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Evaluation Of Guided Visualizations And The Relationships Among Perceived Stress, Differentiation Of Self, Sense Of Coherence, Dyadic Satisfaction And Quality Of Life, Kim R. Rogers 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Evaluation Of Guided Visualizations And The Relationships Among Perceived Stress, Differentiation Of Self, Sense Of Coherence, Dyadic Satisfaction And Quality Of Life, Kim R. Rogers

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study focused on three main areas. These areas involved (1) the relationship among perceived stress, global orientation to life and indicators of physical, psychological and dyadic relational distress, (2) the effect of a brief CBT-based relaxation/guided visualization intervention on these outcome indicators of distress, and (3) changes in physiological indicators during the intervention sessions. The study population was drawn from couples who perceived themselves as living highly stressed lifestyles.


Results suggested that global orientation to life as reflected by differentiation of self inventory (DSI) and sense of coherence scale (SOCS) scale scores mediated the relationship between stress and ...


The Social Origins Of Folk Epistemology, Hugo Mercier 2010 University of Pennsylvania

The Social Origins Of Folk Epistemology, Hugo Mercier

Goldstone Research Unit

Because reasoning allows us to justify our beliefs and evaluate these justifications it is central to folk epistemology. Following Sperber, and contrary to classical views, it will be argued that reasoning evolved not to complement individual cognition but as an argumentative device. This hypothesis is more consistent with the prevalence of the confirmation and disconfirmation biases. It will be suggested that these biases render the individual use of reasoning hazardous, but that when reasoning is used in its natural, argumentative, context they can represent a smart way to divide labor without loosing epistemic value.


The Life Of An Unknown Assassin: Leon Czolgosz And The Death Of William Mckinley, Cary Federman 2010 Montclair State University

The Life Of An Unknown Assassin: Leon Czolgosz And The Death Of William Mckinley, Cary Federman

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The purpose of this essay is to examine the discourses that surrounded the life of Leon Czolgosz, the assassin of President William McKinley. The gaps in Czolgosz’s life, his peculiar silences, his poor health and the ambiguity and thinness of his confession, rather than taken as instances of mental and physical distress, have, instead, been understood as signs of a revolutionary anarchistic assassin. Czolgosz is an expression of a cultural tradition in somatic form. I argue that the discursive construction of criminality, already present in the late nineteenth century within the medical and human sciences, is what shaped Czolgosz ...


Causality And Similarity In Autobiographical Event Structure: An Investigation Using Event Cueing And Latent Semantic Analysis, Christopher M. O'Connor 2010 The University of Western Ontario

Causality And Similarity In Autobiographical Event Structure: An Investigation Using Event Cueing And Latent Semantic Analysis, Christopher M. O'Connor

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The influence of similarity- and causally-based relations on the organization of autobiographical events was investigated using extended strings of related event memories. These strings were elicited using an event cueing paradigm in which participants generated descriptions of memories from their life, which were then presented as cues to subsequent event memories. In Experiment 1, similarity between generated events was investigated using participants’ similarity ratings, Latent Semantic Analysis, and experimenter judgements of shared event properties. For events close together in a string, event owners’ similarity ratings were higher than non-owners’, and non-owners’ ratings were comparable to similarity calculated using LSA. In ...


When Bad Stress Goes Good: Increased Threat Reactivity Predicts Improved Category Learning Performance, Shawn W. Ell, Brandon Cosley, Shannon L. McCoy 2010 University of Maine

When Bad Stress Goes Good: Increased Threat Reactivity Predicts Improved Category Learning Performance, Shawn W. Ell, Brandon Cosley, Shannon L. Mccoy

Psychology Faculty Scholarship

The way in which we respond to everyday stressors can have a profound impact on cognitive functioning. Maladaptive stress responses in particular are generally associated with impaired cognitive performance. We argue, however, that the cognitive system mediating task performance is also a critical determinant of the stress-cognition relationship. Consistent with this prediction, we observed that stress reactivity consistent with a maladaptive, threat response differentially predicted performance on two categorization tasks. Increased threat reactivity predicted enhanced performance on an information-integration task (i.e., learning is thought to depend upon a procedural-based memory system), and a (nonsignificant) trend for impaired performance on ...


