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Assessment Of Sex Differences And Amphetamine On Schedule-Induced Polydipsia, Min Park 2019 Northern Michigan University

Assessment Of Sex Differences And Amphetamine On Schedule-Induced Polydipsia, Min Park

All NMU Master's Theses

Amphetamine (AMPH) is one of the most common psychotropic drugs abused in the United States. Its major pharmacological effect is to increase synaptic dopamine levels in the mesolimbic reward pathway, which in turn causes behavioral effects in animals, and subjective effects in humans. These reinforcing properties of AMPH trigger very strong levels of craving the drug, and eventually result in patterns of compulsive use of AMPH. Regarding psychostimulant action, female rats have been reported to be more vulnerable to the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants. In the current study, schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP), an animal model of compulsive behavior, was applied for ...


Measuring Contextual Factors Associated With Experiential Avoidance Using A Behavior Analogue Paradigm, Meaghan M. Lewis 2019 Western Michigan University

Measuring Contextual Factors Associated With Experiential Avoidance Using A Behavior Analogue Paradigm, Meaghan M. Lewis

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between levels of state and trait experiential avoidance across two different contexts using behavior analogue methodology. Performance on the cold pressor task (threshold, tolerance, endurance, and intensity; Zettle et al., 2012) was compared to performance on a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) to obtain a behavioral measure of experiential avoidance that was standardized across these four behavioral indices. Data were collected from a convenience sample of undergraduate students (N = 133) from college classrooms on the campus of Western Michigan University. Participants ...


Hating Evil: Understanding The Role Of Evil In Interpersonal Hate, Carmen Merrick 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Hating Evil: Understanding The Role Of Evil In Interpersonal Hate, Carmen Merrick

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Research has demonstrated that hate is a protective emotional response to perceived evil, yet the dimensions by which people perceive evil have not been clearly identified. Research has also indicated that it is evil to feel hate, which presents an interesting paradox: if hate protects us from evil, then how can it be evil to feel hate? The present research attempts to identify the dimensions of evil and elucidate the relationship between hate and evil by comparing it to the relationship between dislike and evil. Study 1 tested how participants identified evil in third person scenarios. As predicted, evil was ...


The Effects Of Hand Holding On Cancer Patients Level Of Anxiety: A Single-Case Study, West Loveland 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Hand Holding On Cancer Patients Level Of Anxiety: A Single-Case Study, West Loveland

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore how the anxiety levels of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients receiving chemotherapy are affected while holding hands with a secure attachment. This study utilized three experimental single-case designs: participant one measured under a B-design, participant two measured under a B-A design, and participant three measured under an A-B design. Each participant’s anxiety was assessed during six chemotherapy treatments and one meeting with their primary oncologist to discuss the prognosis of their cancerous disease. Results visually indicate a greater effect on anxiety reduction during treatment when the intervention is utilized compared to only ...


Like Me, Do What I Say, & Think About My Influence: The Effects On Witness Choosing And Metacognition, Brittany Race 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Like Me, Do What I Say, & Think About My Influence: The Effects On Witness Choosing And Metacognition, Brittany Race

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Confidence can be a strong predictor of accuracy if circumstances are ideal (Wixted & Wells, 2017), but ideal circumstances are not always present. As such it is important to understand ways to ameliorate potentially negative effects on eyewitness metacognition. Rapport building, though seen as an important element of police/witness interaction (Vallano et al., 2015), can lead to some potentially negative memory effects (Wright et al., 2015). Additionally steering, or the process of directing a witness toward a particular suspect, can increase false identifications. Recently the researcher has developed a paradigm meant to better calibrate confidence by reinstating the context of ...


How Does Alcohol Intoxication Impair Risk Detection Of Sexual Assault? Testing An Integration Of Alcohol Myopia And Social Information Processing Theories, Alexander James Melkonian 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

How Does Alcohol Intoxication Impair Risk Detection Of Sexual Assault? Testing An Integration Of Alcohol Myopia And Social Information Processing Theories, Alexander James Melkonian

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sexual assault among young adults is a highly prevalent public health concern. Alcohol is often implicated as a risk factor for sexual assault through its impairing effects on an individual’s ability to process and respond to social cues in the environment. The effect of alcohol myopia can result in greater focus of attention on salient environmental cues. The relationship between alcohol intoxication and resulting behavior may depend on what type of information is most salient. The current study examined the effects of alcohol on social information processing as it relates to sexual assault risk detection. Method: Participants were 48 ...


The Effect Of Conversational Agent Skill On User Behavior During Deception, Ryan M. Schuetzler, G Mark Grimes, Justin Scott Giboney 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

The Effect Of Conversational Agent Skill On User Behavior During Deception, Ryan M. Schuetzler, G Mark Grimes, Justin Scott Giboney

Ryan Schuetzler

No abstract provided.


