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Extended Minds: The Externalization And Expansion Of Human Minds Beyond The Body, Dmitri Wolfe 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Extended Minds: The Externalization And Expansion Of Human Minds Beyond The Body, Dmitri Wolfe

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Despite the commonly accepted notion that the mind is inseparable from the body, the extended mind hypothesis claims human minds can become linked with the world around us. Through various avenues such as spoken and written language, humans may use non-biological means to allow the mind to store, access, and communicate information in extended capacities not otherwise possible. Though the extended minds hypothesis may be viewed as a result of advancing technology, it makes up only a small part of the way in which externalization may occur. Everyday life is full of examples of extended minds, from computers and phones ...


Rejecting Ingrid Robeyns’ Defense Of Limitarianism, Timothy J. Nicklas 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Rejecting Ingrid Robeyns’ Defense Of Limitarianism, Timothy J. Nicklas

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

This paper critically evaluates the argument put forth by the philosopher Ingrid Robeyns in her work entitled What, if Anything, is Wrong with Extreme Wealth. Robeyns holds the Chair Ethics of Institutions at Utrecht University, and her academic research focuses on issues pertaining to contemporary political philosophy and applied ethics. In her aforementioned publication, Robeyns defends the political theory called limitarianism, which holds that there should be an upper limit to the amount of income that an individual can hold. Limitarianism, like many other political philosophies, presents a view of how resources ought to be distributed in society based, in ...


Corporate Limitarianism, Karl Meyer 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Corporate Limitarianism, Karl Meyer

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Ingrid Robeyns argues that there is a point at which increasing one’s income no longer increases one’s quality of life. Her argument states that given better uses for this money, namely restoring political equality and meeting urgent needs, it is morally wrong for individuals to have surplus money, which is money beyond that which is needed to live a good life. Therefore, Robeyns argues that surplus money should be taxed at a rate of 100%. The original argument only applies to individuals with excess wealth. However, there is no reason why it should be restricted only to people ...


Child Marriage: Characterization As A Noxious Market And Policy-Based Responses To Economic Motivations, Curtis Newman 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Child Marriage: Characterization As A Noxious Market And Policy-Based Responses To Economic Motivations, Curtis Newman

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Child marriage is a human rights violation according to various international agreements and human rights conventions. In many countries the practice is outlawed, yet it persists with great incidence in both developed and developing societies. Governments must act to eliminate the practice which (1) results in physical and psychological individual harms for child brides; (2) perpetuates societal harms in the form of entrenched gender inequality and limited economic potential for women and for countries as a whole; (3) thrives on the exploitation of economic and agency vulnerabilities of a social class, namely young girls and women; and (4) threatens the ...


Digital Norms And Their Place In A Tech-Based Future, Joseph M. Squillaro 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Digital Norms And Their Place In A Tech-Based Future, Joseph M. Squillaro

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

One impact of the technological revolution has been technology’s effects on social norms and the nudges needed to ensure efficiency and security in today’s “digitally required” world. I define these phenomena as digital norms and they inform interpersonal contact and tech-based choices. This paper looks specifically at norm interactions between Generation X and Generation Z. To test these digital norms and gauge their presence in both generations, this paper outlines a survey experiment of 50 people (25 Gen X and 25 Gen Z) and seeks to extrapolate assumptions on technology while providing policy recommendations. What was found was ...


A Letter From The Editor, Andrew Liu 2021 University of Pennsylvania

A Letter From The Editor, Andrew Liu

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Letter from the Editor regarding the Spring 2021 edition


An Exploratory Study Of Older Adults’ Emotions To Social Isolation And Their Coping Activities During Covid-19 Pandemic, Letrice Samuels, Michele Kekeh, Muge Akpinar-Elci 2021 Old Dominion University

An Exploratory Study Of Older Adults’ Emotions To Social Isolation And Their Coping Activities During Covid-19 Pandemic, Letrice Samuels, Michele Kekeh, Muge Akpinar-Elci

College of Health Sciences Posters

Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, older adults are advised to remain in their homes and personal spaces since they are at greater risk for COVID-19 related illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths. Health professionals and caregivers are concerned that preventative measures, especially social isolation, may have long-term psychological and age-related effects among older adults. A survey prepared by the Center for Global Health at Old Dominion University, in collaboration with Healthy Chesapeake Inc., assessed social isolation, associated emotions, and daily coping activities of older adults in Chesapeake, Virginia. The target population included senior residents of the Cambridge Square Apartments, where Healthy Chesapeake Inc ...


A Leader, A Follower, And Some Humor Walk Into A Meta-Analysis: A Review Of Positive And Negative Leader Humor, Richard Hayes 2021 Old Dominion University

A Leader, A Follower, And Some Humor Walk Into A Meta-Analysis: A Review Of Positive And Negative Leader Humor, Richard Hayes

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Although leader humor is a growing research topic, there are still unaddressed issues surrounding this topic. In particular, there is disagreement surrounding the conceptualizations of positive and negative leader humor, conflicting theoretical predictions and empirical findings on the effects of leader humor, a dearth of research on the antecedents and correlates of leader humor, as well as a lack of research on the boundary conditions of these relationships. This qualitative and quantitative review of the nomological networks of positive and negative leader humor addressed these issues based on a meta-analysis of 67 empirical studies (N = 21,121). Results indicate that ...


