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The Influence Of Perspective And Gender On The Processing Of Narratives, Jeremy A. Houska 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Influence Of Perspective And Gender On The Processing Of Narratives, Jeremy A. Houska

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The overarching aim of this research was to examine potential boundary conditions to situation model construction (Experiment 1) and narrative-based persuasion (Experiment 3). Variables such as narrative perspective (i.e., 2nd or 3rd person) and matched characteristics with the reader (i.e., participant-protagonist gender match) were first examined using situation model updating (Experiment 1) and behavioral measures (Experiment 3) as dependent measures. It was expected that situation model updating would be more likely for narratives written in the 2nd person perspective and with a participant-protagonist gender match. It was uncertain, however, for health promotion narratives, whether these manipulations would increase ...


The Effects Of Cultural Experience And Subdivision On Tapping To Slow Tempi, Sangeeta Ullal 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Effects Of Cultural Experience And Subdivision On Tapping To Slow Tempi, Sangeeta Ullal

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Our ability to accurately synchronize with rhythmic patterns is constrained by two factors: temporal length and interval structure. By using strategies such as subdivision, we can improve synchronization accuracy at slow tempos, but our ability to utilize subdivisions is constrained by the nature of interval ratios contained in culture-specific subdivision types. Western music falls within a restricted temporal range and its metrical subdivisions contain simple ratios, but Indian music violates these constraints. The present study examines the effects of culture-specific experience on these constraints. American and Indian listeners were asked to perform synchronous tapping to a stimulus with a slow ...


Testing Promotes Eyewitness Accuracy With A Warning – Implications For Retrieval Enhanced Suggestibility, Ayanna K. Thomas, John B. Bulevich, Jason C.K. Chan 2010 Tufts University

Testing Promotes Eyewitness Accuracy With A Warning – Implications For Retrieval Enhanced Suggestibility, Ayanna K. Thomas, John B. Bulevich, Jason C.K. Chan

Psychology Publications

Numerous studies have demonstrated that repeated retrieval boosts later retention. However, recent research has shown that testing can increase eyewitness susceptibility to misleading post-event information (e.g., Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). The present study examines the effects of warning on this counterintuitive finding. In two experiments, subjects either took an initial test or performed a filler task after they viewed a video event. They were then given post-event information before they took a final test. Critically, one group of subjects was warned about potential inaccuracies in the post-event narrative and the other group was not. Without a warning, subjects who ...


Hope, Optimism, Stress, And Social Support In Parents Of Children With Intellectual Disabilities, Josephine Estelle Cooke 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Hope, Optimism, Stress, And Social Support In Parents Of Children With Intellectual Disabilities, Josephine Estelle Cooke

Dissertations

Hope, optimism, and social support have been shown to be important protective factors for parents of children with intellectual disabilities, and these factors have been shown to have important relationships with parenting behaviors. Hope and optimism have not been studied as possible predictive variables for parenting behaviors for this population, and the interactions of these three variables with parenting behaviors have not been examined with this population. Stress has been shown to relate to positive and negative parenting behaviors (Abidin, 1995), and high levels of stress are correlated with a perception of low levels of social support. No studies have ...


Inferring Rules From Sound: The Role Of Domain-Specific Knowledge In Speech And Music Perception, Aaronell Shaila Matta 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Inferring Rules From Sound: The Role Of Domain-Specific Knowledge In Speech And Music Perception, Aaronell Shaila Matta

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Speech and music are two forms of complex auditory structure that play fundamental roles in everyday human experience and require certain basic perceptual and cognitive abilities. Nevertheless, when attempting to infer patterns from sequential auditory input, human listeners may use the same information differently depending on whether a sound is heard in a linguistic vs. musical context. The goal of these studies was to examine the role of domain-specific knowledge in auditory pattern perception. Specifically, the study examined the inference of "rules" in novel sound sequences that contained patterns of spectral structure (speech or instrument timbre) and fundamental frequency (pitch ...


