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Mand Training And Prompt Fading: Teaching Yes-No Manding, Jessica M. Kelly 2020 Humboldt State University

Mand Training And Prompt Fading: Teaching Yes-No Manding, Jessica M. Kelly

HSU theses and projects

Language is a collection of verbal skills which allows the speaker to have some control over how others interact with them. Saying the words “yes” and “no” are fundamental language abilities; The words impact the speaker’s environment by communicating acceptance or rejection of stimuli and experiences. Caregivers, teachers, and friends may have to make choices for an individual who cannot respond to yes-no questions. This skill deficit deprives the individual of autonomy and can lead to challenging behaviors occurring in place of clear communication. Applied Behavior Analysis offers techniques to teach language skills such as saying “yes” and “no ...


Efficacy Of The Feline Temperament Profile In Evaluating Sheltered Cats For Adoption Into Families Of A Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Angélique Lamontagne, Rebecca A. Johnson, Gretchen K. Carlisle, Leslie A. Lyons, Jessica L. Bibbo, Colleen Koch, Steven J. Osterlind 2020 Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse

Efficacy Of The Feline Temperament Profile In Evaluating Sheltered Cats For Adoption Into Families Of A Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Angélique Lamontagne, Rebecca A. Johnson, Gretchen K. Carlisle, Leslie A. Lyons, Jessica L. Bibbo, Colleen Koch, Steven J. Osterlind

Animal Studies Journal

This project was part of the Feline Friends Study, which matches shelter cats with families of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to study children’s social behaviour and cats’ stress. Cats were screened for calm temperament using the Feline Temperament Profile (FTP). The FTP consists of ten phases, with a list of ‘acceptable’ and ‘questionable’ behaviours under each phase. Our aim was to answer the following research questions: What items of the FTP best predict temperament in shelter cats? What are similarities and differences in temperament between cats who qualified or did not qualify for placement? Forty-four shelter cats ...


Negative Punishment During Alternative Reinforcement Does Not Reduce Subsequent Resurgence, Alexander Houchins, Catherine L. Williams, Claire C. St. Peter 2020 West Virginia University

Negative Punishment During Alternative Reinforcement Does Not Reduce Subsequent Resurgence, Alexander Houchins, Catherine L. Williams, Claire C. St. Peter

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Resurgence of previously suppressed behavior can occur when differential reinforcement is discontinued. Recent research has investigated strategies to mitigate resurgence, such as punishing the target response during alternative reinforcement. Loss of reinforcers contingent on the target response (response cost) does not appear to attenuate resurgence, but these effects had not been replicated with other negative-punishment procedures, such as timeout. This study investigated effects of timeout on subsequent resurgence when adults responded to earn points during a computer task. Timeout did not affect subsequent resurgence. These findings, in combination with previous research, suggest that negative punishment may not reduce the likelihood ...


Laterality Of Eye Use By Bottlenose (Tursiops Truncatus) And Rough-Toothed (Steno Bredanensis) Dolphins While Viewing Predictable And Unpredictable Stimuli, Malin Lilley, Amber J. de Vere, Deirdre Yeater 2020 Texas A & M University - San Antonio

Laterality Of Eye Use By Bottlenose (Tursiops Truncatus) And Rough-Toothed (Steno Bredanensis) Dolphins While Viewing Predictable And Unpredictable Stimuli, Malin Lilley, Amber J. De Vere, Deirdre Yeater

Psychology Faculty Publications

Laterality of eye use has been increasingly studied in cetaceans. Research supports that many cetacean species keep prey on the right side while feeding and preferentially view unfamiliar objects with the right eye. In contrast, the left eye has been used more by calves while in close proximity to their mothers. Despite some discrepancies across and within species, laterality of eye use generally indicates functional specialization of brain hemispheres in cetaceans. The present study aimed to examine laterality of eye use in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis) under managed care. Subjects were video-recorded through an underwater ...