Effect Of Mood On Humor, Virginia Randall 2021 Liberty University

Effect Of Mood On Humor, Virginia Randall

Senior Honors Theses

Humor is a social tool that has been documented for hundreds of years with a plethora of studies being produced to attempt to piece together a comprehensive definition of the concept. Among these studies, there have been several analyses regarding the psychological, cognitive, psychobiological, and neural effects of humor, and how they are outwardly manifested. Additionally, several social contexts have been considered. In analyses of humor, several theories have been produced, many based off of figurehead concepts within the field of psychology.

Primary interest of this research study was in whether these studies and theories can support whether there is ...


Neurocognitive Interactions Between Anticipatory Anxiety And Memory Encoding, Felicia M. Chaisson 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Neurocognitive Interactions Between Anticipatory Anxiety And Memory Encoding, Felicia M. Chaisson

LSU Master's Theses

Although acute anxiety has been shown to improve encoding of threat-relevant information, its effects on threat-neutral information are less understood. Recent research suggests that anxiety can impair subsequent recall for neutral words, particularly following practice with the recall task. Here we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the notion that anxiety specifically disrupts the implementation of encoding strategies—such as elaborative encoding—that tend to develop with practice. ERPs were recorded as participants studied two sets of neutral words, one of which was presented in a stressful context using the threat-of-shock paradigm (threat block), and the other in a non-threatening ...


An Analysis Of The Effects Of Extinction Relative To Baseline Measures Including And Excluding Consumption Time, Kelti Keister 2021 Rollins College

An Analysis Of The Effects Of Extinction Relative To Baseline Measures Including And Excluding Consumption Time, Kelti Keister

Thesis Projects

Extinction bursts are a widely discussed phenomenon. The data analysis methods used to analyze the effects of extinction bursts have not been examined thoroughly within the field of applied behavior analysis, however. In this study, we implemented extinction procedures in a reversal design on three typically developing pre-school aged individuals. We then conducted two different data analysis methods. First, extinction effects were evaluated relative to one baseline measure including reinforcer consumption time and one baseline measure excluding reinforcer consumption time. Second, extinction was evaluated at the whole- and within-session (last five minutes of baseline and first ten minutes of extinction ...


An Evaluation Of An Application Designed For The Ipad® To Measure Stimulus Overselectivity For Future Use In Autism Research, Adrienne A. Fitzer 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

An Evaluation Of An Application Designed For The Ipad® To Measure Stimulus Overselectivity For Future Use In Autism Research, Adrienne A. Fitzer

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Twenty-three college students participated in two studies evaluating an application designed to measure stimulus overselectivity in pictures depicting facial affect. We analyzed whether this application worked as designed by evaluating whether it could provide a robust analysis of the types of errors users make (e.g., by matching by the top features, the bottom features, or not by the top or the bottom features), and the extent to which the application worked to decrease selective responding in the event a user was not matching consistently by all features. We also evaluated if participant scores on the Autism Quotient and RAADS-14 ...


Common Reasons For Divorce, Suany A. Canales 2021 Binghamton University

Common Reasons For Divorce, Suany A. Canales

Human Development Faculty Scholarship

Marriage, a commitment between two individuals who share feelings and believe their connection to be long-term--- is common to terminate in the form of divorce. Justifications for such an act have been previously studied and found to be due to a plethora of reasons. In this essay, the five common reasons of unappreciation, jealousy, sexual rejection, infidelity, and abuse were highlighted. Additionally, experiences and memories of one can majorly affect behavior and point of view towards their partner. Through the analysis of this research, I have concluded that the success of marriage all boils down to the act of reciprocating ...


Adolescent Healthcare Contacts In The Year Before Suicide: A Case Control Study, Ana Lanier, Jordan Braciszewski, Hsueh-Han Yeh, Gregory Simon, Rebecca Rossom, Frances Lynch, Stephen Waring, Christine Lu, Ashli Owen-Smith, Arbe Beck, Brian Ahmedani 2021 Wayne State University

Adolescent Healthcare Contacts In The Year Before Suicide: A Case Control Study, Ana Lanier, Jordan Braciszewski, Hsueh-Han Yeh, Gregory Simon, Rebecca Rossom, Frances Lynch, Stephen Waring, Christine Lu, Ashli Owen-Smith, Arbe Beck, Brian Ahmedani

Medical Student Research Symposium

Introduction: Suicide rates among adolescents have risen steadily since 2007, creating a dire need to expand prevention protocols. Healthcare systems have been identified as a key avenue for identification and intervention. To date, no comprehensive analysis has been done to understand adolescent-specific characteristics and healthcare utilization prior to suicide death.

Methods: A case-control study was conducted using records from eight healthcare systems nationwide. Data from 450 subjects aged 10-24 who died by suicide between the years 2000-2013 was matched with 4500 controls based on health system and time period of membership. We examined past-year health diagnoses and patterns of visit ...


