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The Benefits Of Art Therapy On Stress And Anxiety Of Oncology Patients During Treatment, Helen Shiepe 2023 Lesley University

The Benefits Of Art Therapy On Stress And Anxiety Of Oncology Patients During Treatment, Helen Shiepe

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Within the last ten years research on art therapy and its positive impact on oncology patients’ stress and anxiety during treatment has been minimal. Oncology patients whether they are children or adults when diagnosed experience similar reactions due to their diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases end of life care. The current question is whether or not art therapy does have a positive impact on decreasing the stress and anxiety with oncology patients while undergoing treatment. Deane, Fitch & Carmen (2000), discussed art therapy as a healing art that is “intended to integrate physical, emotional, and spiritual care by facilitating …


Alternative Approaches To Police Interventions When Responding To Mental Health Crises Incidents, Karen Rivera Apolinar 2023 California State University San Bernardino

Alternative Approaches To Police Interventions When Responding To Mental Health Crises Incidents, Karen Rivera Apolinar

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Purpose: This study explored mental health workers perspectives on alternative approaches in responding to mental health crises.

The study was carried out in Southern California, in collaboration with mental health workers who currently work or previously have worked in mental health crisis. It adopted a post-positivists paradigm and data was gathered through individual interviews with mental health workers who have direct experience with mental health crisis response in the community and with the police. The twenty participants in the study were men and women working in the mental health field, and of various backgrounds, licensures, and ages.

The study found …


Gender And Deception: Moral Perceptions And Legal Responses, Gregory Klass, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan 2023 Georgetown University Law Center

Gender And Deception: Moral Perceptions And Legal Responses, Gregory Klass, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Decades of social science research has shown that the identity of criminal defendants and alleged victims often affects case outcomes. Parties’ race, gender, class, and age affect decisions of prosecutors, judges, juries, and other actors in the criminal system. Less studied has been how identity might affect other forms of legal regulation. This essay begins to explore how parties’ gender might figure into legal decisionmakers’ responses to deceptive behavior. More specifically, we explore the hypothesis that ordinary people tend to perceive deception of women as more wrongful than deception of men, and that such perceptions can affect both case outcomes …


The Effects Of Screen Time On Children, Jacqueline Valdepenas 2023 Dominican University of California

The Effects Of Screen Time On Children, Jacqueline Valdepenas

Nursing | Senior Theses

With the development of technology continuing to grow at a fast-paced pace in society, children are now becoming exposed to such technology at a younger age. The introduction of smartphones and tablets, which is defined as screen time in this paper, are being introduced to children as young as 6 months of age. Instead of children playing with toys recommended for their age, they use screen time for their play needs and entertainment. Some parents use screen time as a distraction and/or relief for their own needs when the child is upset or they’re unable to tend to the child. …


K-5 Elementary Alternative Program: A Case Study, William E. Scheuer IV 2022 East Tennessee State University

K-5 Elementary Alternative Program: A Case Study, William E. Scheuer Iv

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this case study was to examine how the K-5 elementary alternative program All Students Can Thrive (ASCT) used student-centered learning practices to influence the whole child. There is a lack of research on K-5 elementary alternative programs, such as ASCT, and specifically those that integrate student-centered learning practices to influence the whole child. Literature does not contain universally accepted interventions that are effective in the elementary alternative setting to help students return to the mainstream classroom setting better prepared to display appropriate behaviors when a student is removed from a mainstream classroom setting due to disruptive behaviors. …


An Investigation Of Lab-Based Research Procedural Fidelity: The Relationship Between Experimenter Infant-Directed Speech, Temperament And Language Proficiency, Tess A. Simpson 2022 East Tennessee State University

An Investigation Of Lab-Based Research Procedural Fidelity: The Relationship Between Experimenter Infant-Directed Speech, Temperament And Language Proficiency, Tess A. Simpson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether developmental researchers were influenced in the laboratory by the characteristics of children who participate in their research. I hypothesized that experimenters, as social partners, would adapt their speaking and other behaviors to the child’s perceived temperamental profile and language proficiency. I specifically focused on whether experimenters would adhere to the experimental laboratory procedure of two elicited imitation tasks, Feed Bear and Make a Rattle, in an archival dataset. Participants included 61 primarily white 15-month-olds. Coders transcribed infant directed speech (IDS) and analyzed transcriptions for total words, words per sentence, and …


