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A Translational Analysis Of Renewal Following Dro With Human Subjects, Kacey R. Finch 2021 West Virginia University

A Translational Analysis Of Renewal Following Dro With Human Subjects, Kacey R. Finch

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Renewal is a type of behavioral relapse that is dependent on changes in contextual stimuli in the environment. The current study investigated ABA renewal of responding that had been previously reduced by a differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) procedure. ABA renewal refers to the context associated with three phases of behavioral treatment; Context A is present during baseline, Context B is present during treatment, and the post-treatment context returns to Context A (i.e., renewal test). Undergraduate college students participated in a Zoom video call during which they responded by clicking the mouse on a rectangle in a computer ...


Examining How Adverse Childhood Experiences And The Underlying Processes Of Trait And State Impulsivity Influence Suicidal Behavior, Julia K. Duran 2021 Fort Hays State University

Examining How Adverse Childhood Experiences And The Underlying Processes Of Trait And State Impulsivity Influence Suicidal Behavior, Julia K. Duran

Master's Theses

ABSTRACT

Due to the effects of ACEs and impulsive behavior on mental and physical health, it is important to better understand the relationship between these two as well as how they both may influence choices, such as suicide. Numerous studies have identified impulsive behavior as a risk factor for suicide, however, recent research has identified several underlying independent processes that make up impulsivity. This study uses a broad assessment of trait and state impulsivity to gather a more discrete understanding of the underlying processes that contribute to impulsive behavior. The short version UPPS-P scale was used to measure negative urgency ...


Information Prioritization: A Comparison Between Utility Maximizers And Probability Matchers, Yusuf Ismaeel 2021 Claremont Colleges

Information Prioritization: A Comparison Between Utility Maximizers And Probability Matchers, Yusuf Ismaeel

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis examines the differences between probability matchers and utility maximizers in their preferences for information sources in a lab environment. In this paper, we consider the best source of information to be the most connected one. We conducted several linear probability model type regressions along with logit regressions. Furthermore, we also attempted to control and fix any potential misclassifications in classifying the cognitive strategy by using instrumental variables. The results show that utility maximizers will almost always choose the most informed node. Probability matchers, on the other hand, do not exhibit such a behavior as the probability matching strategy ...


Uncovering The Neural And Behavioral Factors That Underlie Changes In Processing Visual Orientation, Patrick Sadil 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Uncovering The Neural And Behavioral Factors That Underlie Changes In Processing Visual Orientation, Patrick Sadil

Doctoral Dissertations

From moment to moment, the visual environment appears stable; despite prolonged scrutiny, the edge of a desk is not perceived to change. But this apparent stability emerges from perceptual and decisional systems that undergo continuous modulation. In two chapters, I focus on two different kinds of modulation to the processing of visual orientation (i.e., the tilt of an edge). In both chapters, the form of modulation is latent, obscured by standard analyses. To detect those latent changes in perceptual decisions, I develop in this dissertation new statistical tools, at both behavioral and neural levels.

In the first chapter, I ...


Effects Of Alcohol Intoxication On Hostile Attribution Bias And Relational Aggression In Women, Alita M. Mobley 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Alcohol Intoxication On Hostile Attribution Bias And Relational Aggression In Women, Alita M. Mobley

Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol intoxication is consistently linked to physical and sexual aggression in men, but not women. The lack of evidence supporting the relationship between alcohol and aggression for women could be due to a failure to measure relational aggression (i.e., harmful social manipulation), the form of aggression more commonly employed by women. Further, alcohol intoxication may interfere with the interpretation of social cues, resulting in greater perceived provocation in ambiguous social interactions and increased aggression. The current study examined the relationship between alcohol intoxication and relational aggression in women and the extent to which interpretation of social cues (i.e ...


