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Experimental Analysis of Behavior Commons

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Previous Experiences Drive Attention, Sunghyun Kim 2020 Louisiana State University

Previous Experiences Drive Attention, Sunghyun Kim

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Traditionally, the allocation of attention was understood within goal-driven and stimulus-driven factors. However, the traditional approach cannot fully account for the mechanism of attentional orienting. Instead, a growing body of evidence shows that previous search experiences, irrelevant to both goal-driven and stimulus-driven factors, influence attentional allocation. For example, when contexts predict information of targets, the contexts guide attention toward the stimuli having the information predicted by the contexts: contextual cueing. In addition, more valuable stimuli attract more attention: value-driven attentional capture. However, two critical issues are present. First, contextual cueing has been found largely when the contexts and the target ...


Testing For Differential Attention To Features In Evaluative Conditioning, Christine E. Weber 2020 University of South Carolina

Testing For Differential Attention To Features In Evaluative Conditioning, Christine E. Weber

Theses and Dissertations

One eye tracking and one behavioral experiment examined the possible roles of contingency awareness and attention to stimulus features in evaluative conditioning. These experiments tested whether evaluative conditioning altered the saliency of positive and negative features in consumer products (Study 1) and attitudinal responses to ambivalent pictures (Study 2). Based on the conceptual categorization model, pairing of ambivalent conditioned stimuli with liked or disliked unconditioned stimuli was predicted to result in enhanced attention to affectively congruent features. Study 1 tested this prediction by recording eye movements to determine how attention to features and responses to ambivalent stimuli were altered as ...


The Behavioral And Neural Effects Of Audiovisual Affective Processing, Chuanji Gao 2020 University of South Carolina

The Behavioral And Neural Effects Of Audiovisual Affective Processing, Chuanji Gao

Theses and Dissertations

In everyday life, we receive affective information from a multisensory environment. What we see and what we hear jointly influence how we feel, think and act. Outstanding questions still remain about the essential behavioral and neural mechanism underlying how we combine visual and auditory affective signals. In this dissertation, I report a series of behavioral, EEG and fMRI experiments addressing this question. I found behaviorally there are congruency, visual dominance, and negativity dominance effects. Using ERPs, I showed that these behavioral effects can map onto different time course in audiovisual affective processing. Time-frequency analyses of EEG data showed that there ...


Distress Tolerance In Relation To Treatment Persistence, Engagement, And Improvement In An Exposure-Based Treatment For Sexually Abused Incarcerated Women, Ilana S. Berman 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Distress Tolerance In Relation To Treatment Persistence, Engagement, And Improvement In An Exposure-Based Treatment For Sexually Abused Incarcerated Women, Ilana S. Berman

Theses and Dissertations

Incarcerated populations are disproportionately affected by traumatic experiences and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many effective treatments for PTSD utilize exposure-based techniques which require engaging with emotionally distressing content. However, individuals with PTSD and low distress tolerance (DT) are more likely than those with PTSD and higher DT to engage in avoidant coping behaviors and have relatively high treatment attrition rates in general. This study explored relations between DT and treatment persistence, engagement, and improvement in incarcerated women (N = 85) enrolled in an 8-week exposure-based sexual assault recovery group at a minimum-security prison. I hypothesized lower baseline levels of ...


A Novel Approach To Studying Human Intelligence-Gathering: Employing A Realistic Paradigm For The Study Of Elicitation Approaches, Sarah A. Shaffer 2020 Florida International University

A Novel Approach To Studying Human Intelligence-Gathering: Employing A Realistic Paradigm For The Study Of Elicitation Approaches, Sarah A. Shaffer

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It is often necessary to interrogate sources of information when threats to national security (e.g., impending terror attack) are present. However, the overwhelming majority of research focuses on the interrogation of criminal suspects despite the arguably greater consequences of the former context, known as Human Intelligence (HUMINT) collection. The present study is the first to examine a highly successful approach to collecting information from sources of human intelligence (HUMINT)- the Scharff Technique.- within a novel and highly realistic paradigm. Participants were recruited for a study on group interaction. Every group contained a study confederate posing as a participant who ...


