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Examining The Effects Of Menstrual Cycle Phase And Hormonal Contraceptive Use On Women's Sleep, Charles Ethan Coombs 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining The Effects Of Menstrual Cycle Phase And Hormonal Contraceptive Use On Women's Sleep, Charles Ethan Coombs

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Women overrepresent men for sub-optimal sleep, a consequence of hormone fluctuation in the menstrual cycle affecting sleep regulatory pathways. While research has examined the prevalence of sub-optimal sleep through cycle phases, little research has examined how hormonal contraceptives (HC’s) could similarly affect women’s sleep, while also neglecting to utilize subjective sleep measures. In this study, we examine subjective sleep quality among naturally cycling (NC) women, women using different HC types, and between active and inactive phase pill users by subjecting 463 women to a subjective sleep battery. We hypothesized that HC users would report more sub-optimal sleep than NC women. …


Gender, Graduate School Stage, And The Impostor Phenomenon, John-Scott B. Kelley, Angela T. Barlow 2024 University of Central Arkansas

Gender, Graduate School Stage, And The Impostor Phenomenon, John-Scott B. Kelley, Angela T. Barlow

Journal of Graduate Education Research

The impostor phenomenon (IP) includes five central factors: (a) a sense of fraudulence or phoniness; (b) a fear of failure and discovery; (c) compensatory perfectionism (i.e., procrastination and/or over-preparation); (d) interpersonal anxiety; and (e) externalized success and/or discounted positive feedback. After the final stage, the process starts over with reinforced vigor, creating a self-reinforcing cycle in which success is associated with psychological suffering. IP was initially used to describe the reports of high-achieving women, but recent studies have shown that IP is experienced across genders. Additionally, while graduate school is an achievement-oriented environment with many characteristics that could promote IP, …


Neurobiology And Treatment Of Relationships, Harvey Joanning 2024 University of South Alabama

Neurobiology And Treatment Of Relationships, Harvey Joanning

University Faculty and Staff Publications

This paper presents a neurobiological theory of how intimate human relationships develop over the life span. It begins with an exploration of affective neuroscience, the study of emotions, and applies these concepts to the stages of relationship development. It goes on to explore the role of neurobiology in parenting, family life, divorce, and death of a spouse. Therapeutic interventions appropriate to each stage of relationship development are also explored. Every attempt is made to make this theory scientifically sound by basing the concepts described on published scientific research. “Hard science” has been differentiated from “clinical lore.” The reader is invited …


Effects Of Foster Children’S Epigenetics In Abusive Environments, Shamika Ellis, Theresa Moore 2024 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Effects Of Foster Children’S Epigenetics In Abusive Environments, Shamika Ellis, Theresa Moore

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Abstract: Effects of Foster Children’s Epigenetics in Abusive Environments

Shamika Ellis, Theresa A. Moore, Hannah B. White, PhD

This presentation will review the literature on the epigenetics of abused foster children, and the subsequent acute, delayed, and long-term physiological, cognitive, and behavioral effects. One study experimentally investigated the effects of sexual and physical abuse on 150 foster children from 8 to 19 years of age and found post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was diagnosed in 64% of children who experienced sexual abuse and 42% of children who experienced physical abuse Further, of the foster children who had not experienced either form …


The Behavioral Origins Of Phylogenic Responses And Ontogenic Habits, W. David Stahlman, Kenneth J. Leising 2024 University of Mary Washington

The Behavioral Origins Of Phylogenic Responses And Ontogenic Habits, W. David Stahlman, Kenneth J. Leising

Psychological Science

An examination of innate behavior and its possible origins suggests parallels with the formation of habitual behavior. Inflexible but adaptive responses-innate reflexive behavior, Pavlovian conditioned responses, and operant habits-may have evolved from variable behavior in phylogeny and ontogeny. This form of "plasticity-first" scientific narrative was unpopular post-Darwin but has recently gained credibility in evolutionary biology. The present article seeks to identify originating events and contingencies contributing to such inflexible but adaptive behavior at both phylogenic and ontogenic levels of selection. In ontogeny, the development of inflexible performance (i.e., habit) from variable operant behavior is reminiscent of the genetic accommodation of …


Identifying Patterns For Neurological Disabilities By Integrating Discrete Wavelet Transform And Visualization, Soo Yeon Ji, Sampath Jayarathna, Anne M. Perrotti, Katrina Kardiasmenos, Dong Hyun Jeong 2024 Bowie State University

