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From Psychology To Phylogeny: Bridging Levels Of Analysis In Cultural Evolution, Mason Youngblood 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

From Psychology To Phylogeny: Bridging Levels Of Analysis In Cultural Evolution, Mason Youngblood

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cultural evolution, or change in the socially learned behavior of a population over time, is a fascinating phenomenon that is widespread in humans and present in some non-human animals. In this dissertation, I present an array of cultural evolutionary studies that bridge pattern and process in a wide range of research models including music, extremism, and birdsong. The first chapter is an introduction to the field of cultural evolution, including a bibliometric analysis of its structure. The second and third chapters are studies on the cultural dynamics of music sampling traditions in hip-hop and electronic music communities and far-right extremism ...


Empathy And Fairness In Nonhuman Primates: Evolutionary Bases Of Human Morality, Colt Halter 2021 Brigham Young University

Empathy And Fairness In Nonhuman Primates: Evolutionary Bases Of Human Morality, Colt Halter

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Darwin offered an evolutionary perspective on the origins of human morality, suggesting that humans share a biological foundation with nonhuman primates. This paper reviews the current literature on moral and prosocial behaviors of nonhuman primates, specifically examining whether nonhuman primates exhibit behaviors that are typical of empathy and fairness. The literature documents that nonhuman primates exhibit empathetic behaviors regarding emotional contagion and sympathetic concern. There is also evidence that nonhuman primates have a sense of fairness, seen in their reciprocal behaviors and aversion to inequity. Taken together, this suggests that there are evolutionary roots of morality, lending empirical support to ...


Language As The Medium: A Literature Review. Harnessing The Prolific Power Of Dramatic Language As A Therapeutic Tool In Drama Therapy, Edward Freeman 2021 Lesley University

Language As The Medium: A Literature Review. Harnessing The Prolific Power Of Dramatic Language As A Therapeutic Tool In Drama Therapy, Edward Freeman

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Language in and of the theatre, with its palate of variegated writing styles and playwrights from throughout time, has the potential to be harnessed, focused, and systematized for use as a therapeutic tool within drama therapy – the field’s artistic medium. Drama therapy could benefit from having a specific medium germane to its artform which has the potential to provide practitioners with a common resource and means of communication, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning, as well as align the field with other creative arts therapies. Language encompasses all forms of human communication – speaking, writing, signing, gesturing, expressing facially – and voice ...


Art And Empathy: Self Discovery In A Dark Forest, Younser Lee 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Art And Empathy: Self Discovery In A Dark Forest, Younser Lee

Graduate School of Art Theses

According to the National Institute of Mental Health, 40 million people report feelings of depression, anxiety, and stress as the world moves at an increasingly rapid pace and faces unprecedented challenges. However, many ignore these negative thoughts and fail to acknowledge them as a serious issue. My art, which shares my own experiences, creates safe, cathartic places for viewers to think about their own emotional experiences. Crucial to this process is my use of daily objects and the creation of individualized, participatory, and multisensory experiences.

My art relates to daily life and the negative emotions that we experience daily. I ...


The Therapeutic Benefits Of Attunement Through Lindy Hop, Sarah Trowbridge 2021 Lesley University

The Therapeutic Benefits Of Attunement Through Lindy Hop, Sarah Trowbridge

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Dance/movement therapy (DMT) was developed as a tool to aide in therapeutic healing. A foundational aspect of DMT is attunement, the emotional/kinesthetic connection between two people that allows for meaningful and healing bonds to emerge. Lindy Hop is a partnered dance that fosters an environment of attunement, as it is accessed both subconsciously and consciously. This research explores Lindy Hop as a possible method of therapeutic treatment. The literature indicates the physiological need for attunement and how safety plays a key role in strengthening senses of self-identity, nervous system development, and worldview. Four experienced Lindy Hoppers were recruited ...


The Loss-Processing Framework, Lawrence Childress 2021 East Tennessee State University

The Loss-Processing Framework, Lawrence Childress

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The circumstances of responding to loss due to human death are among the most stressful experiences encountered in life. Although grief’s symptoms are typically considered essential to their gradual diminishment, possible negative impacts of complications related to grief are also well known, and have been associated with detriments to mental and physical health. Grief, however, can also generate transformative positive change. Thus, albeit ineludible, responding to loss is not uniformly experienced, expressed, or understood. It is also culturally-shaped, making attempts to define “normal” grief, as well as to label some grief “abnormal”—and to medicalize it—possibly problematic. Bereavement ...


The H.E.R.O. Within: An Examination Of Psychological Capital And Intent To Graduate Among Doctoral Students, Tiffany Stange 2021 University of the Incarnate Word

The H.E.R.O. Within: An Examination Of Psychological Capital And Intent To Graduate Among Doctoral Students, Tiffany Stange

Theses & Dissertations

Understanding the factors contributing to a student’s ability to persist toward graduation is paramount to the success of an institution’s doctoral program. This study explored specific psychological factors (psychological capital) as they relate to persistence factors for doctoral students. Additionally, this study expands upon the research and literature on psychological capital using an established instrument, Compound Psychological Capital scale (CPC-12), in a new context. Finally, this study expands the research and literature on doctoral student persistence by applying the College Persistence Questionnaire (CPQ), designed for undergraduate students, to the doctoral student population. A quantitative, cross-sectional research design was ...