Toward The Scientific Study Of Autobiographical Memory Narratives In Psychotherapy (Response To Commentaries On Autobiographical Memory Narratives In Psychotherapy: A Coding System Applied To The Case Of Cynthia), Jefferson A. Singer, Laura Bonalume 2010 Connecticut College

Toward The Scientific Study Of Autobiographical Memory Narratives In Psychotherapy (Response To Commentaries On Autobiographical Memory Narratives In Psychotherapy: A Coding System Applied To The Case Of Cynthia), Jefferson A. Singer, Laura Bonalume

Psychology Faculty Publications

In responding to Adler (2010) and Moertl, Boritz, Bryntwick, and Angus (2010), we elaborate three areas of discussion: (1) Defining the autobiographical memory narrative unit; (2) Clarifications regarding our approach to coding narrative memories; and (3) Potential future research. Our response highlights the importance of a coding system specific to long-term narrative memories, the need to distinguish clearly what is meant by narrative memory, and the value of creating a bridge between the study of narrative memory in psychotherapy and research in cognitive science and personality psychology.


Autobiographical Memory Narratives In Psychotherapy: A Coding System Applied To The Case Of Cynthia, Jefferson A. Singer, Laura Bonalume 2010 Connecticut College

Autobiographical Memory Narratives In Psychotherapy: A Coding System Applied To The Case Of Cynthia, Jefferson A. Singer, Laura Bonalume

Psychology Faculty Publications

Recent cognitive and psychodynamic oriented therapies have converged on the powerful role that narrative processing plays in psychotherapy. Although previous coding systems have examined specific aspects of memory narratives, there are no comprehensive methods for coding segments of clinical evaluations or psychotherapy sessions that zero in on the unit of a briefly recounted autobiographical memory narrative. The present single case study aims to introduce and to demonstrate the Coding System for Autobiographical Memory Narratives in Psychotherapy (CS-AMNP; Singer & Bonalume, 2008) with a young female client whom we call "Cynthia." We applied this autobiographical memory narrative approach to the diagnostic interview ...


The Neural Correlates Of Persuasion: A Common Network Across Cultures And Media, Emily B. Falk, Lian Rameson, Elliot T. Berkman, Betty Liao, Yoona Kang, Tristen K. Inagaki, Matthew D. Lieberman 2010 University of Pennsylvania

The Neural Correlates Of Persuasion: A Common Network Across Cultures And Media, Emily B. Falk, Lian Rameson, Elliot T. Berkman, Betty Liao, Yoona Kang, Tristen K. Inagaki, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Persuasion is at the root of countless social exchanges in which one person or group is motivated to have another share its beliefs, desires, or behavioral intentions. Here, we report the first three functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to investigate the neurocognitive networks associated with feeling persuaded by an argument. In the first two studies, American and Korean participants, respectively, were exposed to a number of text-based persuasive messages. In both Study 1 and Study 2, feeling persuaded was associated with increased activity in posterior superior temporal sulcus bilaterally, temporal pole bilaterally, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The findings suggest a ...


Developing Constructs For Psychopathology Research: Research Domain Criteria, Charles A. Sanislow, Daniel S. Pine, Kevin J. Quinn, Michael J. Kozak, Marjorie A. Garvey, Robert K. Heinssen, Philip Sung-En Wang, Bruce N. Cuthbert 2010 Wesleyan University

Developing Constructs For Psychopathology Research: Research Domain Criteria, Charles A. Sanislow, Daniel S. Pine, Kevin J. Quinn, Michael J. Kozak, Marjorie A. Garvey, Robert K. Heinssen, Philip Sung-En Wang, Bruce N. Cuthbert

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

There exists a divide between findings from integrative neuroscience and clinical research focused on mechanisms of psychopathology. Specifically, a clear correspondence does not emerge between clusters of complex clinical symptoms and dysregulated neurobiological systems, with many apparent redundancies. For instance, many mental disorders involve multiple disruptions in putative mechanistic factors (e.g., excessive fear, deficient impulse control), and different disrupted mechanisms appear to play major roles in many disorders. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework is a heuristic to facilitate the incorporation of behavioral neuroscience in the study of psychopathology. Such integration might be achieved by shifting the central research ...


