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Conditional Standard Error Of Measurement: Classical Test Theory, Generalizability Theory And Many-Facet Rasch Measurement With Applications To Writing Assessment, Alan Huebner, Gustaf B. Skar 2021 University of Notre Dame

Conditional Standard Error Of Measurement: Classical Test Theory, Generalizability Theory And Many-Facet Rasch Measurement With Applications To Writing Assessment, Alan Huebner, Gustaf B. Skar

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Writing assessments often consist of students responding to multiple prompts, which are judged by more than one rater. To establish the reliability of these assessments, there exist different methods to disentangle variation due to prompts and raters, including classical test theory, Many Facet Rasch Measurement (MFRM), and Generalizability Theory (G-Theory). Each of these methods defines a standard error of measurement (SEM), which is a quantity that summarizes the overall variability of student scores. However, less attention has been given to conditional SEMs (CSEM), which expresses the variability for scores of individual students. This tutorial summarizes how to obtain CSEMs for ...


Exploring The Perceived Barriers And Benefits Of Physical Activity Among Wounded, Injured, And/Or Sick Military Veterans, Robert Walker, Caroline Limbert, Paul M. Smith 2021 Cardiff Metropolitan University

Exploring The Perceived Barriers And Benefits Of Physical Activity Among Wounded, Injured, And/Or Sick Military Veterans, Robert Walker, Caroline Limbert, Paul M. Smith

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Wounded, injured, and/or sick (WIS) military veterans face significant physical and psychosocial challenges following discharge from service. Physical activity can have many positive effects on the holistic wellbeing of such individuals. However, little knowledge exists regarding the perceived barriers and benefits of physical activity within this population, creating challenges surrounding physical activity promotion. Therefore, this study was designed to identify key barriers and benefits among this population, so that informed approaches to encourage participation in physical activity can be developed. A questionnaire related to the perceived barriers and benefits of physical activity was completed by 105 WIS British military ...


Perceptions Of Covid-19 Among Religious Leaders, Anna Anderson 2021 Kennesaw State University

Perceptions Of Covid-19 Among Religious Leaders, Anna Anderson

Symposium of Student Scholars

The research shows how religious leaders have been affected and have attempted to adapt to COVID-19. The research was compiled of responses from religious leaders and affiliates to get a better understanding of their opinions. The data we are collecting is being analyzed so that we, the researchers, can determine if religious leaders are using their title to lead the community that follows them on the safest path or not, as well as if they are spreading an accurate message to their community about the COVID-19 Pandemic. The purpose of being able to identify how religious leaders are responding to ...


Reporting Of Eating Disorder Deaths, Katherine Mobley, Amy Hord 2021 Kennesaw State University

Reporting Of Eating Disorder Deaths, Katherine Mobley, Amy Hord

Symposium of Student Scholars

Those affected by eating disorders experience disturbances in eating behaviors which are often related to underlying psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, or obsessive-compulsive disorder (Parekh, 2017, Drieberg et al., 1998 p.53). The duplicitous nature of the disorder makes it difficult to diagnose, and the tole it takes on an individual’s physical health makes its mortality rate the second highest among psychiatric disorders (Guinhut et al., 2021 p.130). Even if the correct education and resources are accessible to certain individuals, negative stigmatization about the disorder can make sufferers unlikely to seek help (Becker et al., 2010). Findings ...


Rasch Measurement V. Item Response Theory: Knowing When To Cross The Line, Steven E. Stemler, Adam Naples 2021 Wesleyan University

Rasch Measurement V. Item Response Theory: Knowing When To Cross The Line, Steven E. Stemler, Adam Naples

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

When students receive the same score on a test, does that mean they know the same amount about the topic? The answer to this question is more complex than it may first appear. This paper compares classical and modern test theories in terms of how they estimate student ability. Crucial distinctions between the aims of Rasch Measurement and IRT are highlighted. By modeling a second parameter (item discrimination) and allowing item characteristic curves to cross, as IRT models do, more information is incorporated into the estimate of person ability, but the measurement scale is no longer guaranteed to have the ...