“Garden-Magic”: Conceptions Of Nature In Edith Wharton’S Fiction, Jonathan Malks 2021 William & Mary

“Garden-Magic”: Conceptions Of Nature In Edith Wharton’S Fiction, Jonathan Malks

Undergraduate Honors Theses

I situate Edith Wharton’s guiding idea of “garden-magic” at the center of my thesis because Wharton’s fiction shows how a garden space could naturalize otherwise inadmissible behaviors within upper-class society while helping a character tie such behavior to a greater possibility for escape. To this end, Wharton situates gardens as idealized touchstones within the built environment of New York City, spaces where characters believe they can reach self-actualization within a version of nature that is man-made. Actualization, in this sense, stems from a character’s imaginative escape that is enabled by a perception of the garden as a ...


Heavy Is The Head, Elizabeth Wiles 2021 California State University, Monterey Bay

Heavy Is The Head, Elizabeth Wiles

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

"Heavy is the Head: how my mental illness made me a writer" is a collection of poetry about a journey in and through mental illness. It engages the social action issue of mental health awareness. "Heavy is the Head" tells a story of mental illness, how it was accepted, how it was used to improve, and how it can pave the road to self-acceptance.


Meaning In Life And The True Self: A Construal Level Theory Approach, Lydia M. Needy 2021 Missouri State University - Springfield

Meaning In Life And The True Self: A Construal Level Theory Approach, Lydia M. Needy

MSU Graduate Theses

People have higher ratings of meaning in life when they feel like they know their true self. This study examines whether one’s thoughts about their true self and meaning in life are consistent with a high-level construal. According to Construal Level Theory (CLT), the type of mental construal (i.e., low-level versus high-level) used depends upon how much psychological distance there is between the self and the object one is mentally representing. Objects perceived as far from the self use a high-level construal, which is more abstract, simple, and schematic. Objects perceived as close to the self use a ...


Aerobic Physical Activity Participation And Correlates Of Participating In Muscle Strengthening Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, Anthony McGaughey, Victor Andrews, Jason T. Sartor, Grace Fairchild Saidi, Katie M. Heinrich, Paul Branscum 2021 Miami University, Oxford, OH

Aerobic Physical Activity Participation And Correlates Of Participating In Muscle Strengthening Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, Anthony Mcgaughey, Victor Andrews, Jason T. Sartor, Grace Fairchild Saidi, Katie M. Heinrich, Paul Branscum

Health Behavior Research

The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in correlates of muscle-strengthening physical activity (PA) between those meeting and not meeting aerobic PA guidelines. A sample of college students (n = 392) completed a survey measuring constructs from the reasoned action approach for muscle-strengthening PA. Overall, 56% (n = 220) met the aerobic PA recommendations, and 25% (n = 99) met the muscle-strengthening PA recommendations. The mean age of participants was 19.9 years (± 1.76) (meeting aerobic PA = 20.0 years old ± 1.73; not meeting aerobic PA = 19.8 years old ± 1.79), and there were no differences between race ...


The Life Of An Apology, Lilah M. Parker 2021 Grand Valley State University

The Life Of An Apology, Lilah M. Parker

Honors Projects

Apologies, the development of and the aftermath from, are present in almost all of society. For that reason, they are arguably one of the most interesting forms of human interaction. This paper will review various sources of literature in an attempt to understand what kind of power an apology holds, as well as where it comes from. This will be done, first by developing a familiarity with the psychology behind certain emotions that influence apology making behaviors. Focus will be placed specifically on the developmental psychology of self-conscious emotions and the idea of self-esteem. These ideas of self awareness and ...


The Dark Triad: Pathological Personality Traits, Brett S. Burton 2021 Gettysburg College

The Dark Triad: Pathological Personality Traits, Brett S. Burton

Student Publications

People tend to view personality as a light-hearted, positive facet of psychology. However, the fact is that there are many unpleasant and dark aspects to personality. Psychologists have identified a grouping of three dark personality traits in subclinical individuals, which is termed the “Dark Triad”. The Dark Triad includes narcissism, psychopathy, and machiavellianism, which have their own unique twists but all have the basis of callous behavior and manipulation of others. This term was coined by researchers Paulhus and Williams (2002) when they measured these constructs and concluded that they were overlapping, but distinct concepts. The origin of these traits ...