Identifying Patterns For Neurological Disabilities By Integrating Discrete Wavelet Transform And Visualization, Soo Yeon Ji, Sampath Jayarathna, Anne M. Perrotti, Katrina Kardiasmenos, Dong Hyun Jeong

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Neurological disabilities cause diverse health and mental challenges, impacting quality of life and imposing financial burdens on both the individuals diagnosed with these conditions and their caregivers. Abnormal brain activity, stemming from malfunctions in the human nervous system, characterizes neurological disorders. Therefore, the early identification of these abnormalities is crucial for devising suitable treatments and interventions aimed at promoting and sustaining quality of life. Electroencephalogram (EEG), a non-invasive method for monitoring brain activity, is frequently employed to detect abnormal brain activity in neurological and mental disorders. This study introduces an approach that extends the understanding and identification of neurological disabilities …


Subjective Socioeconomic Status Moderates How Resting Heart Rate Variability Predicts Pain Response, Jacinth Jia Xin TAN, Chin Hong TAN, Michael W. KRAUS 2024 Singapore Management University

Subjective Socioeconomic Status Moderates How Resting Heart Rate Variability Predicts Pain Response, Jacinth Jia Xin Tan, Chin Hong Tan, Michael W. Kraus

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Higher resting heart rate variability (HRV)—an index of more flexible response to environmental stressors, including noxious stimuli—has been linked to reduced perception of experimentally induced pain. However, as stress responses are adapted to one’s chronic environments, we propose that chronic exposure to threats captured by one’s subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) may shape different adaptations that produce distinct pain responses linked to higher resting HRV. Specifically, lower SSS individuals with more threat exposures may prioritize threat detection by upregulating sensitivity to stressors, such as acute pain. Therefore, higher HRV would predict greater perceived acute pain among lower SSS individuals. In contrast, …


Direct Relationships Between The Five Internal Senses: The Extremes And In-Between Of The Inner Experience, Sydnie Hoyt, Camryn O'Neal, Miranda Brannum, Sara Bagley 2023 Lindenwood University

Direct Relationships Between The Five Internal Senses: The Extremes And In-Between Of The Inner Experience, Sydnie Hoyt, Camryn O'Neal, Miranda Brannum, Sara Bagley

The Confluence

Inner experience of all 5 modalities were investigated to determine if there were correlations amongst them and how visual mental imagery and internal hearing were used in an applied story. Our sample (N = 137) completed the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ; Marks, 1973) and the Plymouth Sensory Imagery Questionnaire (Psi-Q; Andrade et al., 2013) to obtain trait measures of the different modalities within the inner experience. Results showed statistically significant positive correlations between each of the trait measures of the 5 sensory modalities (visual mental imagery, inner hearing, taste, smell, and touch). Based on their VVIQ total scores, …


Repeated Treatment With 5-Ht1a And 5-Ht1b Receptor Agonists: Evidence Of Tolerance And Behavioral Sensitization, Jordan Taylor 2023 California State University, San Bernardino

Repeated Treatment With 5-Ht1a And 5-Ht1b Receptor Agonists: Evidence Of Tolerance And Behavioral Sensitization, Jordan Taylor

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Serotonin has been found to regulate several cognitive and physiological functions, and its role in depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders has been a focus of research. More specifically, a wealth of research regarding serotonin focuses on serotonergic medications in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, and stimulates the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors. Within the last decade, there has been an increase in prescriptions of psychotropic medication for children, however, the efficacy and adverse effects of these drugs have not been evaluated in younger populations. While antidepressants reduce symptoms of depression in adults, they are …


Identifying Trauma Related Predictors Of Dissociation In Maltreated Youth, Amanda L. Mraz 2023 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Identifying Trauma Related Predictors Of Dissociation In Maltreated Youth, Amanda L. Mraz

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Maltreated youth who experience traumatic dissociation are at an increased risk for various psychopathological difficulties. Much is still unknown about the machinations behind experiences of dissociation post-trauma. This study aimed to identify variables that place maltreated youth at risk for experiencing traumatic dissociation (e.g., dissociative amnesia, absorption and imaginative involvement, passive influence, depersonalization and derealization, and total adolescent dissociative experiences symptoms (A-DES)). Investigatory variables included demographic (e.g., age, gender, and racial identity), cognitive (e.g., resiliency and posttraumatic cognitions), and psychological (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD) and anxiety) factors. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was utilized to observe the …


Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Not Associated With Neurologic Compromise Among Mild Cognitively Impaired Reverters With Parkinson's Disease, Cameron Ryczek 2023 California State University, San Bernardino

Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Not Associated With Neurologic Compromise Among Mild Cognitively Impaired Reverters With Parkinson's Disease, Cameron Ryczek

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor (e.g. tremors) and non-motor symptoms (e.g. cognitive impairment). PD patients' change in cognitive functioning can be observed using the following classifications: cognitively intact, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or dementia (PDD). MCI has many subtypes, one of which is MCI reversion which is defined as those with MCI at one time point reverting to cognitively intact later. While there is limited research into the utility of MCI reversion and its relationship with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in PD, this study will begin to elucidate this relationship. To this end, data from …


What’S In A Word? A Study Of Emotional Valence, Trisha Patel, Cameron Smith, Olivia Williams, Raul Rodriguez-Calva 2023 Belmont University

What’S In A Word? A Study Of Emotional Valence, Trisha Patel, Cameron Smith, Olivia Williams, Raul Rodriguez-Calva

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

Cognitive stress affects humans mentally and physically, and specifically may impact emotional recognition. Previous studies have focused on the perceived emotional valence of nouns vs. adjectives and the emotional recognition of photographs. While this has led to the creation of an emotional valence database, there has yet to be a study to explore how stress can change perceived emotional valence. Using data from the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW), the Portland Arithmetic Stress Test (PAST), and the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), a study was created to explore how participants emotional valence of words would change after being placed …


Book Review: Kings, Conquerors, Psychopaths: From Alexander To Hitler To The Corporation, Tim Bakken 2023 United States Military Academy at West Point

Book Review: Kings, Conquerors, Psychopaths: From Alexander To Hitler To The Corporation, Tim Bakken

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The book Kings, Conquerors, Psychopaths is a survey of a vast amount of human wrongdoing. It lays bare the motivations of aggressors who wish to subjugate nations or groups of people and corporate executives and government bureaucrats who make discretionary decisions that harm people. Along with cataloging mass killings by despots and soldiers, the book includes stories about Ponzi-schemers and the deaths of automobile drivers and passengers who were killed by vehicle defects known to the manufacturer. The book posits that “[p]owerful, elite forces are trying to force us backward toward a non-democratic state, one where power, wealth, and prerogative …


A Preliminary Timeline Of The Midbrain Development In The Monodelphis Domestica Animal Model, Ismael Perez, John L. VandeBerg, Mario Gil 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

A Preliminary Timeline Of The Midbrain Development In The Monodelphis Domestica Animal Model, Ismael Perez, John L. Vandeberg, Mario Gil

Research Colloquium

Introduction: The Brazilian short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis Domestica) is an understudied animal model compared to the Mus musculus that has been identified as a perfect candidate to study neurodevelopment (Baggott, L. & Moore, H., 1990). What makes the Monodelphis Domestica a perfect specimen for neurodevelopment is that the embryo develops outside the pouch of the mother providing easy noninvasive access to track changes across different developmental stages (Mate et al., 1994).

Objective: The objective of the study is to compare the area and volume in the development of the Monodelphis’s midbrain across three different developmental stages. Our research is beneficial because …


Sex Differences In Stress Reactivity And Responses To Novelty In The Gray Short-Tailed Opossum (Monodelphis Domestica), Esperanza I. Alaniz, Nicole Altamirano, Joseph Rafac, Katelynn Renteria, John L. VandeBerg, Mario Gil 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Sex Differences In Stress Reactivity And Responses To Novelty In The Gray Short-Tailed Opossum (Monodelphis Domestica), Esperanza I. Alaniz, Nicole Altamirano, Joseph Rafac, Katelynn Renteria, John L. Vandeberg, Mario Gil

Research Colloquium

Introduction: Investigating how exposures to stress and novel environments influence behavior is important for translational research that aims to improve mental health. Previous studies have focused on reactions to novelty and revealed changes in defense reactions and exploratory behavior. (Pisula et al., 2012).

Objective: The focus of the present study is to investigate sex differences in behavioral responses to novel environments and restraint stress in the gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). Using the Monodelphis is innovative because it is a non-traditional animal model that is ideal for developmental research.

