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An Examination Of The Relation Between Memory Self-Efficacy And Working Memory Within The Cognitive Reserve Framework, Genna Marie Mashinchi MA 2024 University of Montana

An Examination Of The Relation Between Memory Self-Efficacy And Working Memory Within The Cognitive Reserve Framework, Genna Marie Mashinchi Ma

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Dementia has been found to negatively affect multiple aspects of cognitive functioning. Despite an increasing prevalence of cognitive decline, many aging adults do not experience reduced cognitive functioning. The reason as to why some experience cognitive decline and others do not is still unclear. One leading theory thought to explain this phenomenon is the cognitive reserve theory (CR), which proposes that certain lifestyle factors (e.g., educational attainment, occupational attainment, and leisure activity participation) prolong one’s cognitive functioning and reduce the risk of cognitive decline. Memory self-efficacy (MSE), defined as one’s beliefs in their memory ability, was found to be positively …


The Benefits Of Art Therapy On Stress And Anxiety Of Oncology Patients During Treatment, Helen Shiepe 2023 Lesley University

The Benefits Of Art Therapy On Stress And Anxiety Of Oncology Patients During Treatment, Helen Shiepe

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Within the last ten years research on art therapy and its positive impact on oncology patients’ stress and anxiety during treatment has been minimal. Oncology patients whether they are children or adults when diagnosed experience similar reactions due to their diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases end of life care. The current question is whether or not art therapy does have a positive impact on decreasing the stress and anxiety with oncology patients while undergoing treatment. Deane, Fitch & Carmen (2000), discussed art therapy as a healing art that is “intended to integrate physical, emotional, and spiritual care by facilitating …


Sexuality Training In Counseling Psychology: A Mixed-Methods Study Of Student Perspectives, Dena Abbott, Jacob E. Vargas, Hali J. Santiago 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sexuality Training In Counseling Psychology: A Mixed-Methods Study Of Student Perspectives, Dena Abbott, Jacob E. Vargas, Hali J. Santiago

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Counseling psychologists are a cogent fit to lead the movement toward a sex-positive professional psychology (Burnes et al., 2017a). Though centralizing training in human sexuality (HS; Mollen & Abbott, 2021) and sexual and reproductive health (Grzanka & Frantell, 2017) is congruent with counseling psychologists’ values, training programs rarely require or integrate comprehensive sexuality training for their students (Mollen et al., 2020). We employed a critical mixed-methods design in the interest of centering the missing voices of doctoral-level graduate students in counseling psychology in the discussion of the importance of human sexuality competence for counseling psychologists. Using focus groups to ascertain …


Uncertainty Monitoring In Category Learning And Transfer, Rose Deng 2022 University of Maine

Uncertainty Monitoring In Category Learning And Transfer, Rose Deng

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Uncertainty is commonly experienced by many people during learning and decision making. Given that many career paths require the ability to monitor uncertainty, it’s important to understand how metacognitive processes influence cognitive performance. In attempts to explore how uncertainty monitoring impacts learning, three experiments were conducted. The first and second experiment utilized a categorization task in which participants explicitly learned to categorize Chemistry concepts. The third experiment assessed the impact of uncertainty monitoring on implicit learning and utilized a different task to tap into the implicit learning system. The present dissertation is one of few to investigate the role of …


Wavelet Analysis Of Behavior Inhibition, Makayla Mcginnis, Bryant Giles 2022 Kennesaw State University

Wavelet Analysis Of Behavior Inhibition, Makayla Mcginnis, Bryant Giles

Symposium of Student Scholars

Poor impulse control is a sign of numerous psychological disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity syndrome (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and borderline personality disorder (BPD). In contrast, high levels of impulse control are correlated with academic achievement and other positive life outcomes. Because of this, it is important to understand how the brain functions when it is attempting to inhibit behaviors. This study examined impulse control using the stop-signal task while measuring brain activity with EEG. The sample consists of Kennesaw State University undergraduate students (n = 25). The stop-signal task requires the participant to respond to a particular stimulus as fast …


The Effect Of Numeracy And Math Anxiety On Whole Number Bias, Jasmine Jessica Leanna Bonsel 2022 California State University - San Bernardino