Remembering To Remember And The Consequences Of Forgetting: The Role Of Prospective Memory In Consumer Intentions, Eyad M. Youssef 2010 Old Dominion University

Remembering To Remember And The Consequences Of Forgetting: The Role Of Prospective Memory In Consumer Intentions, Eyad M. Youssef

Theses and Dissertations in Business Administration

Picking up your dry cleaning after work, returning library books before the due date, picking up a friend at the airport; all of these tasks have one underlying feature that links them together. The tasks cannot be completed when the initial intention is formed. Prospective memory can be defined as remembering to remember (Winograd, 1988). It can also be defined as either remembering to do something at a particular moment in the future or as the timely execution of a previously formed intention (Kvavilashvili and Ellis, 1996). Remembering to do things (prospective memory) is just as much a use of ...


Pilot Perception Of Light Emitting Diodes Versus Incandescent Elevated Runway Guard Lights, Hilary Stevens 2010 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Pilot Perception Of Light Emitting Diodes Versus Incandescent Elevated Runway Guard Lights, Hilary Stevens

PhD Dissertations and Master's Theses

Pilots must understand and be aware of the purpose of each airport sign, light and marking, for there are numerous. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is planning on replacing the current incandescent lighting with far more economical LED airport lighting. In preparation for this change, two experiments were conducted for this thesis. Experiment 1 attempted to determine what pilots know about the meaning of the signs, markings and lights on the taxiways and runways through a questionnaire that was developed with the FAA. Experiment 2 evaluated pilot perception of LED lighting compared to current incandescent elevated runway guard lights.

The ...


The Statistical Properties Of The Survivor Interaction Contrast, Joseph W. Houpt, James T. Townsend 2010 Wright State University - Main Campus

The Statistical Properties Of The Survivor Interaction Contrast, Joseph W. Houpt, James T. Townsend

Joseph W. Houpt

The Survivor Interaction Contrast (SIC) is a powerful tool for assessing the architecture and stopping rule of a model of mental processes. Despite its demonstrated utility, the methodology has lacked a method for statistical testing until now. In this paper we briefly describe the SIC then develop some basic statistical properties of the measure. These developments lead to a statistical test for rejecting certain classes of models based on the SIC. We verify these tests using simulated data, then demonstrate their use on data from a simple cognitive task.


The Statistical Properties Of The Survivor Interaction Contrast, Joseph W. Houpt, James T. Townsend 2010 Wright State University - Main Campus

The Statistical Properties Of The Survivor Interaction Contrast, Joseph W. Houpt, James T. Townsend

Psychology Faculty Publications

The Survivor Interaction Contrast (SIC) is a powerful tool for assessing the architecture and stopping rule of a model of mental processes. Despite its demonstrated utility, the methodology has lacked a method for statistical testing until now. In this paper we briefly describe the SIC then develop some basic statistical properties of the measure. These developments lead to a statistical test for rejecting certain classes of models based on the SIC. We verify these tests using simulated data, then demonstrate their use on data from a simple cognitive task.


Aiding Young Children In Taiwan's Typhoon Disaster: How An Naeyc Interest Forum Takes Action, S. C. Yen, S. Baba, Ellen N. Junn 2010 California State University - Fullerton

Aiding Young Children In Taiwan's Typhoon Disaster: How An Naeyc Interest Forum Takes Action, S. C. Yen, S. Baba, Ellen N. Junn

Office of the Provost Scholarship

The article describes the strategies learned by members of the Asian Interest Forum (AIF) who collaborated with parents and early childhood teachers on how to help young children cope with natural disasters in Taiwan. Shu-Chen Jenny Yen and Yafen Lo, AIF leaders, have translated information on how to cope with natural disasters into Chinese and sent it to their colleagues in Taiwan. Yen also visited the country where she trained early childhood teachers and volunteers to help children and their families deal with the effects of the natural disaster.


Aiding Young Children In Taiwan's Typhoon Disaster: How An Naeyc Interest Forum Takes Action, S. C. Yen, S. Baba, Ellen N. Junn 2010 San Jose State University

Aiding Young Children In Taiwan's Typhoon Disaster: How An Naeyc Interest Forum Takes Action, S. C. Yen, S. Baba, Ellen N. Junn

Ellen N. Junn

The article describes the strategies learned by members of the Asian Interest Forum (AIF) who collaborated with parents and early childhood teachers on how to help young children cope with natural disasters in Taiwan. Shu-Chen Jenny Yen and Yafen Lo, AIF leaders, have translated information on how to cope with natural disasters into Chinese and sent it to their colleagues in Taiwan. Yen also visited the country where she trained early childhood teachers and volunteers to help children and their families deal with the effects of the natural disaster.