Naturally Better? A Review Of The Natural‐Is‐Better Bias, Brian P. Meier, Amanda J. Dillard, Courtney M. Lappas 2019 Gettysburg College

Naturally Better? A Review Of The Natural‐Is‐Better Bias, Brian P. Meier, Amanda J. Dillard, Courtney M. Lappas

Psychology Faculty Publications

People are frequently exposed to products and services that are labeled natural (e.g., Nature Made Vitamins or GoJo Natural Orange Hand Cleaner). The frequency with which this label is used suggests that it delivers an advantage in marketing and sales. Our review examines the preference for and perception of naturalness and reveals that people have a bias for items described as natural in many domains including foods, medicine, beauty products, cigarettes, and lighting. These preferences abound even when the natural item is identical or not objectively better than the non‐natural or synthetic item. We believe this bias may ...


The Impact Of Family Rituals And Maternal Depressive Symptoms On Child Externalizing Behaviors: An Urban–Rural Comparison, Juan Bao, Clinton G. Gudmunson, Kimberly A. Greder, Suzanne R. Smith 2019 Iowa State University

The Impact Of Family Rituals And Maternal Depressive Symptoms On Child Externalizing Behaviors: An Urban–Rural Comparison, Juan Bao, Clinton G. Gudmunson, Kimberly A. Greder, Suzanne R. Smith

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

Background The association between maternal depression and child negative behavior outcomes has been well established in the literature. However, understanding how maternal depression is associated with child behaviors will have important implications for research and intervention strategies.

Objective We used samples from two distinct family contexts: urban, middle-class families (N = 454); and rural, low-income families (N = 240), to compare the impact of family rituals and maternal depressive symptoms on child externalizing behaviors. We also examined the impact of maternal depressive symptoms on family rituals.

Methods Structural equation modeling and multiple group analyses were conducted. Child age, child gender, mother age ...


Allocation To Groups: Examples Of Lord's Paradox, Daniel B. Wright 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Allocation To Groups: Examples Of Lord's Paradox, Daniel B. Wright

Educational Psychology & Higher Education Faculty Publications

Background Educational and developmental psychologists often examine how groups change over time. Two analytic procedures – analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and the gain score model – each seem well suited for the simplest situation, with just two groups and two time points. They can produce different results, what is known as Lord's paradox. Aims Several factors should influence a researcher's analytic choice. This includes whether the score from the initial time influences how people are assigned to groups. Examples are shown, which will help to explain this to researchers and students, and are of educational relevance. It is shown that ...


Preschool Self-Regulation: A Predictor Of School Readiness, Romin Emmanuel Geiger 2019 Western Kentucky University

Preschool Self-Regulation: A Predictor Of School Readiness, Romin Emmanuel Geiger

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Substantial evidence from previous research has supported the idea that greater self-regulation in the form of “cool” self-regulation or executive functioning and “hot” self-regulation or effortful control is associated with higher academic achievement within the preschool years and school readiness in the kindergarten years (Anaya, 2016; Carlson, 2005). However, there are only a few studies that assess the prediction of school readiness through validated cool and hot self-regulation tasks (Carlson, 2005; Krain, Wilson, Arbuckle, Kastellanos, & Wilham, 2006; Rothbart, Ellis, Rueda, & Posner, 2003; Thompson & Giedd, 2000). There also few studies examining to what extent cool and hot-self-regulation tasks predict socio-emotional (Blair, 2002) and academic achievement ...


Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of Putative Antipsychotic Drugs, Alex Lekander 2019 Northern Michigan University

Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of Putative Antipsychotic Drugs, Alex Lekander

All NMU Master's Theses

This study attempted to further explore the discriminative stimulus properties of antipsychotic drugs, by establishing the typical antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine, and the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine as discriminative stimulus in two different groups of rats. The rats trained to discriminate chlorpromazine from vehicle failed to do so reliably, however nine of ten rats trained to discriminate 1.25 mg/kg clozapine from vehicle were able to acquire the discrimination in 19.1 sessions. The clozapine cue partially generalized (63.13% drug lever responding [SEM = ± 18.91]) to the antimalarial drug methylene blue at the 7.5 mg/kg dose, but ...


Age-Dependent Effects Of Eedq On Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activity And D2 Receptor Supersensitivity, Angie Teran 2019 California State University, San Bernardino

Age-Dependent Effects Of Eedq On Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activity And D2 Receptor Supersensitivity, Angie Teran

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The neurochemical changes occurring between the preweanling period and adolescence could be crucial for understanding the role development plays in the manifestation of psychotic behaviors. N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) fully attenuates the DA agonist-induced behaviors of adult rats, while potentiating the DA agonist-induced locomotor activity of preweanling rats. My specific hypotheses were as follows: (1) Systemically administered EEDQ would block the cocaine-induced locomotor activity of adult rats. (2) Systemically administered EEDQ would potentiate the cocaine-induced locomotion of preweanling rats. (3) EEDQ would increase the Emax values (a measure of D2 receptor sensitivity) of preweanling rats, but not adolescent or adult ...