Assessment Of Dopaminergic And Serotonergic Receptor Antagonists In Male Rats Trained To Discriminate 4-Methylmethcathinone (Mephedrone), Rachel L. Burroughs 2020 Western Michigan University

Assessment Of Dopaminergic And Serotonergic Receptor Antagonists In Male Rats Trained To Discriminate 4-Methylmethcathinone (Mephedrone), Rachel L. Burroughs

Master's Theses

Preclinical drug discrimination studies of the synthetic cathinone, 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone) have demonstrated its effects are comparable to those of other popular psychostimulant drugs. Few studies have directly examined the contribution of specific neurotransmitter receptors to mephedrone’s discriminative stimulus effects. The present study investigated the role of dopamine and serotonin receptors in these effects. Eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 3.0 mg/kg mephedrone from saline. After dose-response curves were determined with mephedrone (0.375-3.0 mg/kg), a series of stimulus antagonism tests were conducted with dopamine antagonists (Sch 23390, haloperidol) and serotonin antagonists (WAY ...


Envisioning Success: A Naturalistic Investigation Into Prospective Memory Performance, Reminder Use, And Memory Strategies In An Academic Context, John Whittemore 2020 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Envisioning Success: A Naturalistic Investigation Into Prospective Memory Performance, Reminder Use, And Memory Strategies In An Academic Context, John Whittemore

Honors Theses

Prospective memory encompasses the ability to remember to carry out future intentions. Prospective memory performance is essential for students. College students are expected to remember and complete a variety of assignments on a daily basis. In these naturalistic experiments taking place before and after COVID-19, college students were required to set academic goals for themselves for three consecutive days following specific guidelines. Each day, the participant identified a time specific academic goal and a non-time specific academic goal. Participants were randomizing assigned experimental or control condition. The experimental group performed an episodic future thinking exercise during encoding. Additionally, each time ...


The Youthful Pandemic, Brook Sahlemariam 2020 Dominican University of California

The Youthful Pandemic, Brook Sahlemariam

Nursing | Senior Theses

This paper attempts to examine the neurological, physical, and societal effects of e-cigarette use among youth and young-adults in North America. Furthermore, the paper investigates the parallels between e-cigarette users, tobacco users, and dual users in regard to behavioral patterns, reasons for use, and age of initiation.


Historical Trauma Response Scores As A Function Of Unresolved Grief And Substance Use Disorder In American Indian Populations, Andrew R. Saunders 2020 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Historical Trauma Response Scores As A Function Of Unresolved Grief And Substance Use Disorder In American Indian Populations, Andrew R. Saunders

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Abstract

Researchers are interested in the outcomes of interventions, specifically, measuring historical trauma (HT) among American Indian/Alaska Native communities and the long-term distress and substance abuse as a result of historical trauma response (HTR). Previous literature has implicated limitations in the clinical conceptualization of the relationship between intergenerational transfer of HTR and substance abuse. The aim of the current study is to examine treatment efficacy of 50 homosexual, American Indian males randomized to a culturally-adapted juxtaposition of (1) Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), (2) Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), and (3) Historical Trauma and Unresolved Grief Intervention (HTUG), or (4) waitlisted ...


Wicked Problems: Depression, Sebastian Wendolowski 2020 Kutztown University

Wicked Problems: Depression, Sebastian Wendolowski

English Department: Research for Change - Wicked Problems in Our World

Depression is a disorder that can affect anybody and is the leading cause of disability and disorders in the United States. This year, due to COVID-19, it has hit an all time high, affecting many more people. Suicide rates have been steadily growing across all ages, and this year is at a record high too, showing correlation with depression. There are two types of depression, major depressive disorder and chronic depressive disorder. Diagnosis of depression is typically done physically or through a questionnaire, which is compared into a DSM-5. There are many risk factors for depression and other common mental ...


Single-Case Experimental Designs For Behavioral Neuroscience, Paul L. Soto 2020 Louisiana State Univ, Dept Psychol, 236 Audubon Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA

Single-Case Experimental Designs For Behavioral Neuroscience, Paul L. Soto

Faculty Publications

Single-case experimental designs (SCEDs) are commonly used in behavior analytic research but rarely used in behavioral neuroscience research. The recent development of technologies that allow control of the timing of neurobiological events such as gene expression and neuronal firing enable the fruitful application of SCEDs for the study of brain-behavior relations. There are at least 3 benefits expected from applying SCEDs to study how neurobiological events affect behavior. First, SCEDs entail direct within- and across-subject assessments of reliability, likely increasing the probability of replication across studies and encouraging a search for the causes of replication failure when they occur. Second ...