Traditional Sexual Script And Double Standard Adherence: Predictors Of Heterosexually Identified Women’S And Men’S Previous Engagement In Consensual Non-Monogamy, Nina Dours, Amy Moors, Amanda N. Gesselman, Justin R. Garcia 2021 Chapman University

Traditional Sexual Script And Double Standard Adherence: Predictors Of Heterosexually Identified Women’S And Men’S Previous Engagement In Consensual Non-Monogamy, Nina Dours, Amy Moors, Amanda N. Gesselman, Justin R. Garcia

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

With respect to consensually non-monogamous (CNM) relationships (e.g., open relationships, polyamory), a consistent gender difference emerges: heterosexual men report greater desire and engagement in CNM than heterosexual women (Haupert et al., 2017; Moors et al., 2015). This gender difference raises the question: Why do women and men differ in their CNM behaviors? In the present study, we suggest that this may be due to women’s stronger adherence to the traditional sexual script, which is rooted in gendered dating norms, punishes women who engage in non-committed sexual behaviors, and glorifies monogamy (Fritz & Kitzinger, 2001). We examined how heterosexual men’s and women’s adherence to the traditional sexual script affects their previous engagement in CNM using data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (n = 3,438). Participants completed three measures relevant to this study: 1) endorsement of the sexual script (attitudes towards sex and love; (S. S. Hendrick & Hendrick, 2002), 2) level of permissiveness towards casual sex; (C. Hendrick, Hendrick, & Reich ...


The Impact Of Locus Of Control, Norms, And Social Desirability On Substance Risk Perception, Rachel A. Turner 2021 Brescia University College

The Impact Of Locus Of Control, Norms, And Social Desirability On Substance Risk Perception, Rachel A. Turner

Brescia Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

Drug use among college students is common and can be associated with adverse effects. This study sought to identify how drug-related beliefs about risk and descriptive and injunctive social norms vary for a variety of legal, prescription, and illicit drugs. The relationship between these attitudes, locus of control and social desirability was also assessed. A sample of 58 female undergraduate students from a university in Ontario, Canada completed a web-based survey. Findings indicated no association between locus of control and any other measures apart from social desirability and descriptive marijuana norms, which were also associated. Although marijuana was perceived as ...


Burnout, Self-Efficacy, And Coping Strategies Among College Faculty, Jordan M. Ball 2021 Old Dominion University

Burnout, Self-Efficacy, And Coping Strategies Among College Faculty, Jordan M. Ball

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Due to the changing college environment, university faculty are faced with a serious burden to support their university. University faculty are expected to satisfy numerous job demands, and these demands in turn lead to burnout, a chronic response to job stressors. Burnout is an essential component of occupational research as it relates to other negative outcomes, such as turnover and decreased performance. Because of this, it behooves both faculty and universities to employ methods that decrease burnout. Research concerning other populations indicates that certain personal resources can decrease burnout. Therefore, the current study seeks to determine if coping strategies and ...


Ascertaining The Relationship Between Traditional Masculinity Ideology And Personal Growth Initiative In College Students, Christopher J. Ha 2021 The University of Akron, Department of Psychology

Ascertaining The Relationship Between Traditional Masculinity Ideology And Personal Growth Initiative In College Students, Christopher J. Ha

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The emerging psychological field of men and masculinities is credited with the development and validation of an array of instruments to assess masculinity-related constructs, with many emanating from the gender role strain paradigm (GRSP; Levant & Powell, 2017; Levant & Richmond, 2007, 2016; Pleck, 1981, 1995). However, there is little research that employs a positive psychology framework while considering the potential positive aspects of masculinity. The majority of literature utilizing these measures focus on the pathological effects of masculinity. The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between traditional masculinity ideology (TMI) and personal growth initiative (PGI) in a sample of college students, utilizing two ...