The Effect Of Numeracy And Math Anxiety On Whole Number Bias, Jasmine Jessica Leanna Bonsel

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Whole number bias (WNB) has been defined as the tendency to apply natural number knowledge to rational numbers. This misapplication can often lead to erroneous responses in mathematical tasks and understanding of rational number properties. Whole number bias can be explored using Dual Processing Theories. According to Dual Processing Theory we have two types of thinking: Type I and Type II. Type I is fast, heuristic based, intuitive, and doesn’t require working memory, while Type II is slow, logic based, analytical, and requires working memory. Some researchers argue that WNB is an intuitive phenomenon and occurs from a failure to …


Differences In Elementary Students’ Self-Regulated Processes For Computer Versus Printed Reading Assignments, Katerina Sergi, Anastasia Elder, Tianlan Wei, Kristin H. Javorsky, Jianzhong Xu 2022 Mississippi State University and Delta State University

Differences In Elementary Students’ Self-Regulated Processes For Computer Versus Printed Reading Assignments, Katerina Sergi, Anastasia Elder, Tianlan Wei, Kristin H. Javorsky, Jianzhong Xu

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

The purpose of this study was to investigate metacognitive self-regulated learning (SRL) differences in computer- and paper-based reading assignments across elementary students. Students in two after-school programs in a southeastern U.S. public school district were recruited. The final sample consisted of 48 students in Grades 2–5 who participated in two counterbalanced conditions involving a computer- and a paper-based reading assignment. The study employed a 2 x 4 (condition-by-grade) mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followup tests to examine metacognitive SRL differences between conditions and grades. The results indicate that elementary students used various metacognitive SRL skills across both conditions. The …


The Impact Of Emotionally Charged Music On Attentional Bias Towards Color, Abigail Mitchell, Khanh Nguyen 2022 Belmont University

The Impact Of Emotionally Charged Music On Attentional Bias Towards Color, Abigail Mitchell, Khanh Nguyen

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

This study examines the relationship between listening to music with an emotional valence and attentional bias towards emotion-associated colors. The variables considered in this study are valence of music (positive, negative, or neutral sound), color-emotion association (based on the literature or chosen by the individual), and attentional bias towards color, as measured by a dot-probe task. Previous research suggests that from a young age, humans are able to perceive music as happy or sad and show an emotional response to musical valence (Dalla Bella, Peretz, Rousseau, & Gosselin, 2001). Additionally, bright colors are more often associated with positive emotions, while …


Using Commonly-Available Technologies To Create Online Multimedia Lessons Through The Application Of The Cognitive Theory Of Multimedia Learning, Thomas M. Cavanagh, Christa Kiersch 2022 Dominican University of California

Using Commonly-Available Technologies To Create Online Multimedia Lessons Through The Application Of The Cognitive Theory Of Multimedia Learning, Thomas M. Cavanagh, Christa Kiersch

Barowsky School of Business | Faculty Scholarship

Principles derived from the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML; Mayer in: Multimedia learning, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2021) provide valuable guidance for enlisting commonly-available technologies to create effective online multimedia lessons. Specifically, CTML can guide instructional designers on the use of slide-sharing programs to create concise, narrated animation segments; the use of survey programs to interpolate questions and prompts between these segments to facilitate generative learning activities; and the use of video-sharing sites to provide learners with control over relatively superficial aspects of instruction. The application of CTML to the design of online multimedia lessons raises a number of …


Prenatal Opioid Use And Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Review Of The Neurophysiological, Neuropsychological, And Behavioral/Emotional/Social Impacts In The Pediatric Population, Candice Gore 2022 National-Louis University

Prenatal Opioid Use And Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Review Of The Neurophysiological, Neuropsychological, And Behavioral/Emotional/Social Impacts In The Pediatric Population, Candice Gore

Dissertations

The opioid epidemic over the past two decades has raised concerns regarding the developmental fetal impact of prenatal opioid use. Research in this area continues to grow, but largely has focused on treatment for neonates experiencing withdrawal symptoms postnatally. Long term clinical implications for this at-risk population have not been studied extensively leaving many gaps in research and highlighting the need for future empirical studies. This literature review will examine the neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and the behavioral/social/emotional impacts on infants, toddlers, and school aged children who were prenatally exposed to opioids with or without the diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Providing …