Methods: Using AnyMaze video tracking software, animals’ behaviors (6 males, 6 …


The Impact Of Biological Sex On Motor Function And Responses To Novel Environments In The Gray Short-Tailed Opossum (Monodelphis Domestica), Esperanza I. Alaniz, Ismael Perez, Sasawan Heingraj, Katelynn Renteria, Cristian M. Botello, Joseph C. Cantu, John L. VandeBerg, Mario Gil 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

The Impact Of Biological Sex On Motor Function And Responses To Novel Environments In The Gray Short-Tailed Opossum (Monodelphis Domestica), Esperanza I. Alaniz, Ismael Perez, Sasawan Heingraj, Katelynn Renteria, Cristian M. Botello, Joseph C. Cantu, John L. Vandeberg, Mario Gil

Research Symposium

Background: Understanding the different stress reactions in different environments can help us understand stress factors. Studying animal behavior is important for translational research for mental health improvement.

Previous literature has shown that stress is a risk factor for higher cancer incidence and poorer cancer survival. (Klejbor & Turlejski., 2012), as well as mental health outcomes. Understanding of how stress is related to cancer can help improve therapeutic outcomes as preventive measures (Glaser et al., 1987).

Methods: Using the Rota Rod apparatus, 12 animals (3 males, 9 females) were tested at 36 rpm for a maximum of 400 seconds (Madroñal et …


A Neurodevelopmental Perspective To Improve Innovation In Preventive Treatment Of Substance Use Disorders, Ismael Perez, John Vandeberg, Mario Gil 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

A Neurodevelopmental Perspective To Improve Innovation In Preventive Treatment Of Substance Use Disorders, Ismael Perez, John Vandeberg, Mario Gil

Research Symposium

Background: Midbrain dopaminergic neurons have been associated with substance use disorders (Blaess & Ang, 2015). Understanding their neurodevelopment during early stages of life is fundamental for innovating preventive care treatments. The animal model Monodelphis domestica has been proposed as an excellent candidate to study neurodevelopmental changes due to the ease of access to see changes in their embryonic development (Mate et al., 1994). The purpose of our study is to inform how brain cells, including and especially dopaminergic neurons, mature by quantifying their number during early development. Additionally, the study aims to compare different midbrain areas and track neurodevelopmental changes …


The Science Of Learning: Understanding The Learning Process And Its Implementation Into The Classroom, Robert Hawkins 2023 University of Louisville

The Science Of Learning: Understanding The Learning Process And Its Implementation Into The Classroom, Robert Hawkins

The Cardinal Edge

College and higher education is often seen as the next step for many students pursuing a particular career or field. These institutions strive to facilitate learning and maintain a rewarding academic environment. However, students often face various challenges when first attending college which is reflected by high levels of dropout and withdrawal from general education courses, especially for first-time students. In fact, according to the education data initiation, “at 4-year institutions, 18.4% of first-time, full-time college freshmen dropped out between 2019 and 2020” (Hansen & Checked, 2022). One of these challenges is understanding the process of learning on a fundamental …


You Hurt My Feelings: Autonomic And Behavioral Responses To Social Exclusion And The Moderating Effect Of Psychopathic Traits, Liat Kofler 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

You Hurt My Feelings: Autonomic And Behavioral Responses To Social Exclusion And The Moderating Effect Of Psychopathic Traits, Liat Kofler

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Humans have a fundamental need to form and maintain social connections, and thus experiencing social exclusion is extremely distressing as it threatens this basic human need. Individuals who are socially excluded often respond aggressively, not only towards their ostracizers but also towards innocent bystanders, with ostracism being implicated in extreme acts of violence such as school shootings. However, individual differences in behavior exist within the context of social exclusion as not everyone responds aggressively after being ostracized. Identifying risk factors for retaliatory aggressive behavior following experiences of social exclusion may facilitate the development of targeted interventions aimed at mitigating such …


The Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (Tdcs) On Facial Expression Approach/Avoidance In College Students And Faculty With Broad Autism Phenotype, Nicole R. Baker 2023 Stephen F Austin State University

The Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (Tdcs) On Facial Expression Approach/Avoidance In College Students And Faculty With Broad Autism Phenotype, Nicole R. Baker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been proposed as an alternative noninvasive therapy for individuals with autism. This study trained brain activity in college students and / or faculty with Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) while eye tracking data was collected. The purpose of this study was to determine if tDCS training to the frontal lobes could increase approach toward social interactions in adults classified as BAP as demonstrated by eye-tracking measures in response to faces and gaze fixation. The study included 21 total participants recruited from the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) courses / professions at a Regional East …


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