The Effect Of The Difference In The Perception Of Temperature Between Sexes On The Academic Performance Of Chapin High School Students, Tiffany V. Phan 2021 Chapin High School

The Effect Of The Difference In The Perception Of Temperature Between Sexes On The Academic Performance Of Chapin High School Students, Tiffany V. Phan

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Mental performance and mental functions may be negatively affected by decreases in thermal comfort as a result of large differences in temperature. Additionally, females are seen to be less content with room temperatures and actually prefer rooms with higher temperatures in comparison to males. This investigation explored the potential effect that sex plays in thermal perception and the impact it may yield on academic performance within a high school population. It was hypothesized that female students would experience an increase in academic performance as the temperature increased while males would experience the opposite effect. A quasi-experimental approach was used to ...


A Comparison Of Traditional Aggregated Data To A Comprehensive Second-By-Second Data Depiction In Functional Analysis Graphs, Erin MacKelvie 2021 University of the Pacific

A Comparison Of Traditional Aggregated Data To A Comprehensive Second-By-Second Data Depiction In Functional Analysis Graphs, Erin Mackelvie

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Functional analyses (FAs) are an important component of treatment and the data gathered from FAs are often graphed in an aggregate or summary format, such as mean rate per session. Given the prevalence of undifferentiated analyses, it may be that this common method of data depiction is incomplete. In this paper, we compare the traditional aggregate method to a comprehensive second-by-second demonstration of the data including all appropriate and inappropriate responses emitted, as well as programmed and accidental antecedent and consequent variables, which may help further clarify the results of a functional analysis. We compared the functional analysis results of ...


Pigeons Reacting To Transitions From Rich To Lean Schedules Of Reinforcement: Analyses Based On Video Recordings, Erin Michelle Huffman 2021 West Virginia University

Pigeons Reacting To Transitions From Rich To Lean Schedules Of Reinforcement: Analyses Based On Video Recordings, Erin Michelle Huffman

Capstones and Honors Theses

Pigeons pecking a key on a fixed-ratio schedule pause after receiving a reinforcer. This interruption in operant responding is defined solely by the absence of the responding. The purpose of the present study was to find out what a pigeon does during the pause in key pecking, and whether non-pecking behavior is different across transitions between the rich and lean components of a multiple schedule. Using videos of four pigeons, the duration of several non-pecking behaviors was recorded during the pauses that occurred after the end of a reinforcer and the start of responding in the next component. The pigeons ...


Entitled To Be Served: Does Self-Checkout Make Customers Feel Less Rewarded?, Farhana Nusrat, Yanliu Huang 2021 Drexel University

Entitled To Be Served: Does Self-Checkout Make Customers Feel Less Rewarded?, Farhana Nusrat, Yanliu Huang

Association of Marketing Theory and Practice Proceedings 2021

The adoption of self-service technologies (SST) has been rising over the last few years, and among different SSTs, self-checkout systems are one of the most popular options. In this study, we examine how self-checkout service impacts customers’ shopping outcomes compared to regular checkout service. We propose that self-checkout (vs. regular checkout) systems, would make customers feel less rewarded and less satisfied with their purchases. We conducted four studies to test our hypotheses and showed that self-checkout (vs. regular checkout) service makes customers feel less rewarded, less satisfied with their shopping outcomes, and less likely to return to the store. We ...


An Analysis Of Coordinated Responding, Brian Katz 2021 West Virginia University

An Analysis Of Coordinated Responding, Brian Katz

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Experimental analyses of coordinated responding (i.e., cooperation) have been derived from a procedure described by Skinner (1962) in which reinforcers were delivered to a pair of subjects (a dyad) if both responded within a short interval, thus satisfying a mutual-reinforcement contingency. Although it has been suggested that this contingency enhances rates of temporally coordinated responding, limitations of past experiments have raised questions concerning this conclusion. The present experiments assessed three of those limitations by holding the schedule of reinforcement (Experiment 1: fixed-ratio 1; Experiment 2; variable-interval 20 s) constant (1) across phases and (2) between dyad members, and (3 ...


Effects Of Blended Integrity Failures On Reinforcement-Based Interventuions, Stephanie Hope Jones 2021 West Virginia University

Effects Of Blended Integrity Failures On Reinforcement-Based Interventuions, Stephanie Hope Jones

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Reinforcement-based interventions reduce problematic behavior when implemented as designed. However, the effectiveness of these interventions may decrease when deviations from treatment protocols (i.e., treatment-integrity errors) occur. Treatment-integrity errors differentially impact reinforcement-based interventions based on multiple factors, including how frequently errors occur and the intervention type. Even nominally acceptable integrity values (e.g., 80%) may be detrimental depending on the intervention. To evaluate this possibility and directly compare the effectiveness of multiple reinforcement-based interventions, we conducted two within-subject evaluations using laboratory arrangements. For both experiments, we recruited four undergraduate students to participate in a computer task that involved clicking on ...


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