Gender And Ethnicity: Are They Associated With Differential Outcomes Of A Biopsychosocial Social-Emotional Learning Program?, Ronnie I. Newman, Odikia Yim, David Shaenfield 2020 International Association for Human Values

Gender And Ethnicity: Are They Associated With Differential Outcomes Of A Biopsychosocial Social-Emotional Learning Program?, Ronnie I. Newman, Odikia Yim, David Shaenfield

Psychology Faculty Publications

Context: Social-emotional learning (SEL) program outcomes may be enhanced when programs take into account gender and ethnicity differences, yet few studies directly examine these variables. The limited literature further suggests improved outcomes accrue by integrating physiological techniques, such as yoga and meditation, directly into SEL curricula to reduce stress.

Aims: This study investigated the association between outcomes of a yogic breath-based biopsychosocial SEL intervention across gender and ethnicity.

Methods: Fifty-nine high school students were evaluated on 4 positive (self-esteem, identity formation, anger coping ability, planning, and concentration) and 3 negative SEL outcomes (impulsivity, distractibility, and endorsement of aggression). Using a ...


Project Mk Ultra: A Site Of Forgotten Calamity, Jacoby D Banet 2020 University of Louisville

Project Mk Ultra: A Site Of Forgotten Calamity, Jacoby D Banet

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Project MK Ultra refers to a set of top-secret CIA experiments that took place from 1953 to 1973 and involved unwitting subjects being administered drugs and hypnosis. As there is little information currently existent digitally relating to the project, an archive was established through this essay which relates information regarding the truth of what happened during the experiments without conspiracy theories as are often found in relation to this project. After having done research on the project as a whole and subsequently finding fifteen artifacts that communicate important truths about the project, it can be concluded that the CIA, in ...


The Effects Of Behavioral Skills Training To Teach Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder How To Respond To Bullying, Carissa Lyn Kazee 2020 University of North Florida

The Effects Of Behavioral Skills Training To Teach Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder How To Respond To Bullying, Carissa Lyn Kazee

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The literature on bullying among school-aged children is widespread, with more than half of children on the autism spectrum having reported experiencing some form of bullying in the last year. For this reason, the primary goal of this study was to introduce a two-week long intervention to teach six middle-school aged children with autism how to recognize and appropriately respond to bullying. The intervention used behavioral skills training that is complimentary to Bandura’s social learning theory. Six middle school-aged participants, one girl and five boys, were taught to recognize bullying situations using comic strip vignettes, and how to respond ...


The Midsession Reversal Task With Pigeons: Effects Of A Brief Delay Between Choice And Reinforcement, Megan Ashley Halloran 2020 University of Kentucky

The Midsession Reversal Task With Pigeons: Effects Of A Brief Delay Between Choice And Reinforcement, Megan Ashley Halloran

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

During a midsession reversal task, the session begins with a simple simultaneous discrimination in which one stimulus (S1) is correct and the alternate stimulus (S2) is incorrect (S1+/S2-). At the halfway point, the discrimination reverses and S2 becomes the correct choice (S2+/S1-). When choosing optimally, a pigeon should choose S1 until the first trial in which it is not reinforced and then shift to S2 (win-stay/lose-shift). With this task pigeons have been shown to respond suboptimally by anticipating the reversal (anticipatory errors) and continuing to choose S1 after the reversal (perseverative errors). This suboptimal behavior may result ...


Behavioral Functions Of Stimuli Correlated With Transitions Between Rich And Lean Schedules Of Reinforcement, Cory Whirtley 2020 West Virginia University

Behavioral Functions Of Stimuli Correlated With Transitions Between Rich And Lean Schedules Of Reinforcement, Cory Whirtley

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Disruptions in operant behavior in the form of extended pausing reliably occur when there is a discriminable transition from a relatively rich schedule of reinforcement to a relatively lean schedule (i.e., a rich-lean transition). The present experiments assessed the reinforcing and aversive functions of the stimuli correlated with the transitions between rich and lean schedules using observing and escape procedures. In both experiments, pigeons’ key pecks were reinforced with food on a compound schedule with two FR components. Completing the FR in the rich component produced a large reinforcer; completing the FR in the lean component produced a small ...


Chlordiazepoxide Increases Risky Choice, Devin Andrew Galdieri 2020 West Virginia University

Chlordiazepoxide Increases Risky Choice, Devin Andrew Galdieri

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Probability discounting is a measure of risky choice that is correlated with maladaptive behavior and psychological disorders. Benzodiazepines are a class of drug on which relatively little risky-choice research has been conducted, particularly under conditions of chronic drug exposure. Chlordiazepoxide, a standard benzodiazepine, was administered to rats that had been trained to respond on a risky-choice task in which a choice was available between a single food pellet with 100% certainty or three food pellets with probabilities of delivery that decreased across each experimental session. During baseline, responding was sensitive to the programmed contingencies and larger-reinforcer choice decreased as the ...


