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Gender, Race, And Childhood Abuse As Predictors Of Borderline Personality Disorder, Olivia Moses 2020 East Tennessee State University

Gender, Race, And Childhood Abuse As Predictors Of Borderline Personality Disorder, Olivia Moses

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a debilitating personality disorder that impacts anywhere between 1% to 5% of Americans. Studies claim that women are significantly more at risk than men to suffer from this disorder and may experience stronger symptoms. Previous research has found that victims of childhood abuse such as sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect are more at risk for developing Borderline Personality Disorder as adults, particularly when abuse is paired with genetic susceptibility. Some researchers claim that there are no detectable racial differences in Borderline Personality Disorder, but previous studies often have very small sample sizes taken from ...


The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers 2020 University of San Diego

The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the neural processes that mediate decision making is a relatively new field of investigation in the scientific community. With the ultimate goal of understanding how humans decide between one path and another, simpler models such as Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, are often utilized as a way of determining the neural circuits involved in these decision-making processes. One of the most important decisions flies make is the decision of where to lay their eggs (oviposit). Choosing the proper substrate upon which to lay eggs is a crucial decision that can ultimately impact their fecundity. This paper investigates the ...


The Relation Between Positive Stereotypes, Negative Stereotypes, And Discriminatory Behavior Toward Hispanic And White Populations, Aileen Ynez Lovitt 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Relation Between Positive Stereotypes, Negative Stereotypes, And Discriminatory Behavior Toward Hispanic And White Populations, Aileen Ynez Lovitt

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Research examining positive stereotypes has suggested a possible connection between positive stereotype endorsement and prejudice. This literature, however, has not investigated the relation between positive and negative stereotypes endorsement. Additionally, the combined impact of positive and negative stereotype endorsement predicting prejudice or discrimination has not been considered. Two studies were conducted to address the limitations in past research and gain a better understanding of positive stereotypes relating to behaviors toward out-group racial groups using Hispanic and White participants. Positive stereotypes endorsement was hypothesized to be positively associated with negative stereotype endorsement and was expected to increase the predicted power of ...


Evaluating The Construct Validity Of The Peak Comprehensive Assessment: Measuring Language And Cognition, Nicole Rae McDonald 2020 Missouri State University

Evaluating The Construct Validity Of The Peak Comprehensive Assessment: Measuring Language And Cognition, Nicole Rae Mcdonald

MSU Graduate Theses

The purpose of the current study was to conduct a pilot investigation of the internal construct validity of the four modules of the PEAK Comprehensive Assessment (PCA). The PCA has been developed through robust research over the past five years (Dixon et al. 2017) and is designed to evaluate language and cognitive skills of individuals with developmental disabilities, including neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder. Although the PCA contains four modules exemplifying four distinct learning processes (Direct Training, Generalization, Equivalence, and Relational Learning), these four processes may represent one singular learning construct, described loosely as “executive functioning” or “cognitive ...


Severity Of Coercive Sexual Harassment In Professor–Student Interaction And Peer Bystander Responses, Donna M. L. Heretick, Inna Learn 2020 Walden University

Severity Of Coercive Sexual Harassment In Professor–Student Interaction And Peer Bystander Responses, Donna M. L. Heretick, Inna Learn

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

The risk for female students in academia of sexual harassment by male faculty and staff remains a national crisis. This study examined effects of severity of coercive sexual harassment (CSH) by a male professor of a female student on peer bystander intervention responses. A total of 180 undergraduate and graduate college students who volunteered for an online survey were randomly assigned to one of three vignette conditions that varied severity of CSH. Following Bowes-Sperry’s ethical model of bystander behaviors, it was predicted that severity of CSH would affect cognitive appraisals and emotional reactions, which would further predict intentions for ...


