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Experimental Analysis of Behavior Commons

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The Study Of Encoding And Depth Of Learning, Camryn Blauth 2019 Kutztown University of Pennsylvania

The Study Of Encoding And Depth Of Learning, Camryn Blauth

Psychology Student Research

This study is looking at how we learn by testing three different levels of encoding. Based on how a word is used the level of encoding changes. In order to test this, three groups were formed based on randomly handing out sheets. Each sheet had a question which required a different level of comprehension. It was a between-subjects design, with self-selecting participants that were mostly 18-year-old female students. The goal of this study was to find out if the more a word is comprehended, or the deeper the encoding, the more likely it is to be able to remember that ...


Music And Memory, Stephen Ray, Elizabeth Peters 2019 Kutztown University of Pennsylvania

Music And Memory, Stephen Ray, Elizabeth Peters

Psychology Student Research

The study that we are conducting takes a look at how listening to music can affect reading comprehension and memory. Students at Kutztown University will sign up to participate through the SONA System, as well as a few friends participating in the study. We look to place the participants in a room with either playing music or having no music playing. Each participant will be randomly assigned to the condition. The music we will be playing will consist of Billboards Top 10 Songs on a shuffled and repeated playlist. We are using Billboard in order to play relevant music that ...


Behavioural Risks In Female Dogs With Minimal Lifetime Exposure To Gonadal Hormones, Melissa J. Starling, Anne Fawcett, Bethany Wilson, James Serpell, Paul McGreevy 2019 University of Sydney

Behavioural Risks In Female Dogs With Minimal Lifetime Exposure To Gonadal Hormones, Melissa J. Starling, Anne Fawcett, Bethany Wilson, James Serpell, Paul Mcgreevy

Physiology Collection

Spaying of female dogs is a widespread practice, performed primarily for population control. While the consequences of early spaying for health are still being debated, the consequences for behaviour are believed to be negligible. The current study focused on the reported behaviour of 8981 female dogs spayed before 520 weeks (ten years) of life for reasons other than behavioural management, and calculated their percentage lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones (PLGH) as a proportion of their age at the time of being reported to the online Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). We found that 23 behaviours differed between entire ...


I Saw That: Being Observed Reduces Race-Based Shoot Decisions, Sarah S. Kramer, Kaitlin M. Lewin, Allison S. Romano, Brian P. Meier 2019 Gettysburg College

I Saw That: Being Observed Reduces Race-Based Shoot Decisions, Sarah S. Kramer, Kaitlin M. Lewin, Allison S. Romano, Brian P. Meier

Student Publications

The shooter bias effect reveals that individuals are quicker to “shoot” armed Black (vs. White) men and slower to “not shoot” unarmed Black (vs. White) men in a computer task. In three studies (N = 386), we examined whether being observed would reduce this effect because of social desirability concerns. Participants completed a “shooting” task with or without a camera/live observer supposedly recording behavior. Cameras were strapped to participants’ heads (Studies 1a/1b) and pointed at them (Study 1b). In Study 2, a researcher observed participants complete the task while “filming” them with a smartphone. We replicated the shooter bias ...


Toxic Gymnastics Culture’S Impact On The #Metoo Movement: Sexual Abuse Survivor Aly Raisman’S Trauma Fosters Fight For Change, Jessica Malinsky 2019 Arcadia University

Toxic Gymnastics Culture’S Impact On The #Metoo Movement: Sexual Abuse Survivor Aly Raisman’S Trauma Fosters Fight For Change, Jessica Malinsky

Faculty Curated Undergraduate Works

This paper explores how female gymnasts, particularly Aly Raisman, have sparked the gymnastics world’s involvement in the #MeToo movement. It briefly touches on Raisman’s beginnings with gymnastics and how she became an elite U.S. gymnast but promptly dives into her #MeToo story, focusing on her traumatic experiences with Olympic doctor Larry Nassar. Furthermore, her story brings to light how she and other survivors of sexual assault have faced credibility discounting, also known as gaslighting, for sharing their truth. By sharing parts of Aly Raisman and other survivors’ testimonies, this paper highlights not only the trauma and pain ...