Hiv And Early Life Stress On Neuroimaging And Risky Behavior, Paola Garcia Egan 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Hiv And Early Life Stress On Neuroimaging And Risky Behavior, Paola Garcia Egan

Dissertations

This study examined the interactive effects of early life stress (ELS) and HIV on brain morphometry, diffusion-basis-spectrum-imaging (DBSI), risky decision-making, and sex-risk behavior. 122 people with HIV (PWH) and 113 people without HIV (PWoH), free of major psychiatric illness and neurological confounds, were stratified into high (≥ 3 events) vs. low (< 3 events) ELS [PWoH/low ELS (n = 57), PWoH/high ELS (n =56), PWH/low ELS (n = 43), PWH/high ELS (n = 79)] and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging, DBSI, neuropsychological, and risky-behavior assessment; all PWH were virologically controlled. Compared to PWoH, PWH had smaller orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), parietal lobes, insula, caudate and anterior cingulate. No ELS effects were detected in volumetric measures. Significant interactions were found between HIV serostatus and ELS on the OFC and on cellularity of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus after multiple comparisons adjustment. Specifically, PWH/high ELS exhibited significantly smaller OFC and PWoH/high ELS show significantly larger OFC than the other groups. PWoH/high ELS exhibited higher DBSI cellularity (neuroinflammation proxy) of the inferior-occipital-fasciculus compared to PWoH/high ELS. Regardless of HIV status, executive function moderated the relationship between the OFC and sex-risk behavior such that individuals within the sample who performed above average on a measure of executive function and had a larger OFC reported fewer sex partners in past six months than individuals with smaller volumes. No interaction was found between HIV serostatus and ELS on risky behavior measures. Clustering analyses defined ELS subgroups in PWH that were determined by demographic characteristics, duration of infection, recent CD4+ T-cell count, nadir CD4+ T-cell count and high/low ELS.Even in PWH that are virologically controlled, without major current psychiatric comorbidities, there is evidence of a synergistic impact of ELS and HIV on OFC volumes. Higher volumes in the OFC were detrimental when associated with lower executive function scores or advantageous when associated with higher executive function. Findings suggest that ELS is associated with different brain signatures among PWoH and virally suppressed PWH. However, ELS was not directly associated with risky behaviors, and subgroups in PWH were characterized by demographic variables, past substance use and HIV clinical variables.


Impact Of Adolescent Social Isolation On Adult, Binge-Like Ethanol Consumption And Plasma Corticosterone In High-Alcohol-Preferring Mice, Eva Cullins 2022 Purdue University

Impact Of Adolescent Social Isolation On Adult, Binge-Like Ethanol Consumption And Plasma Corticosterone In High-Alcohol-Preferring Mice, Eva Cullins

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Adolescent stress exposure increases the likelihood of alcohol misuse and alcohol use disorder (AUD) in adulthood; however, it is not clear how genetic and environmental factors interact to increase risk. This study examined how adolescent social isolation affects adult binge-like ethanol drinking and levels of the stress hormone corticosterone in male and female mice with a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol preference (HAP). Twenty-eight HAP mice were separated into group-housed (GH) and socially isolated (SI) conditions (n = 13, 13). Binge drinking was assessed using a drinking in the dark (DID) procedure. Blood samples were taken before DID and after …


Event-Related Potentials Of Individuals With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Performing The Attention Network Task, P. Dennis Rodriguez, Justin E. Stauffacher 2022 Indiana University South Bend

Event-Related Potentials Of Individuals With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Performing The Attention Network Task, P. Dennis Rodriguez, Justin E. Stauffacher

Midwest Social Sciences Journal

The current study sought to investigate the neural basis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by examining the performance of individuals with ADHD on the Attentional Networks Test (ANT) by Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, and Posner (2002), while recording electroencephalography (EEG) utilizing event-related potentials (ERP) methodology. Fifty-seven university students were divided into three groups: control, ADHD-inattentive subtype (ADHD-IA), and ADHD-combined/hyperactive impulsive subtype (ADHD-C/HI). The average peak amplitudes of the P300 waveform for each group were compared and analyzed for performance on each attention network measured by the ANT: the alerting network, the orienting network, and the executive control network. The average P3 …