America's Newest Boogeyman For Deviant Teen Behavior: Violent Video Games And The First Amendment, Joseph C. Alfe, Grant D. Talabay 2020 Straus Institute, Pepperdine School of Law

America's Newest Boogeyman For Deviant Teen Behavior: Violent Video Games And The First Amendment, Joseph C. Alfe, Grant D. Talabay

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

Are violent video games harming America’s youth? Is it possible a series of interconnected circuit boards can influence children (or even adults) to become, themselves, violent? If so, how should our society-- and government-- respond?

To properly answer this last query, violent video games must be viewed through the lens of the First Amendment. Simply put: do games depicting grotesque acts of depravity so profound as to negatively influence the psyche warrant the full constitutional protections ordinarily guaranteed under the mantle of free speech and expression? Are these guarantees without limit? If not, how far may the government go ...


The Interactive Effects Of Associative Response Priming And Personality Traits On Insight Problem Solving Over Time, Yu-Chu Yeh, Pei-Hsin Li, Chung-Wei Lin 2020 National Chengchi University

The Interactive Effects Of Associative Response Priming And Personality Traits On Insight Problem Solving Over Time, Yu-Chu Yeh, Pei-Hsin Li, Chung-Wei Lin

Journal of Global Education and Research

Priming effect is, in a great part, an implicit learning mechanism; it may influence insight problem solving both consciously and unconsciously. The present study investigates interactions between personality traits and priming effects in insight problem solving involving novel object associations in complex situations over time. Based on the findings of past literature, a two-path (conscious vs. unconscious process) model exploring the moderation effects of two personality traits (emotional creativity and Big Five personality traits) were analyzed in this study. One hundred and fifteen college students participated in a randomized block design experiment (non-primed vs. primed) which included three runs of ...


A Screenplay For Bystander Intervention For Sexual Harassment Scenarios For College Students, Shanti Herzog 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

A Screenplay For Bystander Intervention For Sexual Harassment Scenarios For College Students, Shanti Herzog

Journalism

This project was developed to describe the drafting of a screenplay for an interactive, virtual reality sexual harassment training module for students of the California Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo. The research began with the examination of the prevalent and persisting issue of sexual harassment within college campus communities, and how to present college students with the tools to intervene as bystanders, thus encouraging them to intervene when encountering sexual harassment scenarios. The resulting screenplay was written to provide college students at Cal Poly with strategies to identify and take action when encountering sexual harassment, especially in small group gatherings ...


Scope Of Attention Variation As A Function Of Anxiety And Depression, Kathleen O'Donnell 2020 California State University, San Bernardino

Scope Of Attention Variation As A Function Of Anxiety And Depression, Kathleen O'Donnell

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

As a social species, correct emotional perception is so vital, that the human brain has evolved a mechanism to control attentional choices by exerting a narrowed field of perception during danger, called the scope of attention (SoA). The SoA determines what information will be focused on or ignored by blocking the perception of non-relevant items and increasing selective focus on danger; even if danger is merely a sad-face. The emotional items blocked from perception cannot be remembered because they were never perceived. But, attention-control to emotional stimuli also varies with mood, as seen in mood-disorders. A mood-disorder’s effect upon ...


Lessons To Be Learned: The Abuse Of Eminent Domain Power For Economic Development In Comparative Perspective, Xinxou Zhou 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Lessons To Be Learned: The Abuse Of Eminent Domain Power For Economic Development In Comparative Perspective, Xinxou Zhou

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

No abstract provided.


The History And Reality Of The Market Failures Approach To Business Ethics, Kara Zhang 2020 University of Pennsylvania

The History And Reality Of The Market Failures Approach To Business Ethics, Kara Zhang

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

No abstract provided.


San Antonio Independent School District V. Rodriguez: Equal Protection Doctrinal Evolution And Implications On School Segregation Today, Anthony Chen 2020 University of Pennsylvania

San Antonio Independent School District V. Rodriguez: Equal Protection Doctrinal Evolution And Implications On School Segregation Today, Anthony Chen

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

No abstract provided.


An Ethical Equation Of Corporate And Environmental Personhood: The Salmon River Commands Rights, Katherine Poole 2020 University of Pennsylvania

An Ethical Equation Of Corporate And Environmental Personhood: The Salmon River Commands Rights, Katherine Poole

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

No abstract provided.


