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The Combined Influences Of Race, Sexuality, And Gender On Perceptions Of Sexual Harassment, Courtney House 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

The Combined Influences Of Race, Sexuality, And Gender On Perceptions Of Sexual Harassment, Courtney House

Honors Theses

The current research examines the perceptions of sexual harassment based on the influence of the victim’s gender, and the race of both the victim and the perpetrator, and perceiver’s feminist beliefs. By using vignettes (a brief description of an event), we manipulated a) the gender of the victim (man or woman), b) the race of the victim (POC or white), and c) the race of the perpetrator (POC or white). Our hypotheses were as follows: a) vignettes depicting same-sex harassment will be less in line with the definition of sexual harassment; b) vignettes portraying the victim as a ...


Social Media & Negative Effects On Body Image, Jack Fechter 2021 Kutztown University of Pennsylvania

Social Media & Negative Effects On Body Image, Jack Fechter

English Department: Research for Change - Wicked Problems in Our World

Since the beginning of the 2010’s, social media has grown to affect every aspect of our daily lives. With children using it earlier in their lives, they are getting mass exposure to societal ideals about what body type should be. This has negatively impacted adolescents’ view of body image, which has led to dissatisfaction with their own bodies. This leads to depressive symptoms and even in some cases suicide, which has gone up among adolescents in the past decade. The article that follows details how and why these issues occur, as well as solutions to fix them. These solutions ...


Attention In Social Anxiety Disorder And Depression: Insights From Evoked Brain Responses, Matt Judah 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Attention In Social Anxiety Disorder And Depression: Insights From Evoked Brain Responses, Matt Judah

Publications and Presentations

Social anxiety disorder and depression are thought to involve biased attention. For example, social anxiety may be associated with paying more attention to negative facial expressions. Depression may be associated with less attention to reward. Such biases in attention are thought to maintain symptoms, such as negative thoughts and avoidance. The presentation will describe the history of research examining biased attention in social anxiety disorder and depression. The speaker will present research using evoked brain responses as a window to understanding biased attention. Implications for social anxiety disorder and depression, as well as treatment, will be discussed.


The Effect Of The Difference In The Perception Of Temperature Between Sexes On The Academic Performance Of Chapin High School Students, Tiffany V. Phan 2021 Chapin High School

The Effect Of The Difference In The Perception Of Temperature Between Sexes On The Academic Performance Of Chapin High School Students, Tiffany V. Phan

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Mental performance and mental functions may be negatively affected by decreases in thermal comfort as a result of large differences in temperature. Additionally, females are seen to be less content with room temperatures and actually prefer rooms with higher temperatures in comparison to males. This investigation explored the potential effect that sex plays in thermal perception and the impact it may yield on academic performance within a high school population. It was hypothesized that female students would experience an increase in academic performance as the temperature increased while males would experience the opposite effect. A quasi-experimental approach was used to ...


Quehacer Del Trabajo Social En El Campo De Salud Mental En Bogotá, Angie Paola Vargas Gualdron, Valentina Cabrera Pérez, Alejandra Valentina Velandia Diaz 2020 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Quehacer Del Trabajo Social En El Campo De Salud Mental En Bogotá, Angie Paola Vargas Gualdron, Valentina Cabrera Pérez, Alejandra Valentina Velandia Diaz

Trabajo Social

La presente investigación tiene como objetivo caracterizar el quehacer del trabajo social en el campo de la salud mental en la ciudad de Bogotá, desde allí, aportar a la construcción de conocimiento. Lo anterior comprendiendo que este es un campo poco documentado en el que cada vez hay mayor participación de la profesión - disciplina. Es importante mencionar que el país ha tenido avances significativos en la comprensión y abordaje de la salud mental, lo que se da a partir de la Ley 1616 de 2013 y la reciente Política Nacional de Salud Mental.

Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, se entrevistó ...