Measuring Intelligence With The Sandia Matrices: Psychometric Review And Recommendations For Free Raven-Like Item Sets, Alexandra M. Harris, Jeremiah T. McMillan, Benjamin Listyg, Laura E. Matzen, Nathan Carter 2020 University of Georgia; Northwestern University

Measuring Intelligence With The Sandia Matrices: Psychometric Review And Recommendations For Free Raven-Like Item Sets, Alexandra M. Harris, Jeremiah T. Mcmillan, Benjamin Listyg, Laura E. Matzen, Nathan Carter

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

The Sandia Matrices are a free alternative to the Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPMs). This study offers a psychometric review of Sandia Matrices items focused on two of the most commonly investigated issues regarding the RPMs: (a) dimensionality and (b) sex differences. Model-data fit of three alternative factor structures are compared using confirmatory multidimensional item response theory (IRT) analyses, and measurement equivalence analyses are conducted to evaluate potential sex bias. Although results are somewhat inconclusive regarding factor structure, results do not show evidence of bias or mean differences by sex. Finally, although the Sandia Matrices software can generate infinite items ...


It’S All The Rage: An Animated Approach To Screening For Postpartum Depression, Amanda Gorham 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

It’S All The Rage: An Animated Approach To Screening For Postpartum Depression, Amanda Gorham

Doctoral Dissertations

Postpartum depression presents a complication for mothers which can, in some cases, be severe and even life-threatening. Instruments commonly used to screen for this psychological condition have been challenged by an extensive body of literature, with many mothers being unidentified and even untreated for their symptoms. The presented research introduces a newly developed screening instrument for detecting probable postpartum depression using text-free scenario-based animations, based on the lived experience of the condition as qualified by empirical research and the existing body of literature. Developed items were controlled for quality via Think Aloud Protocol and alignment studies with subject matter experts ...


Uncovering The Neural And Behavioral Factors That Underlie Changes In Processing Visual Orientation, Patrick Sadil 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Uncovering The Neural And Behavioral Factors That Underlie Changes In Processing Visual Orientation, Patrick Sadil

Doctoral Dissertations

From moment to moment, the visual environment appears stable; despite prolonged scrutiny, the edge of a desk is not perceived to change. But this apparent stability emerges from perceptual and decisional systems that undergo continuous modulation. In two chapters, I focus on two different kinds of modulation to the processing of visual orientation (i.e., the tilt of an edge). In both chapters, the form of modulation is latent, obscured by standard analyses. To detect those latent changes in perceptual decisions, I develop in this dissertation new statistical tools, at both behavioral and neural levels.

In the first chapter, I ...


The Impact Of Levodopa Administration On Learning From Short-Term And Long-Term Action Consequences: A Paradigm Validation., Masood Rezaei 2020 The University of Western Ontario

The Impact Of Levodopa Administration On Learning From Short-Term And Long-Term Action Consequences: A Paradigm Validation., Masood Rezaei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have identified two valuation systems in the human brain for controlling behavior known as model-free (MF) and model-based (MB). MF is based on immediate evaluation and MB is based on long-term evaluation of the outcome of our decisions. Previous studies suggest that dopamine baseline activity may play an important role in the balance between the two systems and determine how they compete or interact in controlling our actions. The overarching aims of this study is to investigate the impact of levodopa administration on learning from immediate and long-term action consequences, and to dissociate the role of ...


Who Are We Missing? The Impact Of Requiring Parental Or Guardian Consent On Research With Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Two-Spirit, Queer/Questioning Youth., Eli Cwinn, Courtney Cadieux, Claire V Crooks 2020 Western University

Who Are We Missing? The Impact Of Requiring Parental Or Guardian Consent On Research With Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Two-Spirit, Queer/Questioning Youth., Eli Cwinn, Courtney Cadieux, Claire V Crooks

Education Publications

PURPOSE: The purpose was to examine whether a requirement for parental or guardian consent systematically limits which lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, two-spirit, queer/questioning (LGBT2Q+) youth participate in research.

METHODS: A total of 60 LGBT2Q+ youth (aged 14-18 years) completed measures assessing gender and sexual minority identity, depression and anxiety, help-seeking intentions, and social support.

RESULTS: A substantial proportion (37.6%) of youth reported that they would not have participated in the research if parental or guardian consent was required. Those who would not have participated had more negative attitudes about their sexual and gender identity, less family support, lower ...