A Daily Diary Study Of Drinking And Nondrinking Days In Nonstudent Alcohol Users, Cathy Lau-Barraco, Ashley N. Linden-Carmichael 2020 Old Dominion University

A Daily Diary Study Of Drinking And Nondrinking Days In Nonstudent Alcohol Users, Cathy Lau-Barraco, Ashley N. Linden-Carmichael

Psychology Faculty Publications

Background: Emerging adults with lower educational attainment are at higher long-term risk for problematic drinking and alcohol use disorders. Efforts to gain a more in-depth understanding of the drinking habits of nonstudent emerging adults are critical to reduce disparities and to shed light on targets of intervention for this vulnerable group.

Objectives: The current investigation aimed to: (1) provide a description of the daily drinking habits of nonstudent emerging adult drinkers using a 14-day diary method, and (2) examine nondrinking days by assessing their reasons for not drinking as well as strategies used to avoid drinking.

Methods: Participants were 27 ...


Mechanisms Of Value-Biased Prioritization In Fast Sensorimotor Decision Making, Kivilcim Afacan-Seref 2020 CUNY City College

Mechanisms Of Value-Biased Prioritization In Fast Sensorimotor Decision Making, Kivilcim Afacan-Seref

Dissertations and Theses

In dynamic environments, split-second sensorimotor decisions must be prioritized according to potential payoffs to maximize overall rewards. The impact of relative value on deliberative perceptual judgments has been examined extensively, but relatively little is known about value-biasing mechanisms in the common situation where physical evidence is strong but the time to act is severely limited. This research examines the behavioral and electrophysiological indices of how value biases split-second perceptual decisions and the possible mechanisms underlying the process. In prominent decision models, a noisy but statistically stationary representation of sensory evidence is integrated over time to an action-triggering bound, and value-biases ...


Examining Sucrose Subjective Response Among Individuals With Opioid Use Disorder, Taylor Anne Ochalek 2020 University of Vermont

Examining Sucrose Subjective Response Among Individuals With Opioid Use Disorder, Taylor Anne Ochalek

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Aims: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) with methadone or buprenorphine represents the most efficacious treatment. However, data suggest that chronic administration of opioids may be associated with significant weight gain, possibly by altering an organism’s perception of and preference for sweet foods. The primary aim of this laboratory study was to rigorously examine sucrose subjective response among adults receiving OAT and a comparison sample without OUD. As secondary outcomes, we also sought to compare the groups on additional baseline characteristics that may influence subjective sucrose response and weight ...


Alternatives: The Video Game. An Assessment Of Bias And Preferences In Uncertain Situations, Vincent Edwards 2020 Georgia Southern University

Alternatives: The Video Game. An Assessment Of Bias And Preferences In Uncertain Situations, Vincent Edwards

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Going against working assumptions of what is "natural", animals have been observed to "gamble" when choosing between a high-risk choice with a high reward, and a consistent alternative with a low reward that feeds them more over time. The Energy Budget Rule (EBR) claims that animals have a foraging goal they must reach to survive, and each attempt to forage has a cost; under certain conditions, a high risk "gamble" is the best option for survival. The present study attempts to observe human choice behavior in a task that tests EBR and assesses shifts in behavior over time as an ...


Prayer As A Potential Buffer Against Ego Depletion, Danielle Oehring 2020 Georgia Southern University

Prayer As A Potential Buffer Against Ego Depletion, Danielle Oehring

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ego depletion is theorized as the loss of self-control after it has been exerted over a period of time, leading to loss of conscious regulation of behavior. Buffering against this loss is characterized by engaging in an activity that will help extent the use of self-control, helping to further regulate behaviors such as impulse control. We were interested in learning how prayer may act as a buffer against ego depletion and compared prayer against self-encouraging talk to find is there is a difference between how the two affect self-control. One hundred ten participants were randomly assigned to a video group ...