#Bopo: The Effect Of Body Positive Social Media Content On Women’S Mood And Self-Compassion, Hope R. Rutter, Kaley M. Michael, Brittany J. Repak, Cindy J. Campoverde-Reinoso, Thao Hoang, Kathy R. Berenson 2020 Gettysburg College

#Bopo: The Effect Of Body Positive Social Media Content On Women’S Mood And Self-Compassion, Hope R. Rutter, Kaley M. Michael, Brittany J. Repak, Cindy J. Campoverde-Reinoso, Thao Hoang, Kathy R. Berenson

Student Publications

Body positivity is a trending movement that promotes appreciation of one’s body, including acceptance of one’s appearance and perceived flaws. In two experiments, we compared the effects of body-positive social media content relative to idealized body content and neutral control content on young women’s psychological states. In study 1, participants were randomly assigned to view Instagram posts involving fitspiration photos, body positive photos, body positive quotes, or travel landscape photos. In study 2, participants were randomly assigned to view Instagram posts involving selfies of the same individuals’ faces with or without makeup. As predicted, viewing body positive ...


الرشوة وعلاقتها ببعض المتغيرات النفسية والشخصية(دراسة ميدانية في بعض السجون الجزائرية), Bekkal Asma, Jamila Charef 2020 قسم علم النفس - جامعة وهران

الرشوة وعلاقتها ببعض المتغيرات النفسية والشخصية(دراسة ميدانية في بعض السجون الجزائرية), Bekkal Asma, Jamila Charef

Al Jinan الجنان

The current study sets up to investigate the psychological and social characteristics among the bribe taker in addition to examining its relationship to some psychological, social and behavioral variables. Accordingly, the researchers have administered a battery of standardized psychometric tests concerning self-concept, mental alienation and psychopathic deviance to a sample of 14 bribe takers among individual prisoners who were condemned for bribery crime in addition to a similar sample of individuals who were not concerned by bribery. Their range age varies from 25 and 65. The results of the study revealed that the bribe taker is characterized by a crude ...


Application Of The “Idisco” Full-Brain Tissue Clearing Method: A View Of Dopamine And Inflammation In The Hiv-1 Transgenic Rat, Kristin Nickole Kirchner 2020 University of South Carolina

Application Of The “Idisco” Full-Brain Tissue Clearing Method: A View Of Dopamine And Inflammation In The Hiv-1 Transgenic Rat, Kristin Nickole Kirchner

Theses and Dissertations

The iDISCO (immunolabeling-enabled three-dimensional imaging of solvent-cleared organs) method is a quick, inexpensive, and easily adaptable tissue staining and clearing procedure that allows neuroscientists to study a protein of interest in a whole, unaltered tissue sample. While the iDISCO method was initially tested and validated for mice embryos and brains, the current experiment sought to adapt the method for use in the rat using HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat brain tissue. Antibodies for tyrosine hydroxylase and Iba-1 were validated in the HIV-1 Tg rat and in F344/N control rats using iDISCO. Confocal images were taken of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons ...


Wrongful Conviction Documentaries: Influences Of Crime Media Exposure On Mock Juror Decision-Making, Patricia Y. Sanchez 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Wrongful Conviction Documentaries: Influences Of Crime Media Exposure On Mock Juror Decision-Making, Patricia Y. Sanchez

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Psychology and law researchers have urged colleagues to collaborate with the makers of popular media, such as documentary filmmakers, in efforts to educate the general public about wrongful convictions (Kassin, 2017; Wells et al., 2000). Recently, programs depicting wrongful convictions, such as Making a Murderer (Demos & Ricciardi, 2015) and When They See Us (DuVernay, 2019) have garnered substantial viewership. Research on general and case-specific pretrial publicity (Daftary-Kapur et al., 2014; Kovera, 2002) and the effects of crime media (Baskin & Sommers, 2010; Schweitzer & Saks, 2007) demonstrate that although consuming crime-related media and being exposed to information about a criminal trial can influence jurors’ attitudes, these effects do not always translate into informed case decisions (Holmgren & Fordham, 2011; Kim et al., 2009). This research aimed to answer the following question: does exposure to commentary on the risk factors of wrongful conviction, such as eyewitness errors and false confessions, lead viewers to become more discriminating as jurors, voting to convict when the primary ...