Effect Of Environmental Enrichment On The Acquisition Of Sign-Tracking Of An Ethanol Bottle In The Home Environment, Amanda Pra Sisto 2020 Seton Hall University

Effect Of Environmental Enrichment On The Acquisition Of Sign-Tracking Of An Ethanol Bottle In The Home Environment, Amanda Pra Sisto

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Sign tracking is a Pavlovian conditioning procedure that has been used in preclinical drug-addiction research with rats to investigate individual differences in the attribution of incentive motivational value to reward cues that may lead to problematic behavior such as drug addiction. Animals demonstrate a tendency to interact with an object conditioned stimulus (CS) that signals the presentation or delivery of a reward, even though the delivery of the reward is independent of any interaction with the stimulus. Thus, it can be argued that sign tracking is a compulsive-like behavior, or an indication of compulsive “wanting” that is associated with increased ...


The Association Between Objective And Subjective Socioeconomic Standing And Subjective Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis, Jacinth J. X. TAN, Michael W. KRAUS, Nichelle C. CARPENTER, Nancy E. ADLER 2020 Singapore Management University

The Association Between Objective And Subjective Socioeconomic Standing And Subjective Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis, Jacinth J. X. Tan, Michael W. Kraus, Nichelle C. Carpenter, Nancy E. Adler

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

This meta-analysis tested if the links between socioeconomic status (SES) and subjective well-being (SWB) differ by whether SES is assessed objectively or subjectively. The associations between measures of objective SES (i.e., income and educational attainment), subjective SES (i.e., the MacArthur ladder SES and perceived SES), and SWB (i.e., happiness and life satisfaction) were synthesized across 357 studies, totaling 2,352,095 participants. Overall, the objective SES and subjective SES measures were moderately associated (r = .32). The subjective SES-SWB association (r = .22) was larger than the objective SES-SWB association (r = .16). The income-SWB association (r = .23) was comparable ...


An Interpretative Phenomenological Inquiry Into Experience, Expression, And Effect Of Gratitude Among Males And Females, Naved Iqbal, Supriya Srivastava, Imtiyaz Ahmad Dar 2020 Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi

An Interpretative Phenomenological Inquiry Into Experience, Expression, And Effect Of Gratitude Among Males And Females, Naved Iqbal, Supriya Srivastava, Imtiyaz Ahmad Dar

The Qualitative Report

Gratitude is a universal phenomenon that is experienced and expressed differently by individuals. The differences in experience and expression of gratitude are based on a number of factors, important among them is gender. There are very few studies that have explored gender differences using quantitative methods in gratitude interventions. However, this phenomenon can best be understood by employing qualitative methods like Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), as it is concerned with trying to understand any phenomenon, from the participant’s point of view. There is a paucity of research in this area. Therefore, we tried to explore experience, expression, and effects ...


Is Social Rank Correlated With Cognitive Ability In Black-Capped Chickadees?, Gloria Hyun Young Cho 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Is Social Rank Correlated With Cognitive Ability In Black-Capped Chickadees?, Gloria Hyun Young Cho

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Traditionally, dominant animals have been regarded as better competitors in all aspects of life, including cognition. However, the survival and reproductive advantages of being a dominant chickadee are surprisingly modest. It is possible that subordinate individuals compensate for the disadvantages of a lower rank with better cognitive abilities. If dominants are monopolizing prime food sources, subordinates may have developed better associative learning skills by learning to associate novel types of stimuli with food rewards. In this thesis, I asked whether dominance rank is correlated with cognitive ability in Black-capped Chickadees. I determined dominance rank in six flocks of six chickadees ...


Buddhist Psychology And Mindfulness: Does It Provide A Remedy For Western Shame?, Richard Biehl 2020 Lesley University

Buddhist Psychology And Mindfulness: Does It Provide A Remedy For Western Shame?, Richard Biehl

Mindfulness Studies Theses

This writing explores shame and its distress. It does so through a historical examination of Western psychological theories of emotion compared to emotions as seen through Buddhist psychology, based upon scholars and authorities within these respective fields. Further, it explores some Western psychotherapeutic approaches used to alleviate (unhealthy) shame compared to Buddhist mindfulness methods for alleviating aversive emotions and their efficacy, alone or in combination. The question examined is whether mindfulness grounded in Buddhist psychology and teachings, when applied within Western therapeutic settings and populations, is an effective and appropriate means to help alleviate aversive states of shame.

To identify ...