Serotonin 5-Ht2a And 5-Ht2c Receptors Regulate Rat Maternal Behavior Through Distinct Behavioral And Neural Mechanisms, Jun Gao, Lina Nie, Yu Li, Ming Li 2020 Southwest University, Chongqing, China

Serotonin 5-Ht2a And 5-Ht2c Receptors Regulate Rat Maternal Behavior Through Distinct Behavioral And Neural Mechanisms, Jun Gao, Lina Nie, Yu Li, Ming Li

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors play important yet distinctive roles in the regulation of rat maternal behavior. The present study investigated their neural substrates and explored the possible behavioral mechanisms (i.e., behavioral organization or maternal motivation). Sprague-Dawley postpartum females were microinjected with either a selective 5-HT2A agonist (TCB-2, 0.4 or 4.0 μg/side) or a 5-HT2C agonist (MK212, 2.5 or 5.0 μg/side) into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or ventral tegmental area (VTA). Ten and 60 min later, their maternal activities were observed in the home cage; and their motivational ...


Impact Of The Csi Effect And Authority Bias On Juror Decisions, Meredith Scruggs 2020 Central Washington University

Impact Of The Csi Effect And Authority Bias On Juror Decisions, Meredith Scruggs

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The recent increase in number of crime drama television shows raises the issue that these fictional portrayals may impact real proceedings in the justice system. This phenomenon has become known as the CSI effect. This includes the concept of authority bias, by which laypeople place higher value on information provided by those that they perceive to be in positions of authority. 289 college students completed a survey comparing their likelihood to match an unknown fingerprint to a suspect’s, after actors portraying evidence technicians either confirm the match or provide no conclusion. Results showed no significant interaction between the confirmation ...


Exploring The Spirit In U.S. Audiences: The Role Of The Virtue Of Transcendence In Inspiring Media Consumption, Sophie Janicke-Bowles, Arthur A. Raney, Mary Beth Oliver, Katherine R. Dale, Robert P. Jones, Daniel Cox 2019 Chapman University

Exploring The Spirit In U.S. Audiences: The Role Of The Virtue Of Transcendence In Inspiring Media Consumption, Sophie Janicke-Bowles, Arthur A. Raney, Mary Beth Oliver, Katherine R. Dale, Robert P. Jones, Daniel Cox

Communication Faculty Articles and Research

Little is yet known about audiences who routinely seek out media content that is inspirational in nature. The current study expands the research on inspirational media by utilizing a nationally representative sample of U.S. audiences (n = 2,016) to explore relationships between inspiring media exposure, trait transcendence, and self-transcendent emotions. Results show that media content is a reliable source for everyday self-transcendent emotional experiences in U.S. audiences. These experiences are most frequently encountered by persons with high levels of trait spirituality and gratitude. The profile of U.S. audiences that seek out inspiring media is discussed.


Consequences Of Math Anxiety And Stereotype Threat: An Intersectional Perspective, Jennifer E. John Buck 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Consequences Of Math Anxiety And Stereotype Threat: An Intersectional Perspective, Jennifer E. John Buck

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Individuals with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) skills are highly valued for their contribution to the U.S. workforce and society. However, women and some people of color enter STEM fields at lesser rates than do White men. Math anxiety and stereotype threat have been found to cause math performance decrements for women and some people of color. Presently, it is not clear how math anxiety and stereotype threat might work together to dually influence math performance and subsequent STEM participation. The current study focuses on a diverse sample of 295 undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to one ...


You’Re The Boss: The Stereotype Content Model As A Predictive Behavioral Tool In Résumé Evaluation Processes, Caylin M. Faria 2019 Bridgewater State University

You’Re The Boss: The Stereotype Content Model As A Predictive Behavioral Tool In Résumé Evaluation Processes, Caylin M. Faria

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Extensive literature has confirmed that hiring discrimination is a persistent problem; less research has focused on the social cognitive mechanisms of prejudicial hiring and its effects on résumé evaluations. The present study evaluated how stereotyped evaluations of minority candidates could be predicted with the Stereotype Content Model (SCM) dimensions of warmth and competence. No published research has demonstrated how SCM group ratings may predict evaluations of individuals and their qualifications for employment. Participants evaluated two résumés for each of five listed job positions and completed a survey packet. One résumé in each pair suggested membership in a minority group: Muslim ...


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