A Flawed Case For Inequity Aversion: Revisiting The Criticisms Of Binmore And Shaked (2010), Ammar Plumber 2020 University of Pennsylvania

A Flawed Case For Inequity Aversion: Revisiting The Criticisms Of Binmore And Shaked (2010), Ammar Plumber

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

No abstract provided.


A Letter From The Editor, Jenna Liu 2020 University of Pennsylvania

A Letter From The Editor, Jenna Liu

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

No abstract provided.


Estimating Predictors Of Mental Well-Being Through Analysis Of Children’S Drawings: The Case Of Syrian Refugees, Stephanie Smith 2020 University of San Francisco

Estimating Predictors Of Mental Well-Being Through Analysis Of Children’S Drawings: The Case Of Syrian Refugees, Stephanie Smith

Master's Theses

There are currently over 65 million individuals that have been forcibly displaced globally. The cumulative trauma that comes from the refugee experience and exposure to violence has proven to have long-term negative psychological outcomes and thus negative impacts on human capital in the long run. Given that over 50% percent of the global refugee population are children, the ability to efficiently and accurately assess their mental well-being is of critical importance. Using data from over 2000 refugee children in Jordan, I use machine learning techniques to find key predictors of psychological distress, PTSD, and exposure to violence found in children ...


The Effects Of Childhood Trauma On Romantic Support And Adult Problem Behavior, Keiva Brannigan 2020 James Madison University

The Effects Of Childhood Trauma On Romantic Support And Adult Problem Behavior, Keiva Brannigan

Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are a common topic in research investigating outcomes of abused or traumatized children. Previous literature on ACEs have established that high levels of ACEs are associated with both higher levels of problem behaviors in adulthood and lower quality of support in romantic relationships in adolescence/early adulthood. However, the potential for high levels of romantic support and other healthy relationship qualities to act as a buffer against the negative effects of ACEs on later problem behaviors has yet to be addressed in the literature. Thus, the present study utilizes data from an ongoing longitudinal study on ...


The Maze Of Personality: Latency And Electric Organ Discharge In A Mormyrid Fish, Gnathonemus Petersii Gunther 1862 (Mormyridae, Teleostei), Abbey C. Lipe 2020 CUNY Hunter College

The Maze Of Personality: Latency And Electric Organ Discharge In A Mormyrid Fish, Gnathonemus Petersii Gunther 1862 (Mormyridae, Teleostei), Abbey C. Lipe

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Personality is individual differences in behavior, consistent across contexts. Among Gnathonemus petersii we investigated, we hypothesized that fish could be grouped by: (1) slow/fast maze performance, (2) low/high electric frequencies, (3) correlated latency and frequency. Our first two hypothesis were not supported. Our third hypothesis was partially supported.


Calling Out The Trolls: Responses To Witnessing Use Of The “Troll” Label As A Defense In An Online Group Context, Dene E. M. Wamsley 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Calling Out The Trolls: Responses To Witnessing Use Of The “Troll” Label As A Defense In An Online Group Context, Dene E. M. Wamsley

Theses and Dissertations

Although the term “troll” has existed since the 1980s, its meaning has shifted in recent years as social media use has increased. People provide contrasting and imprecise definitions for what constitutes “trolling,” and often apply the term subjectively to describe online discussants who are uncivil, who are deviant, and who and present counter-attitudinal opinions. Exposure to deviance, counter-attitudinal information, and incivility often leads to unwanted psychological effects. In theory, labeling an uncivil, counter-attitudinal deviant as a “troll” proposes that their intention is to disrupt the conversation and upset other discussants, which provides a reason for why incivility is used, and ...


An Experimental Test Of The Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Approach Behavior, Rebecca L. Campbell 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Experimental Test Of The Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Approach Behavior, Rebecca L. Campbell

Theses and Dissertations

Emotion regulation and sleep have been identified as mechanisms that may be involved in the development and maintenance of many mental health disorders. However, there has been little research into the relation between sleep and emotion regulation. To address this gap in knowledge, a novel study was conducted. We hypothesized that sleep deprived individuals would demonstrate less approach behavior toward a negatively valenced stimulus, as well as increased self-reported avoidance, compared to a control group. To test this, a randomized controlled experiment using a behavioral measure of approach and a self-report measure of avoidance was conducted. Fifty-two healthy individuals ages ...


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