Addressing Relationships Among Moral Judgment Development, Narcissism, And Electronic Media And Communication Devices, Meghan M. Saculla 2010 Western Kentucky University

Addressing Relationships Among Moral Judgment Development, Narcissism, And Electronic Media And Communication Devices, Meghan M. Saculla

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Recently, Thoma and Bebeau (2008) reported moral judgment developmental trends among various samples of undergraduates and graduates where increases in Personal Interests reasoning and decreases in Postconventional reasoning were observed. In an attempt to explain such trends, they cited recent trends in increased narcissism among college students (Twenge, Konrath, Foster, Campbell, & Bushman, 2008) and also noted that certain types of technological devices (i.e. social networking websites, cell phones, etc.) may have adverse effects social decision-making and self-presentation. The current study, therefore, addresses the relationships among moral judgment development, narcissism, and electronic media and communication devices (EMCD's). Analyses support ...


Exploration Of The Relationship Between Moral Judgment Development And Attention, Lauren I. Clark 2010 Western Kentucky University

Exploration Of The Relationship Between Moral Judgment Development And Attention, Lauren I. Clark

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Research in moral psychology has focused on understanding what factors assist in the development of moral action and decision making. The purpose of this study was to address whether variability in attention relates to moral judgment development. The reason for exploring moral judgment development was to further explore the research of Thoma and Bebeau (2008) who documented that the moral development scores of college and graduate students has been declining over time, with more college-aged students scoring in the lower levels of moral reasoning. Attention was chosen as a viable topic of research, based on the writings of Carr (2008a ...


Redesigning Airport Diagrams With Principles Of Cognitive Psychology, Jacob Miller 2010 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Redesigning Airport Diagrams With Principles Of Cognitive Psychology, Jacob Miller

Master's Theses - Daytona Beach

The aviation community strives for air travel to be the safest form of transportation. The National Transportation Safety Board published a “Most Wanted” list to acknowledge the most threatening safety issues, and runway safety and runway incursions were at the top of their list. Furthermore, runway incursion statistics by the Federal Aviation Administration show that pilot deviations were the most common cause for runways incursions. Misunderstandings of airport diagrams may be one reason for pilot deviations. While navigating through airport taxiways, pilots refer to their airport diagrams as a map of the airport. Unfortunately, airport diagrams are not designed with ...


A Combined Fmri And Dti Examination Of Functional Language Lateralization And Arcuate Fasciculus Structure: Effects Of Degree Versus Direction Of Hand Preference Author Links Open Overlay Panel, Ruth E. Propper, Lauren J. O'Donnell, Stephen Whalen, Yanmei Tie, Isaiah Norton, Ralph O. Suarez, Lilla Zollei, Alireza Radmanesh, Alexandra Golby 2010 Montclair State University

A Combined Fmri And Dti Examination Of Functional Language Lateralization And Arcuate Fasciculus Structure: Effects Of Degree Versus Direction Of Hand Preference Author Links Open Overlay Panel, Ruth E. Propper, Lauren J. O'Donnell, Stephen Whalen, Yanmei Tie, Isaiah Norton, Ralph O. Suarez, Lilla Zollei, Alireza Radmanesh, Alexandra Golby

Department of Psychology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The present study examined the relationship between hand preference degree and direction, functional language lateralization in Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, and structural measures of the arcuate fasciculus. Results revealed an effect of degree of hand preference on arcuate fasciculus structure, such that consistently-handed individuals, regardless of the direction of hand preference, demonstrated the most asymmetric arcuate fasciculus, with larger left versus right arcuate, as measured by DTI. Functional language lateralization in Wernicke’s area, measured via fMRI, was related to arcuate fasciculus volume in consistent-left-handers only, and only in people who were not right hemisphere lateralized for language ...