A Critical Examination Of The Effectiveness Of Gratitude Intervention On Well-Being Outcomes: A Within-Person Experimental Daily Diary Approach, Andree HARTANTO, MANMEET KAUR, KASTURIRATNA TENNAKOON APPUHAMILLAGE SANDEESHWARA KASTURIRATNA, Frosch Yi Xuan QUEK 2022 Singapore Management University

A Critical Examination Of The Effectiveness Of Gratitude Intervention On Well-Being Outcomes: A Within-Person Experimental Daily Diary Approach, Andree Hartanto, Manmeet Kaur, Kasturiratna Tennakoon Appuhamillage Sandeeshwara Kasturiratna, Frosch Yi Xuan Quek

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Given the rise in the global prevalence of stress and depressive symptoms, there is an increasing need to identify promising interventions that promote well-being. One potential intervention that has been widely discussed in the literature on improving well-being is the practice of gratitude. However, findings on its effectiveness have been marred by inconsistency and publication bias. Building upon past studies, the current study aims to revisit the effect of a gratitude contemplation intervention on multiple well-being outcomes by using a within-person experimental design with a daily diary approach. Multilevel modeling showed that the gratitude contemplation intervention had a significant within-person …


A Multiple Case Study To Understand How Students Experience Science And Engineering Practices, Chris Schaben, Justin Andersson, Christine Cutucache 2022 Omaha Public Schools, Omaha, NE

A Multiple Case Study To Understand How Students Experience Science And Engineering Practices, Chris Schaben, Justin Andersson, Christine Cutucache

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), amid recent shifts in science curriculum, call for students to learn science through the practices of scientists and engineers (science and engineering practices, or SEPs). SEPs, related to inquiry learning, are ways students learn science content by doing science. Students have varied experiences learning science and engineering practices, including exposure in the classroom, from media, and in science fairs. Using a qualitative, multiple case study design, we analyzed public school educators’ and middle and high school students’ (ages 12–18) interview transcripts about learning through the science and engineering practices. Findings demonstrate that students learn …


Sources Of Top-Down Processing In Recognition Of Repeated Speech In Noise, Liam Gleason 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Sources Of Top-Down Processing In Recognition Of Repeated Speech In Noise, Liam Gleason

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Prior research has shown that repetition facilitates speech recognition in difficult listening environments, as indicated by more accurate reporting and lower subjective noise ratings. Both effects were found even when sentences were read at encoding, suggesting that the top-down processing involved comes from a modality-general level of representation (Gleason & Francis, 2021). We investigated whether this top-down processing comes from the semantic or lemma level of language representation. Bilingual participants listened to sentences in English and Spanish. At test, these sentences and new sentences were presented auditorily in English with background noise. After listening to each sentence, participants reported the …


Who Said What To Whom?: Contextual Memory Processes In Bilinguals, Naoko Tsuboi 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Who Said What To Whom?: Contextual Memory Processes In Bilinguals, Naoko Tsuboi

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Source memory is memory for sources of information (who gave the information), whereas destination memory is memory for destinations of information (to whom the information was given). Prior literature found that source memory exceeded destination memory, and destination memory was impaired remarkably under high cognitive demand tasks. These findings supported the attention hypothesis, the idea that greater attentional resource availability leads to better source and destination memory. The current study extended prior source and destination research to bilingualism because bilinguals are thought to have a greater attention control ability than monolinguals. In the only published study to compare bilingual and …


Are We Ovary-Acting? All Visuospatial Abilities May Not Be Equally Affected Throughout The Menstrual Cycle., Caroline G. Haynes, Audrey N. Wade 2022 Belmont University

Are We Ovary-Acting? All Visuospatial Abilities May Not Be Equally Affected Throughout The Menstrual Cycle., Caroline G. Haynes, Audrey N. Wade

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

Are we ovary-acting? All visuospatial abilities may not be equally affected throughout the menstrual cycle.