Processing Speed For Action And Semantic Memory, Tyler A. Surber 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

Processing Speed For Action And Semantic Memory, Tyler A. Surber

Master's Theses

Previous research suggests that the processing of affordances may require more perceptually relevant information than words can provide (Surber et al., 2018; Chainay & Humphreys, 2002). The present study investigates this hypothesis with the shoebox task used in Bowers and Turner (2003). A list of 81 object nouns (targets) and associated features (primes: affordance, semantic, and non-associates) was compiled from the McRae, Cree, Seidenberg, and McNorgan (2005) norms. Affordances denote possibilities for action in relation to the object (e.g. chair – sit), whereas semantic features indicate definitional characteristics (e.g. chair – has legs). Affordances and semantic features served as primes in ...


Examining The Effect Of Interruptions At Different Breakpoints And Frequencies Within A Task, Sarah Anastazia Powers 2019 Old Dominion University

Examining The Effect Of Interruptions At Different Breakpoints And Frequencies Within A Task, Sarah Anastazia Powers

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Research on the effects of interruptions shows that they can be either costly or beneficial depending on which aspects of an interruption are manipulated. One important aspect that contributes to these conflicting results concerns when an interruption occurs. The present study explored how event segmentation theory (EST) can be used to determine optimal moments for an interruption relying on hierarchical task analysis (HTA) to identify coarse and fine event boundaries. Utilizing a 2 X 3 mixed design, undergraduate students completed a trip planning task divided into three task trials. The within-subjects factor was interruption timing, which had three levels: none ...


知的生産性を飛躍させる録音システム, Yoshihiko Ariizumi 2019 Brigham Young University - Provo

知的生産性を飛躍させる録音システム, Yoshihiko Ariizumi

Learning, Teaching, & Researching Optimization

This article explains the benefits of using a recording system, what it is, and why it works. Our intelligence has many unexplored potentials, and by using this recording system, such latent abilities can be utilized for intellectual productivity.


Recording System That Dramatically Increases Intellectual Productivity, Yoshihiko Ariizumi 2019 Brigham Young University - Provo

Recording System That Dramatically Increases Intellectual Productivity, Yoshihiko Ariizumi

Learning, Teaching, & Researching Optimization

この記事は、録音システムを使う利点、それが具体的にはどのような活動であり、なぜそのような効果が出るのかについて説明されている。私たちの知性にはまだ多くの研究されていない潜在的な能力があり、この録音システムを使うことによって、そのように眠っている能力を知的生産性のために利用することができる。


#52 - Men's Private And Public Conformity To Masculine Norms, Jasmine Starks 2019 Georgia Southern University

#52 - Men's Private And Public Conformity To Masculine Norms, Jasmine Starks

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Society has a strong influence on how we think and behave. A result of societal norms is toxic masculinity, which addresses harmful effects that conforming to ideal masculine standards can have on a man. In this study, we analyzed the effects that masculine social norms would have on a male college population. The hypothesis was that heterosexual White males in the sample would conform to societal male norms, a topic covered in RW Connell’s “Masculinities”, and show influence of toxic masculinity. The study is preregistered at http://osf.io/5n4ex/. Participants (N = 65) were asked to answer the Conformity ...


#51 - The Effect Of Color On Cognitive Performance And Mood, Valter Andersson, McKinley O'Kelley, Micaela Wright, Julie Delose 2019 Young Harris College

#51 - The Effect Of Color On Cognitive Performance And Mood, Valter Andersson, Mckinley O'Kelley, Micaela Wright, Julie Delose

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The Effect of Color on Cognitive Performance and Mood

Color plays an important role in the way people view the world, and different colors can evoke different emotions (Werner, 1954). In addition, color also impacts performance on cognitive tasks, with red leading to worse performance on anagram tasks compared to green and gray (Elliot et al., 2007). The current research study will extend the work on color and human emotion and behavior by an experimental examination of the impact of color (i.e., red, blue, and gray) on cognitive performance and mood in undergraduate students at a small liberal arts ...