Conversations With The Oregon Trail And The Silent Generation, Jose A. Camacho Quiroz 2020 University of Maine

Conversations With The Oregon Trail And The Silent Generation, Jose A. Camacho Quiroz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this thesis is to explain the reason behind my art practise and process as it stands in August 2020, its context and relation to my life and experience as an outsider in the American culture. This process culminates in the documentation of experiences through the use and preparation of displays of personal artifacts as physical evidence and mechanisms of my transformation to my american persona through a continuing acculturation process and drift from the american generational archetype.

It is important to outline my current work state diverges from my past work since it no longer serves a ...


Predictors Of Social Distancing And Mask-Wearing Behavior: Panel Survey In Seven U.S. States, Plamen Nikolov, Andreas Pape, Ozlem Tonguc, Charlotte Williams 2020 Harvard Institute for Quantitative Social Science

Predictors Of Social Distancing And Mask-Wearing Behavior: Panel Survey In Seven U.S. States, Plamen Nikolov, Andreas Pape, Ozlem Tonguc, Charlotte Williams

Economics Faculty Scholarship

This paper presents preliminary summary results from a longitudinal study of participants in seven U.S. states during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to standard socio-economic characteristics, we collect data on various economic preference parameters: time, risk, and social preferences, and risk perception biases. We pay special attention to predictors that are both important drivers of social distancing and are potentially malleable and susceptible to policy levers. We note three important findings: (1) demographic characteristics exert the largest influence on social distancing measures and mask-wearing, (2) we show that individual risk perception and cognitive biases exert a critical role in ...


Assessing Sex Differences In The Effects Of Short-Term Rem Sleep On Anxiety- And Depressive-Like Behaviors In Rats, Nadia Meshkati 2020 Seton Hall University

Assessing Sex Differences In The Effects Of Short-Term Rem Sleep On Anxiety- And Depressive-Like Behaviors In Rats, Nadia Meshkati

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Findings from both human and animal studies suggest rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbances following a traumatic event can lead to inability to extinguish the fear association, and eventually influence the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Additionally, research has demonstrated that sleep disruptions, including REM sleep deprivation (RSD), increases anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors and states in animals and people, with evidence of sex differences. Furthermore, it has yet to be determined whether short-term RSD, a more natural animal model of PTSD, can influence affective state of subjects. The present study applied short-term RSD to investigate sex differences in the ...


Coping Self-Efficacy As A Potential Moderator Of The Relationship Between Sexual Orientation And Negative Mental Health Outcomes, James M. Macchia 2020 Old Dominion University

Coping Self-Efficacy As A Potential Moderator Of The Relationship Between Sexual Orientation And Negative Mental Health Outcomes, James M. Macchia

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Sexual minority individuals (i.e., those who identify as a sexual orientation other than heterosexual) have consistently been linked to an increased risk of negative mental health outcomes. The process of coping can impact the content and severity of said outcomes, and one’s ability to cope is often predicted by the concept known as coping self-efficacy (i.e., one’s belief in his or her ability to cope). This study aimed to assess the effects of sexual orientation, coping self-efficacy, and their interactions on mental health by looking at different aspects of coping self-efficacy as potential moderating variables. Self-perceptions ...


Using Video Modeling To Teach Staff How To Implement Preference Assessments, Megan Weaver 2020 Utah State University

Using Video Modeling To Teach Staff How To Implement Preference Assessments, Megan Weaver

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Identification of reinforcers through preference assessments for individuals with disabilities is an important task because it increases the probability of skill development, including academic tasks, self-help skills, social skills, and behavior modification. Teachers of students with disabilities often experience problems with training paraprofessionals to implement preference assessments using written instructions alone. In this study, researchers will investigate whether video modeling will be more effective than written instruction to staff to implement preference assessments. Participants will include three to five paraprofessionals in a classroom setting with no previous behavior analysis training on preference assessments and three to five students in a ...


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