Regional Differences In Wild North American River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) Behavior And Communication, Sarah Walkley 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Regional Differences In Wild North American River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) Behavior And Communication, Sarah Walkley

Dissertations

This study focuses on the vocalization repertoires of wild North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) in New York and California. Although they are the same species, these two established populations of river otters are separated by a significant distance and are distinct from one another. River otters are semi-aquatic social predators that can be found throughout North America. This is the first study to examine the vocalizations of wild river otters, and results are compared across field sites in the different regions. River otter vocalizations and behaviors in New York were recorded using Bushnell Aggressor trail cameras that were placed ...


Agonistic Grooming In Multiple Lemur Species, Jennie L. Christopher 2020 University of Southern Mississippi

Agonistic Grooming In Multiple Lemur Species, Jennie L. Christopher

Dissertations

Social behaviors are represented in every animal species regardless of the level of sociability found in the species. At the very least, conspecifics must interact for the continuation of the species. Depending on species, social behavior could merely consist of mating and territorial disputes, it could consist of a multitude of social behaviors that provide a way of navigating a complex societal structure, or it could consist of any level of interaction between those extremes. However, the behaviors that make up these social repertoires are not universal across species. They could differ in either the form or function of the ...


Reported Behavioural Differences Between Geldings And Mares Challenge Sex-Driven Stereotypes In Ridden Equine Behaviour, Anna Aune, Kate Fenner, Bethany Wilson, Elissa Cameron, Andrew McLean, Paul McGreevy 2020 University of Sydney

Reported Behavioural Differences Between Geldings And Mares Challenge Sex-Driven Stereotypes In Ridden Equine Behaviour, Anna Aune, Kate Fenner, Bethany Wilson, Elissa Cameron, Andrew Mclean, Paul Mcgreevy

Anthropomorphism and Anthropocentrism Collection

Horse trainers and riders may have preconceived ideas of horse temperament based solely on the sex of the horse. A study (n = 1233) of horse enthusiasts (75% of whom had more than 8 years of riding experience) revealed that riders prefer geldings over mares and stallions. While these data may reflect different sex preferences in horses used for sport, they may also reduce the chances of some horses reaching their performance potential. Further, an unfounded sex prejudice is likely to contribute to unconscious bias when perceiving unwanted behaviours, simplistically attributing them to demographic characteristics rather than more complex legacies of ...


Sequential Analysis Of Livestock Herding Dog And Sheep Interactions, Jonathan Early, Jessica Alders, Elizabeth R. Arnott, Claire M. Wade, Paul McGreevy 2020 University of Sydney

Sequential Analysis Of Livestock Herding Dog And Sheep Interactions, Jonathan Early, Jessica Alders, Elizabeth R. Arnott, Claire M. Wade, Paul Mcgreevy

Interactive Behavior Collection

Livestock herding dogs are crucial contributors to Australian agriculture. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies of the behavioural interactions between dog and livestock during herding. A statistical approach that may reveal cause and effect in such interactions is lag sequential analysis. Using 48 video recordings of livestock herding dogs and sheep in a yard trial competition, event-based (time between behaviours is irrelevant) and time-based (time between behaviours is defined) lag sequential analyses identified several significant behavioural interactions (adjusted residuals greater than 2.58; the maximum likelihood-ratio chi-squared statistic for all eight contingency tables identified all sequences as highly ...


Social Referencing In The Domestic Horse, Anne Schrimpf, Marie-Sophie Single, Christian Nawroth 2020 Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences

Social Referencing In The Domestic Horse, Anne Schrimpf, Marie-Sophie Single, Christian Nawroth

Recognition Collection

Dogs and cats use human emotional information directed to an unfamiliar situation to guide their behavior, known as social referencing. It is not clear whether other domestic species show similar socio-cognitive abilities in interacting with humans. We investigated whether horses (n = 46) use human emotional information to adjust their behavior to a novel object and whether the behavior of horses differed depending on breed type. Horses were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an experimenter positioned in the middle of a test arena directed gaze and voice towards the novel object with either (a) a positive or (b) a ...