Applied Statistics, Alina Shevorykin 2020 CUNY City College

Applied Statistics, Alina Shevorykin

Open Educational Resources

No abstract provided.


Predictors Of Social Distancing And Mask-Wearing Behavior: Panel Survey In Seven U.S. States, Plamen Nikolov, Andreas Pape, Ozlem Tonguc, Charlotte Williams 2020 Harvard Institute for Quantitative Social Science

Predictors Of Social Distancing And Mask-Wearing Behavior: Panel Survey In Seven U.S. States, Plamen Nikolov, Andreas Pape, Ozlem Tonguc, Charlotte Williams

Economics Faculty Scholarship

This paper presents preliminary summary results from a longitudinal study of participants in seven U.S. states during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to standard socio-economic characteristics, we collect data on various economic preference parameters: time, risk, and social preferences, and risk perception biases. We pay special attention to predictors that are both important drivers of social distancing and are potentially malleable and susceptible to policy levers. We note three important findings: (1) demographic characteristics exert the largest influence on social distancing measures and mask-wearing, (2) we show that individual risk perception and cognitive biases exert a critical role in ...


Jangle Fallacy: Is Grit Distinct From Other Psychological Constructs?, Natasha Godkin 2020 East Tennessee State University

Jangle Fallacy: Is Grit Distinct From Other Psychological Constructs?, Natasha Godkin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This paper assessed the redundancy of the construct of grit (Crede, Tynan, Harms, 2017) compared to other similar constructs using structural equation modeling to remove the effect of measurement error. A series of models regressed grit and its subdomains (passion and perseverance of effort) on self-control, conscientiousness, achievement striving, and resilience. The R-squared values for these models ranged from 0.62 to 0.89. It is concluded that the concept of grit is mostly redundant with other constructs and is therefore an example of a Jangle fallacy (Kelley, 1927). The unique aspect of grit is mostly related to its passion ...


Implicit Bias And Voluntarily Childfree Adults, Virginia Elizabeth Powell 2020 Abilene Christian University

Implicit Bias And Voluntarily Childfree Adults, Virginia Elizabeth Powell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This quantitative study aimed to determine if there is a negative bias towards voluntarily childfree adults or an association of negative views and attitudes with voluntarily childfree adults, controlling for other participant characteristics such as race, religion, or sexual orientation. At this stage in the research, voluntarily childfree adults are generally defined as legal adults who have the intention to remain childfree for the rest of their lives, due to reasons other than fertility issues. A negative view or bias is defined as any attitude which is not a desirable interpretation of behavior or lifestyle. A negative bias against voluntarily ...


Editorial, Your Null Hypothesis Must Be False: Test It Anyway, Frank Corotto 2020 University of North Georgia

Editorial, Your Null Hypothesis Must Be False: Test It Anyway, Frank Corotto

Georgia Journal of Science

A historical criticism of null hypothesis testing is that a null hypothesis cannot be correct in the first place. The reason that many nulls cannot be correct is that what makes a null hypothesis a null hypothesis is its infinite precision. Only an infinitely precise hypothesis can be used to generate an infinitely precise prediction, such as t will be zero. It is around that infinitely precise prediction that we would construct a probability density function. If you are thinking, I just want to know if the difference is significant, and if you mean important, a null hypothesis test will ...


The Effects Of Undesirable Distractors On Estimates Of Ability, Kathryn N. Thompson 2020 James Madison University

The Effects Of Undesirable Distractors On Estimates Of Ability, Kathryn N. Thompson

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Distractors, or the incorrect options, are an important part of the multiple-choice item. Previous literature has supported the inclusion of distractors when estimating abilities. While the effects of well-functioning distractors on estimates of ability have been examined, research has neglected to examine the effects of undesirable distractors on estimates of ability. Undesirable distractors are defined as distractors that are opposite of what test-developers expect or want distractors to behave. For instance, an upper lure distractor is one that high ability examinees select rather than selecting the correct answer. A simulation study was employed to determine these effects by varying undesirable ...


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