Building A Statistical Model Of The Drivers Of Self-Presentation, Kathleen Jocoy 2019 University of South Carolina

Building A Statistical Model Of The Drivers Of Self-Presentation, Kathleen Jocoy

Theses and Dissertations

The attempt to maintain a consistently positive public image is known as self-presentation; however, the structure of self-presentation has not been adequately explored. This paper aimed to identify a theory-based model for self-presentation by examining the relationship between personality traits and utilization of self-presentational behaviors. A review of the literature suggested self-presentation would be best modeled with a second order two-factor model with second order factors of Evaluation and Response. The second order factor of Evaluation is expected to explain the first order factors Perceived Anonymity, Sociability, and Communality while the second order factor of response is expected to explain ...


Inhibition Of Return In Visual Search: Disentangling Overlapping Contributions With Event-Related Potentials, Allison Michelle Pierce 2019 University of South Carolina

Inhibition Of Return In Visual Search: Disentangling Overlapping Contributions With Event-Related Potentials, Allison Michelle Pierce

Theses and Dissertations

Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the finding that responses to previously attended locations are slower than those to previously unattended locations. Despite over 30 years of research on IOR, there is still no consensus in the field regarding what the underlying mechanism of this effect is. Although IOR is traditionally studied within spatial cueing paradigms, this effect is thought to reflect a mechanism that facilitates efficient visual search. The following studies explored the hypothesis that multiple processes contribute to the IOR effect in visual search and examined whether these are the same processes that result in IOR in cueing ...


The Effects Of Automation Transparency And Reliability On Task Shedding And Operator Trust, William Everett Lehman 2019 Old Dominion University

The Effects Of Automation Transparency And Reliability On Task Shedding And Operator Trust, William Everett Lehman

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Because automation use is common in many domains, understanding how to design it to optimize human-automation system performance is vital. Well-calibrated trust ensures good performance when using imperfect automation. Two factors that may jointly affect trust calibration are automation transparency and perceived reliability. Transparency information that explains automated processes and analyses to the operator may help the operator choose appropriate times to shed task control to automation. Because operator trust is positively correlated with automation use, behaviors such as task shedding to automation can indicate the presence of trust. This study used a 2 (reliability; between) × 3 (transparency; within) split-plot ...


Conceptualization Of Faculty Work Motivation: Overcoming The Impasse, Julie Nikolaeva Thompson 2019 Old Dominion University

Conceptualization Of Faculty Work Motivation: Overcoming The Impasse, Julie Nikolaeva Thompson

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The work motivation literature is at an impasse. At the same time, changing economic and social conditions necessitate an ongoing transformation for how organizations motivate their workforce. Although changes in the nature of work have captured the attention of researchers, calls for more research to further develop work motivation theory have largely gone unnoticed. The scarcity of new theoretical research contributes to a lack of contextual understanding in work motivation. As such, organizational leaders continue to develop interventions based on the findings of potentially outdated work motivation theories. This may lead to diminished work motivation, productivity, and commitment, particularly for ...


An Empirical Examination Of Contemporary American Spiritualism And Mediumship At Lily Dale, New York, Diana Ali 2019 Western University

An Empirical Examination Of Contemporary American Spiritualism And Mediumship At Lily Dale, New York, Diana Ali

Western Research Forum

American Spiritualism is an American religion that was born in 1848 in Hydesville, New York. Its central principles state that there is life after death and that mediums have the capability to communicate with discarnate beings. Mediums are persons who claim they can communicate with the dead. Today, Lily Dale, New York is the largest surviving community of American Spiritualism, with a population of mediums that host an annual festival that draws large crowds from around the world upwards of 20,000-30,000 visitors. The author of the present interdisciplinary study outlined a historical overview of American Spiritualism and conducted ...


Individual Differences In Cyber Security, Christopher Conetta 2019 San Jose State University

Individual Differences In Cyber Security, Christopher Conetta

McNair Research Journal SJSU

A survey of IT professionals suggested that despite technological advancement and organizational procedures to prevent cyber-attacks, users are still the weakest link in cyber security (Crossler, 2013). This suggests it is important to discover what individual differences may cause a user to be more or less vulnerable to cyber security threats. Cyber security knowledge has been shown to lead to increased learning and proactive cyber security behavior (CSB). Self-efficacy has been shown to be a strong predictor of a user’s intended behavior. Traits such as neuroticism have been shown to negatively influence cyber security knowledge and self-efficacy, which may ...


Will Society Break Down When Women Earn More Than Men?, Singapore Management University 2019 Singapore Management University

Will Society Break Down When Women Earn More Than Men?, Singapore Management University

Perspectives@SMU

Relationships may be even happier when females pull in the big bucks


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