Word Recognition In The Parafovea: An Eye Movement Investigation Of Chinese Reading, Jinmian Yang 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Word Recognition In The Parafovea: An Eye Movement Investigation Of Chinese Reading, Jinmian Yang

Doctoral Dissertations 1896 - February 2014

Chinese is a logographic writing system that drastically differs from alphabetic scripts in many important aspects. Thus, the nature of parafoveal processing in reading Chinese may be different from that in reading alphabetic languages. Here, four eye-tracking experiments using the boundary display change paradigm (Rayner, 1975) were conducted to explore the role of high level information, like semantic and plausibility information, in the parafovea for Chinese readers.

Experiments 1 and 2 used two-character words that can have the order of their component characters reversed, and still be lexical units as target words. Readers received a parafoveal preview of a target ...


Children's Sensitivity To Pitch Variation In Language, Carolyn Quam 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Children's Sensitivity To Pitch Variation In Language, Carolyn Quam

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Children acquire consonant and vowel categories by 12 months, but take much longer to learn to interpret perceptible variation. This dissertation considers children’s interpretation of pitch variation. Pitch operates, often simultaneously, at different levels of linguistic structure. English-learning children must disregard pitch at the lexical level—since English is not a tone language—while still attending to pitch for its other functions. Chapters 1 and 5 outline the learning problem and suggest ways children might solve it. Chapter 2 demonstrates that 2.5-year-olds know pitch cannot differentiate words in English. Chapter 3 finds that not until age 4–5 ...


Looking Through The Lens Of Individual Differences: Relationships Between Personality, Cognitive Control, Language Processing, And Genes, Ranjani Prabhakaran 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Looking Through The Lens Of Individual Differences: Relationships Between Personality, Cognitive Control, Language Processing, And Genes, Ranjani Prabhakaran

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The study of individual differences in cognitive abilities and personality traits has the potential to inform our understanding of how the processing mechanisms underlying different behaviors are organized. In the current set of studies, we applied an individual-differences approach to the study of sources of variation in individuals’ personality traits, cognitive control, and linguistic ambiguity resolution abilities. In Chapter 2, we investigated the relationship between motivational personality traits and cognitive control abilities. The results demonstrated that individual differences in the personality traits of approach and avoidance predict performance on verbal and nonverbal versions of the Stroop task. These results are ...


We Can't Get No (Life) Satisfaction? Comment On Oswald And Wu (2010), Bryan J. Pesta, Michael A. McDaniel, Sharon Bertsch 2010 Cleveland State University

We Can't Get No (Life) Satisfaction? Comment On Oswald And Wu (2010), Bryan J. Pesta, Michael A. Mcdaniel, Sharon Bertsch

Business Faculty Publications

Oswald and Wu (2010; Science) recently reported life satisfaction ranks for residents of the 50 U.S. states. Their rankings were framed as measures of “well-being,” but were derived from responses to only a single survey item (“In general, how satisfied are you with your life?”). Here we contrast Oswald and Wu's subjective rankings with our (Pesta, McDaniel & Bertsch, 2010) objective measures of state well-being. Strangely, our global index of well-being correlates −.43 with Oswald and Wu's life satisfaction ranks (intelligence, itself, correlates −.33 with these ranks). We argue that Oswald and Wu's rankings are misleading for ...


Functional Principal Components Analysis And The Capacity Coefficient, D. Burns, Joseph W. Houpt, M. J. Endres, J. T. Townsend 2010 Wright State University - Main Campus

Functional Principal Components Analysis And The Capacity Coefficient, D. Burns, Joseph W. Houpt, M. J. Endres, J. T. Townsend

Joseph W. Houpt

The capacity coefficient is a well established measure of the efficiency of processing combined sources of information. It has been applied to measure cognitive processes ranging from audio-visual integration to face perception. Recently, the capacity coefficient has also been applied in various clinical situations. Typical clinical analysis, such as structural equation modeling, use scalar values or vectors with limited length as input. We explored the use of functional principal component analysis (fPCA) to allow researchers to describe the capacity coefficient, a continuous function of time, with a small set of discrete values. The fPCA approach was compared with two simple ...


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