Musical Dogs: A Review Of The Influence Of Auditory Enrichment On Canine Health And Behavior, Abigail Lindig, Paul McGreevy, Angela Crean 2020 University of Sydney

Musical Dogs: A Review Of The Influence Of Auditory Enrichment On Canine Health And Behavior, Abigail Lindig, Paul Mcgreevy, Angela Crean

Stress Collection

Music therapy yields many positive health outcomes in humans, but the effects of music on the health and welfare of nonhuman animals vary greatly with the type of music played, the ethology of the species, and the personality and learning history of individual animals. One context in which music therapy may be used to enhance animal welfare is to alleviate stress in domestic environments. Here, we review studies of the effects of music exposure on dogs as a case study for the implementation of music therapy in veterinary medicine. Nine reports of experimental testing for the therapeutic effects of music ...


Social Learning In Solitary Juvenile Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Dennis Heinrich, Charlie Huveneers, Culum Brown 2020 Macquarie University

Social Learning In Solitary Juvenile Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Dennis Heinrich, Charlie Huveneers, Culum Brown

Social Behavior Collection

Social learning can be a shortcut for acquiring locally adaptive information. Animals that live in social groups have better access to social information, but gregarious and nonsocial species are also frequently exposed to social cues. Thus, social learning might simply reflect an animal's general ability to learn rather than an adaptation to social living. Here, we investigated social learning and the effect of frequency of social exposure in nonsocial, juvenile Port Jackson sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni. We compared (1) Individual Learners, (2) Sham-Observers, paired with a naïve shark, and (3) Observers, paired with a trained demonstrator, in a novel foraging ...


Are Individual Characteristics And Behaviors Necessary-But-Not-Sufficient Conditions For Academic Success?: A Demonstration Of Dul's (2016) Necessary Condition Analysis, Michael C. Tynan, Marcus Crede, Peter D. Harms 2020 Iowa State University

Are Individual Characteristics And Behaviors Necessary-But-Not-Sufficient Conditions For Academic Success?: A Demonstration Of Dul's (2016) Necessary Condition Analysis, Michael C. Tynan, Marcus Crede, Peter D. Harms

Psychology Publications

Claiming that high levels of an independent variable represent a necessary-but-not-sufficient condition for an outcome suggests that the outcome is only possible – but not guaranteed – with high levels of that variable. Necessary condition analysis (NCA) allows researchers to determine if an observed relation between an independent variable and a dependent variable is consistent with such a necessary-but-not-sufficient relation. Using both archival and primary data, we apply Dul's (2016) necessary condition analysis techniques to common correlates of academic success in college. We find data patterns that are consistent with necessary-but-not-sufficient conditions for academic success for a variety of variables including ...


A Cross-Cultural Comparison Of The Cognitive And Mental Health Repercussions Of Childhood Adversity In Adulthood, Sara Grace Comella 2020 University of North Florida

A Cross-Cultural Comparison Of The Cognitive And Mental Health Repercussions Of Childhood Adversity In Adulthood, Sara Grace Comella

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The majority of individuals in the United States experience at least one type of traumatic during childhood (“Understanding Child Trauma”, 2017). Individuals with childhood adversity have an increased incidence of depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse during adulthood (Rehan et al., 2017). However, the consequences of early adversity are not limited to mental health and extend to areas of cognitive functioning (e.g., working memory). The present research study addresses the long-term consequences of childhood adversity on psychological and cognitive functioning. Data collection took place online from February 2019 - April 2019 in Iceland and the United States. The survey assessed outcomes ...


The Midsession Reversal Task With Pigeons: Effects Of A Brief Delay Between Choice And Reinforcement, Megan Ashley Halloran 2020 University of Kentucky

The Midsession Reversal Task With Pigeons: Effects Of A Brief Delay Between Choice And Reinforcement, Megan Ashley Halloran

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

During a midsession reversal task, the session begins with a simple simultaneous discrimination in which one stimulus (S1) is correct and the alternate stimulus (S2) is incorrect (S1+/S2-). At the halfway point, the discrimination reverses and S2 becomes the correct choice (S2+/S1-). When choosing optimally, a pigeon should choose S1 until the first trial in which it is not reinforced and then shift to S2 (win-stay/lose-shift). With this task pigeons have been shown to respond suboptimally by anticipating the reversal (anticipatory errors) and continuing to choose S1 after the reversal (perseverative errors). This suboptimal behavior may result ...


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