Driven Multimodel To Improve Semiseasonal Groundwater Forecasts In The High Plains Aquifer, Usa, A. Amaranto, Francisco Munoz-Arriola, D. P. Solomatine, G. Corzo 2019 University of Nebraska‐Lincoln

A Spatially Enhanced Data‐Driven Multimodel To Improve Semiseasonal Groundwater Forecasts In The High Plains Aquifer, Usa, A. Amaranto, Francisco Munoz-Arriola, D. P. Solomatine, G. Corzo

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

The aim of this paper is to improve semiseasonal forecast of groundwater availability in response to climate variables, surface water availability, groundwater level variations, and human water management using a two‐step data‐driven modeling approach. First, we implement an ensemble of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the 300 wells across the High Plains aquifer (USA). The modeling framework includes a method to choose the most relevant input variables and time lags; an assessment of the effect of exogenous variables on the predictive capabilities of models; and the estimation of the forecast skill based on the Nash‐Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE ...


Quantification Of Site Layout And Filter Characteristics On Primary Filter Airflow Reduction On Commercial Swine Sites In Iowa, Benjamin Smith, Steven Hoff, Jay Harmon, Daniel Andersen, Jeffrey Zimmerman, John Stinn 2019 Iowa State University

Quantification Of Site Layout And Filter Characteristics On Primary Filter Airflow Reduction On Commercial Swine Sites In Iowa, Benjamin Smith, Steven Hoff, Jay Harmon, Daniel Andersen, Jeffrey Zimmerman, John Stinn

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Fresh air intake filtration is used on commercial swine breeding-gestation-farrowing farms to reduce the frequency of airborne infectious agents. For swine producers, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), influenza A virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered the most economically challenging airborne pathogens. Reduced frequency of disease outbreaks has been attributed to retrofitting existing systems with filtration. Economic analysis of operating costs includes energy use, maintenance and replacement of filters. Filter replacement, the largest operational cost, is dependent on filter lifespan. However, limited data is available on filter lifespan and the rate of airflow reduction during the high dust-loading periods ...


Environmental And Occupational Impacts From U.S. Beef Slaughtering Are Of Same Magnitude Of Beef Foodborne Illnesses On Human Health, Shaobin Li, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Bruce Dvorak 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Environmental And Occupational Impacts From U.S. Beef Slaughtering Are Of Same Magnitude Of Beef Foodborne Illnesses On Human Health, Shaobin Li, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Bruce Dvorak

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Foodborne pathogens and occupational hazards are two primary safety concerns for U.S. beef slaughterhouses. The anthropogenic environmental impacts due to intensive resource use and pollution also exert threats to human health. Quantifying human health impacts from various sources remain a grand sustainability challenge for U.S. beef industry. We develop a framework to systematically estimate and compare human health impacts associated with U.S. beef foodborne illnesses from major pathogens and environmental impacts and occupational hazards from U.S. beef slaughtering on a common metric, disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Foodborne illnesses and occupational hazards are estimated by synthesizing published ...


Postmortem Biochemical And Textural Changes In The Patinopecten Yessoensis Adductor Muscle (Pyam) During Iced Storage, Xin Xiong, Baoyu He, Di Jiang, Xiufang Dong, Aeneas Koosis, Chenxu Yu, Hang Qi 2019 Dalian Polytechnic University

Postmortem Biochemical And Textural Changes In The Patinopecten Yessoensis Adductor Muscle (Pyam) During Iced Storage, Xin Xiong, Baoyu He, Di Jiang, Xiufang Dong, Aeneas Koosis, Chenxu Yu, Hang Qi

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Postmortem characteristics of Patinopecten yessoensis adductor muscle (PYAM) were evaluated by biochemical, chemical and textural changes during iced storage for 14 days. Triphosphate (ATP) and its breakdown products, K-value, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), color, texture, protein degradation and cathepsin activities were monitored. K-value increased linearly from 5.9 ± 0.9% at day 0 to 28.1 ± 2.4% at day 2 and 70.2 ± 1.8% at day 12. Spoilage indicator TVB-N (mg/100 g) increased from 10.0 ± 0.6 to 34.6 ± 3.1 at day 12. Textural parameters (e.g., hardness, chewiness ...


The Proof-Of-The-Concept Of Application Of Pelletization For Mitigation Of Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel 2019 Iowa State University and Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences

The Proof-Of-The-Concept Of Application Of Pelletization For Mitigation Of Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Waste can be effectively reused through the production of carbonized refuse-derived fuel (CRDF) that enables further energy recovery. Developing cleaner production of CRDF requires consideration of practical issues of storage and handling. Thus, it needs to be ensured that CRDF does not pose an excessive risk to humans and the ecosystem. Very few studies indicate a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in CRDF, some of which are toxic. During handling, storage, transportation, and use of VOC-rich CRDF, workers and end-users could be exposed to emissions that could pose a health and safety hazard. Our recent study ...


Introduction To Sorghum Paper Production, Zachary Christman 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Introduction To Sorghum Paper Production, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Sorghum is a tall grass used for many commercial products such as fodder and syrup. The 10 to 15 feet stalk of the plant has lower lignin than wood and provides a fiber length of 2.31 mm in the outer covering and 1.38 mm for the leaf. Sorghum fiber makes a high quality, strong paper suitable for printing, packaging and paperboard.


Nitrate Runoff Contributing From The Agriculturally Intensive San Joaquin River Watershed To Bay-Delta In California, Ruoyu Wang 2019 University of California, Davis

Nitrate Runoff Contributing From The Agriculturally Intensive San Joaquin River Watershed To Bay-Delta In California, Ruoyu Wang

Ruoyu Wang

Nitrogen loading from agricultural landscapes can trigger a cascade of detrimental e#11;ects on
aquatic ecosystems. Recently, the spread of aquatic weed infestations (Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa,
Ludwigia spp., and Onagraceae) in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California has raised
concerns, and nitrogen loading from California’s intensive farming regions is considered as one of
the major contributors. In this study, we employed the Soil andWater Assessment Tool (SWAT) to
simulate nitrogen exports from the agriculturally intensive San Joaquin River watershed to the Delta.
The alternate tile drainage routine in SWAT was tested against monitoring data in the ...


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