The History And Development Of The Hopelessness Depression Theory, Harrison Combs 2021 Gettysburg College

The History And Development Of The Hopelessness Depression Theory, Harrison Combs

Student Publications

The hopelessness theory of depression, mainly contributed by Martin Seligman, theorizes that the cause of depression is due to a belief that one has no control over the outcomes of their life, leaving them hopeless. “Learned helplessness” or “hopelessness” is a key phenomenon that helped Martin Seligman develop the theory of hopelessness depression. The current literature review traces the history of learned helplessness, from the first findings of evidence of the phenomenon to the development of the hopelessness depression theory.


Interpretation Of Quantum Mechanics And Karl Popper’S Three Worlds, Changpu SUN 2021 1 Graduate School of China Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 100193, China; 2 Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100193, China

Interpretation Of Quantum Mechanics And Karl Popper’S Three Worlds, Changpu Sun

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Base on the view of material monism, this paper explains how quantum mechanics describes the objectivity of the microscopic world. It points out that the challenge posed by the Copenhagen interpretation to the fundamental problem of philosophy is not essential, due to its adoption of the wave-packet collapse hypothesis which is non-unique to implement repeatable measurement. Therefore, the conclusion that matter and consciousness are inseparable is not rigorous either from scientific or from philosophical perspective. With regard to Karl Popper's philosophy of "three worlds", our quantum theory of measurement describes how the multiple observers probe into the micro system ...


Cultivation Of Philosophy: 30-Year Mugwort For China To Build Itself Into World Power Of Science And Technology, Yuehong ZHANG, Fang JIANG, Dengwei LIU 2021 Bureau of Development and Planning, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100864, China

Cultivation Of Philosophy: 30-Year Mugwort For China To Build Itself Into World Power Of Science And Technology, Yuehong Zhang, Fang Jiang, Dengwei Liu

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China more than 70 years ago, China's science and technology development has gained great achievements. However, some deep-rooted problems still pose serious impediments for China to build itself into a world power of science and technology in the next 30 years. It is a must for us to explore the root causes of these problems and find the solution. Through the analysis of the historical context of the "Needham Puzzle" and "Qian Xuesen's Question", as well as the philosophical origin of the bottleneck of China's science and technology ...


Parallel Philosophy: Origin And Goal Of Intelligent Industries And Smart Economics, Fei-Yue WANG 2021 Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China

Parallel Philosophy: Origin And Goal Of Intelligent Industries And Smart Economics, Fei-Yue Wang

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

What are the nature and goal of Intelligent Technology? What are the origin and mission of Intelligent Science? What are the impact and significance of Intelligent Industries to our societies and the future development of Human Being? Starting from the topic of AlphaGo, based on Karl Popper's Three Worlds theory, this article addresses the above questions and discussed the beginning and trend of Artificial Intelligence and Parallel Intelligence. It then proposes Parallel Philosophy as the new philosophy system for Intelligent Science and Intelligent Technology, which extends the scope of traditional philosophy from Being, Becoming to Believing, and the corresponding ...


The Human Instinct To Resilience: Clinical And Evolutionary Efficacy Of Intrinsically Motivated Stressor Exposure, Brady Barley 2021 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

The Human Instinct To Resilience: Clinical And Evolutionary Efficacy Of Intrinsically Motivated Stressor Exposure, Brady Barley

Ramifications

Environmental stressors threaten optimal behavioral functioning, and thus contribute to the development of psychopathology and exert evolutionary selection pressure. Voluntary stressor exposure has the efficacious effect of increasing resilience to future stressors in humans and other animals. This theoretical paper considers the hypothesis that intrinsic motivation toward behaviors requiring voluntary stressor exposure mitigates evolutionary selection pressure exerted by environmental stressors by inducing neural and neuroendocrine plasticity which results in increased resilience. In this view, intrinsically motivated stressor exposure is both efficacious and innate. Empirical and theoretical support for this hypothesis suggest that humans possess an instinct to resilience. Stress-related disorders ...


Russell Sbriglia And Slavoj Žižek, Editors. Subject Lessons: Hegel, Lacan, And The Future Of Materialism. Northwestern Up, 2020., Vanessa Loh 2021 Temple University

Russell Sbriglia And Slavoj Žižek, Editors. Subject Lessons: Hegel, Lacan, And The Future Of Materialism. Northwestern Up, 2020., Vanessa Loh

Studies in 20th & 21st Century Literature

Review of Russell Sbriglia and Slavoj Žižek, editors. Subject Lessons: Hegel, Lacan, and the Future of Materialism. Northwestern UP, 2020. 270 pp.


How Psychotherapists Practice In The Digital Era, Josh Weinstein 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

How Psychotherapists Practice In The Digital Era, Josh Weinstein

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The digital era, marked by digital devices connected via high speed data networks, has altered human experience in profound ways over the past 40 years. The potential for novel forms of human relating and fulfillment of desire has led to myriad changes in behavior, thought and unconscious activity. While many adapt or thrive in expanded reality, for some, the digital can be context, source and/or location for psychological affliction. When those who suffer seek psychological relief, how psychotherapists listen for, conceptualize and work with the effects of the digital matter a great deal. While theoretical and quantitative research literature ...


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