130— Reducing Stereotypic Behavior With A Ketogenic Diet, Anna Beltramini, Andrew Guido, Alicia Bauers, Joe Spano 2020 SUNY Geneseo

130— Reducing Stereotypic Behavior With A Ketogenic Diet, Anna Beltramini, Andrew Guido, Alicia Bauers, Joe Spano

GREAT Day

Now a popular fad diet, the ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carb diet that for decades has been used for treatment of intractable epilepsy. Recent therapeutic applications of KD in animal models include treatment of dementia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism. These disorders are associated with stereotypic behaviors (repetitive, invariant behaviors with no apparent function) that are life-impairing and stigmatizing. However, little is known about their underlying mechanisms and no effective pharmacological treatments are available. Here, we present a novel application of KD to reduce stereotypic behavior in an inbred strain of mice (FVBN/J) that displays a prominent repetitive ...


Identity And Advocacy: The Missing Components In Promoting Social-Emotional Health And Self-Regulation For Multiply Marginalized Girls, JoVonne Tabb, Temple S. Lovelace, Mary Comis, Olajumoke Oshokoya 2020 Duquesne University

Identity And Advocacy: The Missing Components In Promoting Social-Emotional Health And Self-Regulation For Multiply Marginalized Girls, Jovonne Tabb, Temple S. Lovelace, Mary Comis, Olajumoke Oshokoya

Graduate Student Research Symposium

Girlhood has been a topic of great interest in the last decade. As individuals have examined the lack of girls in STEM or the increase of bullying in girls, there has been a push to understanding the differential experiences along gender-based lines. In this study, the researchers highlight the results of the successful implementation of a group-based curriculum that utilized identity and advocacy as critical components in a treatment package focused on self-regulation. Using a pretest-posttest design, the researchers found a statistically significant difference in several key areas that are of key importance when supporting the needs of adolescent girls ...


Using A Progressive Time Delay To Increase Mands In A Child With Autism, Brielle Babcock 2020 Western Michigan University

Using A Progressive Time Delay To Increase Mands In A Child With Autism, Brielle Babcock

Honors Theses

Mands are a building block for all communication and are therefore important to teach to individuals who do not consistently use mands. Skinner defined a mand as a “verbal operant in which the response is reinforced by a characteristic consequence and is under the control of relevant conditions of deprivation or aversive stimulation” (Hall & Sundberg 1987). By providing individuals with a way to express their desires and needs, individuals display less problem behaviors. A functional form of communication is imperative to typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorders alike. The goal of the current study was to increase the frequency of manding as well as the variety of mands in a naturalistic teaching format. Through the manipulation of the environment, and the implementation of prompts, researchers were able to train an echoic into a mand and generalize those mands to a more natural environment. The study began by teaching mands in a discrete-trial setting, using four phases to increase independent responses; upon mastery, the study was implemented in a naturalistic setting for maintenance. By the end of the study, the individual showed significant differences from baseline.


Increasing The Echoic Repertoire Of A Child With Autism Using An Imitation And Echoic Sequence, Rose Bridges 2020 Western Michigan University

Increasing The Echoic Repertoire Of A Child With Autism Using An Imitation And Echoic Sequence, Rose Bridges

Honors Theses

A prerequisite to many things in life is the ability to communicate. Although this may mean many different things, such as verbal language, sign language, written language, and even icons, there must be some form of communication that may be utilized to get needs across. Many young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are non-verbal, however there are also many children with ASD who have the ability to say words but are still not independently speaking. Reinforcing approximations to word sounds has been previously used as an effective way of increasing the child’s verbal repertoire (Shane, 2017). The present ...


Establishing Auditory Discrimination And Echoic Stimulus Control With An Auditory Matching Procedure, Matthew von Holst 2020 Western Michigan University

Establishing Auditory Discrimination And Echoic Stimulus Control With An Auditory Matching Procedure, Matthew Von Holst

Honors Theses

An echoic is a verbal operant which is controlled by a verbal discriminative stimulus and is characterized by the repetition of the verbal behavior of another speaker with point-to-point correspondence between the sound of the stimulus and the response (Skinner, 1957). These echoic responses are very important for children with developmental disorders because their language development is very unpredictable and may not appear at all, potentially causing difficulties in school and problems with social development (Reed, 2005). Teaching language acquisition skills can help offset these problems because it reinforces future echoic responses and helps develop advanced verbal operants such as ...