The Effect Of Early Life Stress On Subjective Fear And Electrodermal Response Reactivity In An Adolescent Community Sample, Lorissa Simpson 2019 William & Mary

The Effect Of Early Life Stress On Subjective Fear And Electrodermal Response Reactivity In An Adolescent Community Sample, Lorissa Simpson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Past research demonstrates that a stressful environment early in life can have profound implications on an individual’s ability to regulate their emotions. One method that researchers use to assess abnormalities in emotion regulation is fear conditioning, where differences in the speed or strength with which one learns about unpleasant stimuli can indicate dysregulation. Currently, the literature is in conflict about whether those who have experienced early life stress (ELS) will show exaggerated or blunted responses to stressful stimuli, but both can cause problems later in life. The present study used a fear conditioning paradigm to further clarify the relationship ...


Plea Decision-Making: The Influence Of Attorney Expertise, Trustworthiness, And Recommendation, Kelsey S. Henderson, Reveka Shteynberg 2019 Portland State University

Plea Decision-Making: The Influence Of Attorney Expertise, Trustworthiness, And Recommendation, Kelsey S. Henderson, Reveka Shteynberg

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications and Presentations

Attorney recommendations influence defendant plea decisions; and the degree of influence likely rests on the perceived trustworthiness and level of expertise of the attorney (factors of source credibility). We explored attorney source credibility factors and how these characteristics influence defendants’ plea decision-making. MTurk participants read a hypothetical plea scenario and were asked to imagine themselves as the defendant in a DWI/DUI case making a plea decision; in the scenario, we manipulated the defense attorney’s level of trustworthiness, expertise, and plea recommendation. There was a significant interaction between attorney recommendation and trustworthiness on defendants’ plea decisions; participants who were ...


Digital Addiction: A Conceptual Overview, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh 2019 Chapra Cental School (CCS), Chapra, Bihar

Digital Addiction: A Conceptual Overview, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Abstract

Digital addiction referred to an impulse control disorder that involves the obsessive use of digital devices, digital technologies, and digital platforms, i.e. internet, video game, online platforms, mobile devices, digital gadgets, and social network platform. It is an emerging domain of Cyberpsychology (Singh, Amarjit Kumar and Pawan Kumar Singh; 2019), which explore a problematic usage of digital media, device, and platforms by being obsessive and excessive. This article analyses, reviewed the current research, and established a conceptual overview on the digital addiction. The research literature on digital addiction has proliferated. However, we tried to categories the digital addiction ...


How News Media Coverage Of Crises Promotes Conspiracy Beliefs, Richard Kornrumpf, Adam Enders PhD 2019 University of Louisville

How News Media Coverage Of Crises Promotes Conspiracy Beliefs, Richard Kornrumpf, Adam Enders Phd

Posters-at-the-Capitol

While scholars of conspiracy theories have recently made great strides in understanding the basic nature and correlates of conspiratorial thinking, we still know little about how conspiracy beliefs are disseminated and communicated, especially when it comes to traditional media. In this instance, we use a unique experiment to investigate whether media coverage of mass shootings – complete with the uncertainty, conflicting reports, and dubious official narratives that characterize such coverage – provides the raw material for conspiracy theories and promotes conspiracy beliefs among viewers. We find that implicit conspiratorial information – that which causes confusion and foments uncertainty – does not enflame conspiracy beliefs ...