On The Number Of Trials Necessary For Stabilization Of Error-Related Brain Activity Across The Life Span, Jason Themanson, Matthew Pontifex, Mark Scudder, Michael Brown, Kevin O'Leary, Chien-Ting Wu, Charles Hillman 2010 Illinois Wesleyan University

On The Number Of Trials Necessary For Stabilization Of Error-Related Brain Activity Across The Life Span, Jason Themanson, Matthew Pontifex, Mark Scudder, Michael Brown, Kevin O'Leary, Chien-Ting Wu, Charles Hillman

Jason R. Themanson, Ph.D

The minimum number of trials necessary to accurately characterize the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe) across the life span was investigated using samples of preadolescent children, college-age young adults, and older adults. Event-related potentials and task performance were subsequently measured during a modified flanker task. Response-locked averages were created using sequentially increasing errors of commission in blocks of two. Findings indicated that across all age cohorts ERN and Pe were not significantly different relative to the within-participants grand average after six trials. Further, results indicated that the ERN and Pe exhibited excellent internal reliability in preadolescent children ...


Predicting Persuasion-Induced Behavior Change From The Brain, Emily B. Falk, Elliot T. Berkman, Traci Mann, Brittany Harrison, Matthew D. Lieberman 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Predicting Persuasion-Induced Behavior Change From The Brain, Emily B. Falk, Elliot T. Berkman, Traci Mann, Brittany Harrison, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Although persuasive messages often alter people's self-reported attitudes and intentions to perform behaviors, these self-reports do not necessarily predict behavior change. We demonstrate that neural responses to persuasive messages can predict variability in behavior change in the subsequent week. Specifically, an a priori region of interest (ROI) in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was reliably associated with behavior change (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Additionally, an iterative cross-validation approach using activity in this MPFC ROI predicted an average 23% of the variance in behavior change beyond the variance predicted by self-reported attitudes and intentions. Thus, neural signals can predict behavioral changes that are not predicted from self-reported attitudes and intentions alone. Additionally, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to demonstrate that a neural signal can predict complex real world behavior days in advance.


Rule-Based Categorization Deficits In Focal Basal Ganglia Lesion And Parkinson’S Disease Patients, Shawn W. Ell, Andrea Weinstein, Richard Ivry 2010 University of Maine

Rule-Based Categorization Deficits In Focal Basal Ganglia Lesion And Parkinson’S Disease Patients, Shawn W. Ell, Andrea Weinstein, Richard Ivry

Psychology Faculty Scholarship

Patients with basal ganglia (BG) pathology are consistently found to be impaired on rule-based category learning tasks in which learning is thought to depend upon the use of an explicit, hypothesis-guided strategy. The factors that influence this impairment remain unclear. Moreover, it remains unknown if the impairments observed in patients with degenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) are also observed in those with focal BG lesions. In the present study, we tested patients with either focal BG lesions or PD on two categorization tasks that varied in terms of their demands on selective attention and working memory. Individuals ...


Découvrir Le Pouvoir De Ses Mains : La Gestuelle Des Futurs Enseignants De Langue., Marion Tellier, Gale Stam 2010 Universite de Provence (Aix-Marseille I)

Découvrir Le Pouvoir De Ses Mains : La Gestuelle Des Futurs Enseignants De Langue., Marion Tellier, Gale Stam

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Influence Of Music On The Development Of Children, Theresa Riforgiate, Christopher Chau 2010 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Influence Of Music On The Development Of Children, Theresa Riforgiate, Christopher Chau

Psychology and Child Development

Listening to classical music, like Mozart, is wonderful way to expand one's musical taste. Contrary to popular beliefs, however, this passive engagement with music does not make your child smarter. However, research demonstrates that active participation in music and music instruction help develop memory, perception, language, vocabulary, spoken skills, and reading skills. In order to disseminate these findings, we compiled a list of different opportunities around San Luis Obispo for children's active participation in music. Our goal is to provide parents with a resource to help them facilitate their children's involvement in music.