Students With Autism And Aggressive Behavior: A Review Of Evidence-Based Interventions, Alisha Kelsay 2020 Western Kentucky University

Students With Autism And Aggressive Behavior: A Review Of Evidence-Based Interventions, Alisha Kelsay

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Aggression can be present in students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and may need to be considered within academic environments. Interventions that are evidence-based have been identified to assist educators with issues with aggression in students with ASD. This review of evidence-based interventions highlights the effectiveness and social validity within educational settings that may be useful to instructors and other educational staff. Teachers need to be equipped with interventions that are considered to be effective and easy to implement within the school system. The literature available about the evidence based interventions for students with ASD are limited when the ...


Account Recovery Methods For Two-Factor Authentication (2fa): An Exploratory Study, Lauren Nicole Tiller 2020 Old Dominion University

Account Recovery Methods For Two-Factor Authentication (2fa): An Exploratory Study, Lauren Nicole Tiller

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

System administrators have started to adopt two-factor authentication (2FA) to increase user account resistance to cyber-attacks. Systems with 2FA require users to verify their identity using a password and a second-factor authentication device to gain account access. This research found that 60% of users only enroll one second-factor device to their account. If a user’s second factor becomes unavailable, systems are using different procedures to ensure its authorized owner recovers the account. Account recovery is essentially a bypass of the system’s main security protocols and needs to be handled as an alternative authentication process (Loveless, 2018). The current ...


The Effects Of Interruption Relevance And Complexity On Primary Task Resumption And Mental Demand, Brandon Allan Fluegel 2020 Old Dominion University

The Effects Of Interruption Relevance And Complexity On Primary Task Resumption And Mental Demand, Brandon Allan Fluegel

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

In the present study, undergraduate students viewed patient charts and entered numerical values from these charts into a medical record database. They were unexpectedly interrupted by secondary tasks that differed in relevance and complexity. The secondary tasks varied by whether they facilitated or inhibited (i.e., relevant or irrelevant) rehearsal of the suspended task and whether they placed a demand on working memory (i.e., high complexity or low complexity). The primary measures of interest were the duration of time needed to resume the primary task and perceived mental demand. The Memory for Goals model (Altmann & Trafton, 2002) predicts that ...


Testing The Convergent Retrieval Learning Theory Of Testing Effects, William J. Hopper 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Testing The Convergent Retrieval Learning Theory Of Testing Effects, William J. Hopper

Doctoral Dissertations

What is learned from retrieving a memory that is not learned by studying the same information? In response to this question, I have proposed a new theory of retrieval-based learning in which I argue that retrieval strengthens the ability to completely activate all portions of a memory trace from an initial state of partial activation. In effect, retrieval serves to unitize the features of a memory, making the entire memory remain retrievable in the future when cue-related activation may be weaker. This theory, called the Primary and Convergent Retrieval (PCR) model, explains why practice tests produce both better long-term retention ...


An Investigation Of Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction In Small Groups, Lauren Jordan 2020 University of Mississippi

An Investigation Of Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction In Small Groups, Lauren Jordan

Graduate Student Council Research Grants

Overview: I am a fourth-year graduate student in good standing in the experimental psychology program at the University of Mississippi and am working under the direction of Dr. Carrie Veronica Smith. I plan to use the Graduate Student Council research grant program to conduct a study for my doctoral dissertation, which I plan to propose in Spring 2020. For this project, I will investigate self-determination theory. Specifically, I want to study how individual’s satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness relates to these same needs in other group members while they engage in a cooperative task, as well as how ...


Inflammation, Depression, And Anxiety Disorder: A Population-Based Study Examining The Association Between Interleukin-6 And The Experiencing Of Depressive And Anxiety Symptoms, Sean Teck Hao LEE 2020 Singapore Management University

Inflammation, Depression, And Anxiety Disorder: A Population-Based Study Examining The Association Between Interleukin-6 And The Experiencing Of Depressive And Anxiety Symptoms, Sean Teck Hao Lee

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The uncovering of a positive association between inflammatory cytokine levels – Interkleukin-6 (IL-6) in particular – and the experiencing of depressive and anxiety symptoms is one of the most promising and enthusiastically-discussed finding in recent years. Despite considerable ambiguity in the directionality and underpinnings of this association, anti-inflammatory drugs are already being tested on mental health patients who present no physical symptoms of inflammation, risking potential adverse side effects. Researchers have thus urgently called for more rigorous empirical elucidations of this association. Based on a large, longitudinal, nationally representative sample of middle-aged adults in the United States (N = 1255), IL-6 was observed ...