Actual Versus Hypothetical Wta Stated Values For Recreational Fishing Licenses: Experimental Evidence Of Fish Tales, Scott Steinback, Kristy Wallmo, Sabrina Lovell, Eric Thunberg, John Foster 2019 NOAA Fisheries, Northeast Fisheries Science Center

Actual Versus Hypothetical Wta Stated Values For Recreational Fishing Licenses: Experimental Evidence Of Fish Tales, Scott Steinback, Kristy Wallmo, Sabrina Lovell, Eric Thunberg, John Foster

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

We compared hypothetical willingness to accept (WTA) values for Massachusetts saltwater recreational fishing licenses with WTA values obtained in an actual (simulated) marketplace. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation approach, our results align with past evidence that found WTA values elicited from hypothetical transactions overstate those derived from an actual marketplace. We also provide the first evidence about the effectiveness of an ex-post certainty adjustment technique in a WTA environment. While the adjustment technique has been found to eliminate hypothetical bias in willingness to pay (WTP) settings, we find that when applied in a WTA setting, the approach mitigates but ...


Varying Inter-Stimulus And Inter-Trial Intervals During Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing: A Translational Extension Of Autoshaping, Patricia Eberhardt 2019 Rollins College

Varying Inter-Stimulus And Inter-Trial Intervals During Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing: A Translational Extension Of Autoshaping, Patricia Eberhardt

Thesis Projects

Stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) is a respondent conditioning procedure often implemented to elicit vocalizations in children with language delays. Unfortunately, the research showing the effect of increased rates of vocalizations is mixed. Through analogies drawn between SSP and autoshaping, da Silva and Williams (under review) identified variables potentially responsible for increasing the efficacy of SSP (da Silva & Williams, under review). The present study sought to evaluate the relative duration of the inter-trial interval (ITI) and the inter-stimulus interval (ISI). Specifically, the duration of the ITI was systematically varied from 15 s to 60 s and the value of ISI was proportional ...


Motivational And Physiological Dysregulation Due To Development And Onset Of Obesity Via Melanocortin 4 Receptor +/- Haploinsufficiency, Alex Steiner 2019 University of South Carolina

Motivational And Physiological Dysregulation Due To Development And Onset Of Obesity Via Melanocortin 4 Receptor +/- Haploinsufficiency, Alex Steiner

Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is one of the leading most health risks around the world, being especially problematic in the United States. A combination of high-fat diets and genetic abnormalities are to blame for the ever-growing number of obese individuals.

Melanocortin 4 receptors are vital for regulating energy expenditure and feeding behaviors; mutations of the receptors have been found to be the leading monogenetic cause of obesity. Using MC4R +/- haploinsufficient rats being fed a range of dietary fat, we investigated the physiological and motivational differences using a locomotor task, an operant task with fixed and progressive ratios, as well as a distraction operant ...


The Influence Of Wearing A Fitbit On Eating Behaviors While Stressed, Maria C.M. Sparacino 2019 Coastal Carolina University

The Influence Of Wearing A Fitbit On Eating Behaviors While Stressed, Maria C.M. Sparacino

Honors Theses

Research has demonstrated stress leads to consuming foods of lower nutritional quality as well as a greater quantity of foods. Visual primes have been shown to reduce these detrimental eating behaviors. The present study sought to determine if a fitbit would prime healthy eating behaviors in stressful situations. Participants (N = 41) were randomly assigned to a high or low stress condition, manipulated through the Stroop Test, and were either given a fitbit prime or not. Participant’s food preferences were assessed with the Macronutrient Preference Checklist- Modified for use in North America following the stress manipulation. The results generally did ...


The Effect Of Task Interruptions And Reliable Cues On Detection Changes Within Dynamic Scenes, Kimberly N. Perry 2019 Old Dominion University

The Effect Of Task Interruptions And Reliable Cues On Detection Changes Within Dynamic Scenes, Kimberly N. Perry

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Interruptions are a common problem for attention and pose a threat to visual task performance. The Memory for Goals (MFG) theory suggests that strongly and accurately encoded cues can assist the ability to resume a primary task after an interruption (Altmann & Trafton, 2002). Encoded cues can undergo an activation decay during an interruption and become forgotten. Currently, there has been limited research on how visual interruptions affect cued recall within a dynamic environment. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine the effect of cuing and task interruptions on change detection within dynamic scenes. Undergraduate students watched 24 ...


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