Découvrir Le Pouvoir De Ses Mains : La Gestuelle Des Futurs Enseignants De Langue., Marion Tellier, Gale Stam 2010 National-Louis University

Découvrir Le Pouvoir De Ses Mains : La Gestuelle Des Futurs Enseignants De Langue., Marion Tellier, Gale Stam

Gale Stam, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Emotional Content In Autobiographical Memory Through An Attachment Theory Framework, Elizabeth Tsatkin 2010 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Emotional Content In Autobiographical Memory Through An Attachment Theory Framework, Elizabeth Tsatkin

Honors Scholar Theses

The current study investigates the relationship between individual differences in attachment style and the recall of autobiographical memories. According to attachment theory, affect regulation strategies employed by individuals high in attachment anxiety and high in attachment avoidance are likely to influence how information about the past is recalled. This study examines how attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance relate to the presence of negative emotions in autobiographical memories of upsetting events with important relationship figures (i.e., mother, father, or roommate). Participants included 248 undergraduate students ranging from ages 18-22 that attend a public university in the northeast. As hypothesized, individuals ...


Heroes And Villains: Cultural Narratives, Mass Opinions, And Climate Change, Michael Jones 2010 Harvard University

Heroes And Villains: Cultural Narratives, Mass Opinions, And Climate Change, Michael Jones

Michael D. Jones

Global climate change is easily identified as one of the most pressing and contentious policy problems facing not only the United States, but the human race. In a democratic society such as our own, understanding the public’s capacities and tendencies in processing information and forming opinions about climate change has serious and far-reaching policy implications. Historically quite low, public knowledge about climate change is now on the rise, as is the importance of the issue on the public agenda (Leiserowitz, 2005). Consequently, it is not unreasonable to expect the public, for better or worse, to play a larger role ...


Second Language Inner Voice And Identity, Brandon Kenji Shigematsu 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Second Language Inner Voice And Identity, Brandon Kenji Shigematsu

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study investigates the phenomena of second language (L2, hereafter) inner voice for three Japanese-American English bilinguals who had long-term exposure to the L2 in naturalistic contexts, that is, by living and/or working or studying in the U.S. American English learners of L2 Japanese were included in the study as well, although only one of them had naturalistic exposure, the other having traveled to Japan in addition to being married to a Japanese national. Data for the study reveals how and when L2 inner voice is utilized, how it appears to develop, how it leads to shifts in ...


Curiosity, Demand Characteristics, And The Tip-Of-The-Tongue State, Chelsea Voskuilen 2010 Macalester College

Curiosity, Demand Characteristics, And The Tip-Of-The-Tongue State, Chelsea Voskuilen

Psychology Honors Projects

The tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state is generally described as the feeling that one knows a target word and recall of this word is imminent, although the word is currently unrecallable. Research suggests participants’ beliefs about their own knowledge affect the level and type of curiosity experienced while in a TOT state. This study examined the interaction between demand characteristics and specific types of curiosity experienced while in a TOT state. Demand characteristics were expected to affect the type of curiosity experienced, with participants in the high-demand group experiencing more negative forms of curiosity and the low-demand group experiencing more positive forms ...


The Effect Of Interface Consistency And Cognitive Load On User Performance In An Information Search Task, Jeremy Mendel 2010 Clemson University

The Effect Of Interface Consistency And Cognitive Load On User Performance In An Information Search Task, Jeremy Mendel

All Theses

Although interface consistency is theorized to increase performance and user satisfaction, previous research has found mixed and often non-significant results. The source of this discrepancy may be due to varying levels of task difficulty employed in these past studies. This study attempted to control the task difficulty using cognitive load theory. Interface consistency was manipulated along with intrinsic cognitive load and extraneous cognitive load. Interface consistency was manipulated along three dimensions: physical, communicational and conceptual. Intrinsic cognitive load was manipulated by asking participants finance (high load) questions and travel (low load) questions. Unnecessary and irrelevant extra hyperlinks were used to ...


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