Experience-Dependent Changes In Nucleus Accumbens Activity Predict Cued Approach Learning: Contribution Of Nmda Receptors, Mercedes Vega Villar 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Experience-Dependent Changes In Nucleus Accumbens Activity Predict Cued Approach Learning: Contribution Of Nmda Receptors, Mercedes Vega Villar

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Animals learn associations between environmental cues and the natural rewards they predict (e.g., food, water, sex). As a result, reward-predictive cues come to trigger vigorous reward-seeking responses. Many neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) become excited upon presentation of an already-learned reward-predictive cue. These NAc responses encode the motivational value of the cue and are necessary for the expression of the subsequent approach behavior. However, the precise temporal relationship between the emergence of cue-evoked excitations in the NAc and the acquisition of cued approach behavior remains unknown. In Experiment 1, NAc activity was recorded as rats learned to approach ...


Are There Advantages To Believing In Fate? The Belief In Negotiating With Fate When Faced With Constraints, AU, Evelyn W. M., Krishna SAVANI 2020 Singapore Management University

Are There Advantages To Believing In Fate? The Belief In Negotiating With Fate When Faced With Constraints, Au, Evelyn W. M., Krishna Savani

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Is cultural knowledge unique to a culture and inaccessible to other cultures, or is it a tool that can be recruited by individuals outside of that culture when the situation renders it relevant? As one test of this idea, we explored whether the applicability and benefits of a lay belief that originated from Chinese collective wisdom extends beyond cultural boundaries: negotiating with fate. Negotiating with fate postulates that fate imposes boundaries within which people can shape their outcomes through their actions. This belief contrasts fatalism, which has been traditionally interpreted as believing that fate dictates people’s life outcomes and ...


Mortality Risk Information, Survival Expectations And Sexual Behaviors, Alberto Ciancio, Adeline Delavande, Hans-Peter Kohler, Iliana V. Kohler 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Mortality Risk Information, Survival Expectations And Sexual Behaviors, Alberto Ciancio, Adeline Delavande, Hans-Peter Kohler, Iliana V. Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Individuals in low-income settings are often overly pessimistic about their own survival, suggesting that better knowledge about survival risks might encourage investments in health. This paper provides evidence from a randomized experiment that provided mature adults aged 45+ in Malawi with information about mortality risks. Treated individuals are less likely to engage in risky sexual practices one year after the intervention, and they increase other forward-looking behaviors such as investments in agriculture. Expectations of HIV+ people living longer, which makes the pool of potential partners riskier, are a primary driver of reduced sexual risk taking in response to the intervention.


Perceptions And Understanding Of Research Situations As A Function Of Consent Form Characteristics And Experimenter Instructions, Jeremy D. Heider, Jessica L. Hartnett, Emmanuel J. Perez, John E. Edlund 2020 Southeast Missouri State University

Perceptions And Understanding Of Research Situations As A Function Of Consent Form Characteristics And Experimenter Instructions, Jeremy D. Heider, Jessica L. Hartnett, Emmanuel J. Perez, John E. Edlund

Faculty Publications

Two studies examined how research methodology affected participant behaviors. Study 1 tested (a) consent form perspective (1st, 2nd, or 3rd person) and (b) information on participants’ right to sue upon perceptions of coercion, ability to recall consent information, and performance on experimental tasks. Unexpectedly, participants who received instructions without the right to sue information had significantly better recall of their research rights. Study 2 manipulated (a) consent form complexity (presence or absence of jargon) and (b) the detail of verbal instructions (simple, elaborate); participants who received a consent form with simpler language spent more time on a difficult task, and ...


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