Evaluating The Stigma Toward Counseling In The African American Community, Jamaica Chapman 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Evaluating The Stigma Toward Counseling In The African American Community, Jamaica Chapman

Doctoral Projects

Self-stigma is an important factor that hinders help seeking through the use of mental health services. “Self-stigma is the reduction of an individual’s self-esteem or self-worth caused by the individual self-labeling herself or himself as someone who is socially unacceptable” (Vogel et al., 2006, p. 325). Attitudes have suggested both men and women struggle with depression in this population, and that they are reluctant to addressing psychological problems. Most are overly concerned about the stigma associated with mental illness. Though some are open to seeking treatment through mental health services, religious coping in this community is the most preferred method …


In Covid-19 Health Messaging, Loss Framing Increases Anxiety With Little-To-No Concomitant Benefits: Experimental Evidence From 84 Countries, Charles A. DORISON, et. al., Andree HARTANTO 2022 Singapore Management University

In Covid-19 Health Messaging, Loss Framing Increases Anxiety With Little-To-No Concomitant Benefits: Experimental Evidence From 84 Countries, Charles A. Dorison, Et. Al., Andree Hartanto

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The COVID-19 pandemic (and its aftermath) highlights a critical need to communicate health information effectively to the global public. Given that subtle differences in information framing can have meaningful effects on behavior, behavioral science research highlights a pressing question: Is it more effective to frame COVID-19 health messages in terms of potential losses (e.g., “If you do not practice these steps, you can endanger yourself and others”) or potential gains (e.g., “If you practice these steps, you can protect yourself and others”)? Collecting data in 48 languages from 15,929 participants in 84 countries, we experimentally tested the effects of message …


The Differential Effects Of Acoustic Discriminations On Operant Learning Performance And Neurogenesis In Male And Female Zebra Finches, Kristena L. Newman 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Differential Effects Of Acoustic Discriminations On Operant Learning Performance And Neurogenesis In Male And Female Zebra Finches, Kristena L. Newman

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Adult neurogenesis, the creation of new neurons, occurs throughout the lifespan in most organisms. However, though neuronal proliferation occurs daily, most of these neurons do not survive to become incorporated into preexisting neural circuitry and become fully functioning neurons. In the mammalian brain, adult neurogenesis occurs within the hippocampus, a brain region known to be important in learning and memory. In rats, successful acquisition of certain learning tasks increased new neuron numbers when the learning was sufficiently challenging (Curlik and Shors, 2011). It has also been demonstrated that a spatial discrimination task requires new neurons when the discrimination is more …


Multisensory Integration In Children With Adhd: A Behavioural Investigation, Bernice Leung 2022 Western University

Multisensory Integration In Children With Adhd: A Behavioural Investigation, Bernice Leung

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Sensory processing difficulties are often reported in individuals with ADHD. Multisensory integration (MSI) refers to the ability to integrate multiple sensory inputs into a single consistent perceptual experience. The purpose of this project is to investigate whether children and adolescents with ADHD have altered multisensory integration and multisensory temporal processing, as compared to typically developing (TD) youth.


Psychospiritual Experiences Of Belonging: A Mixed-Method Study Of Veterans With Combat Trauma, Nicholas A. Fadoir 2022 University of South Alabama

Psychospiritual Experiences Of Belonging: A Mixed-Method Study Of Veterans With Combat Trauma, Nicholas A. Fadoir

Theses and Dissertations

Belongingness is a fundamental human motivation to be a part of something larger than oneself. Many combat Veterans who return to civilian life lack a sense of belonging and, in turn, possess elevated rates of depression, substance use, and suicide. Compounding these issues, Veterans may separate from the military bearing psychosocial-spiritual war injuries, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and moral injury. Recently, spiritually integrated treatment interventions have addressed the psychological, moral, and spiritual effects of combat trauma. However, Veteran mental health interventions and supports must also acknowledge the ways a loss of belonging further impacts the psychosocial-spiritual functioning of returning …


Threat Detection From Phenotypic Facial Features, Melissa L. Kern 2022 University of South Alabama