Department of Psychological Sciences & Neuroscience, Belmont University, Nashville, TN

Visuospatial skills pertain to the ability to conceptualize and comprehend visual representations of objects and the spatial relationships among objects. They are integral for the proper functioning of other cognitive systems such as memory, attention, and reasoning (Kaufman, 2007). Sex hormones are one of many factors reported to affect visuospatial processing, with estrogen specially being associated with poor performance on visuospatial tasks in females (Hausmann, 2000). The current study investigated performance differences on three visuospatial …


Cognitive Difficulty In The Five Boroughs Of New York City, 2000-2019, Marjorine Henriquez-Castillo 2022 Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies

Cognitive Difficulty In The Five Boroughs Of New York City, 2000-2019, Marjorine Henriquez-Castillo

Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies

Introduction:

the percentage of people with cognitive difficulty reported in 2000, 2010, and 2019 among residents in New York City. Specifically, residents from the five boroughs in New York City—Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island—were included in this analysis.

Methods:

This report uses the American Community Survey PUMS (Public Use Microdata Series) data for all years released by the Census Bureau and reorganized for public use by the Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota, IPUMSusa, (https://usa.ipums.org/usa/index.shtml). See Public Use Microdata Series Steven Ruggles, J. Trent Alexander, Katie Genadek, Ronald Goeken, Matthew B. Schroeder, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use …


The Coding Flexibility Of Radical Position In Chinese, Zian Chi 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Coding Flexibility Of Radical Position In Chinese, Zian Chi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although there are theories of word recognition/reading predicting a transposed letter (TL)-type effect in Chinese character recognition, specifically, a transposed radical (TR) effect, no empirical demonstrations of TR effects have been reported to this point. As a result, instead of adopting a position-general assumption of radical processing, a position-specific assumption of radical processing has been adopted in most Chinese character recognition models. In the present Experiment 1, computational models were created in order to determine whether models that do not make the position-general assumption can account for any TR effect if one were to be found. In Experiment 2, 3, …


Changing Criteria: What Decision Processes Reveal About Confidence In Memory, Johanny N. Castillo 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Changing Criteria: What Decision Processes Reveal About Confidence In Memory, Johanny N. Castillo

Masters Theses

Source memory is our ability to relate central information (the “item”) to the context (the “source”) in which it was learned or experienced. People are often highly confident in their source judgements even when this information is incorrectly recalled. Past work has aimed to explain why source errors made with high confidence occur with a framework called the Converging Criteria (CC) account. The CC account posits that item memory can interact with source memory by altering decision criteria as item confidence increases, increasing the probability of a high confidence source judgement. This prediction differs from alternate models, like the Fixed …


What Did You Expect? An Investigation Of Lexical Preactivation In Sentence Processing, Jon Burnsky 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

What Did You Expect? An Investigation Of Lexical Preactivation In Sentence Processing, Jon Burnsky

Doctoral Dissertations

Language users predictively preactivate lexical units that appear to the comprehen- der to be likely to surface. Despite ample language experience and grammatical competence, it appears that language users tend to preactivate verbs in some contexts, called role-reversal contexts, that would create plausibility violations if they were to actually appear; these verbs assign thematic roles to their arguments in such a way that it leads to implausibility. These anomalous predictions provide a window into the mechanisms underlying lexical preactivation and are the case study that this dissertation focuses in on. This dissertation is an exploration of what linguistic information is …


Psychophysiological Effects Of Increasing Awareness Of Nondual Consciousness In Young Adults With Depression And Anxiety, Milena Braticevic 2022 California Institute of Integral Studies

Psychophysiological Effects Of Increasing Awareness Of Nondual Consciousness In Young Adults With Depression And Anxiety, Milena Braticevic

CONSCIOUSNESS: Ideas and Research for the Twenty-First Century

Young adults increasingly suffer from anxiety and depression during the time of transition into adulthood. This research study examined the effects of increasing awareness of nondual consciousness in young adults who were experiencing various levels of anxiety and depression. The methodology was mixed-method and included four 1-hour group-based sessions over 4 weeks. Increasing awareness of nondual consciousness through educational, experiential, and behavioural components resulted in reduction in the average depression score from 19.4 (borderline clinical depression) to 10 (normal), and reduction in the average anxiety score from 12.7 (moderate anxiety) to 6.9 (mild). Participants reported increased mental, emotional, physical, and …


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