Threat Detection From Phenotypic Facial Features, Melissa L. Kern

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has demonstrated people's ability to accurately and quickly make snap judgments of trustworthiness from viewing individuals' faces (Todorov, Pakrashi, & Oosterhof, 2009; Willis & Todorov, 2006). The study of how human beings make meaningful predictions from phenotypic facial features about trustworthiness, among other traits, warrants additional scrutiny and investigation. Further, other research suggests the facial width to height ratio (fWHR) is a more specific indicator used by human beings to gauge, often accurately gauge, trustworthiness with some accuracy. As such, past research found participants rated people with larger fWHRs as less trustworthy and more aggressive (Carré & McCormick, …


Posttraumatic Growth And Primal World Beliefs Among People Who Have Caused Accidental Death Or Serious Injury, Mark L. O'Brien 2022 University of Pennsylvania

Posttraumatic Growth And Primal World Beliefs Among People Who Have Caused Accidental Death Or Serious Injury, Mark L. O'Brien

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Background. Posttraumatic growth (PTG)—positive changes that people may experience in the aftermath of highly distressing experiences—has been observed in survivors of a variety of events but has not been previously studied among people who have caused accidental death or injury (PCADIs). In addition, questions remain about the role, in PTG, of changes in the assumptive world and the relationships between PTG and distress, personality, and social support. Methods. Participants (N = 528), included PCADIs (n = 44) and a non-trauma comparison group (n = 484), who completed the Primals Inventory and measures of personality, anxiety, and depression. …


Hurting To Helping: Regret As A Potential Motivator Of Helping Behavior, Chandler Ann Findley 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Hurting To Helping: Regret As A Potential Motivator Of Helping Behavior, Chandler Ann Findley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has suggested that emotions can influence people’s motivation to engage in prosocial behaviors. Even negatively-valenced emotions, like sadness, guilt, and shame, have been shown to motivate prosocial behaviors. Exploratory analyses of a previous study indicated that regret may also motivate increased prosocial intentions, but no research has been published to experimentally test whether feelings of regret may motivate prosocial behaviors. Therefore, the present research seeks to experimentally manipulate participants’ current emotional state to empirically examine whether regret motivates greater helping behavior than other, similar negative emotions that have already been demonstrated to motivate prosocial behaviors in humans. These …


Can Conflict Cultivate Collaboration? The Positive Impact Of Mild Versus Intense Task Conflict Via Perceived Openness Rather Than Emotions, TSAI Ming-Hong 2022 Singapore Management University

Can Conflict Cultivate Collaboration? The Positive Impact Of Mild Versus Intense Task Conflict Via Perceived Openness Rather Than Emotions, Tsai Ming-Hong

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Public Significance Statement In contrast to previous research on the negative associations between conflict and collaboration, the current investigation demonstrates the positive effects of conflict on collaboration and performance and offers practical suggestions on beneficial conflict expressions. Specifically, when people debate and deliberate about their different viewpoints about task-related issues, they tend to collaborate and thus achieve high task performance by enhancing their perceptions of others' openness rather than by influencing their emotions.Previous research has demonstrated negative associations between task-relevant conflicts and collaboration. To supplement the previous findings and explore the potential benefits of conflicts, we differentiate between two types …


The Effects Of Flood Warning Information On Driver Decisions In A Driving Simulator Scenario, Katherine Rose Garcia 2022 Old Dominion University

The Effects Of Flood Warning Information On Driver Decisions In A Driving Simulator Scenario, Katherine Rose Garcia

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Flood warnings are a type of risk communication that alerts the public of potential floods. Flood warnings can be communicated through mobile devices and should convey enough information to keep the user safe during a flood situation. However, the amount of detail included in the warning, such as the depth of the flood, may vary. The purpose of this study was to: (a) extend our prior research on flood warnings by recreating the written driving scenarios into the driving simulator; (b) deepen the understanding of human decision-making in risky situations; and (c) investigate how to best inform drivers of floods …


Temperament And Individual Differences In Category Learning, Tianshu Zhu 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Temperament And Individual Differences In Category Learning, Tianshu Zhu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Objectives. Individuals can differ in their strategic approach in learning the same categorization task, researchers have sought to study what specific stable individual differences traits can help explain these differences. This dissertation first surveyed extant literature on the impact of trait differences on category learning then examined the effect of temperament traits on these dependent variables. Chapter 2 (scoping review): This scoping review synthesized the past literature that examined the relationship between sources of stable individual differences and category learning performance and strategy use outcomes. Five database platforms were searched to identify relevant articles, cross-referencing was also performed. Sixty-nine studies …


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