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Reproductive and Urinary Physiology Commons

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283 full-text articles. Page 9 of 11.

Effect Of Meloxicam On Gain And Behavior Of Calves Castrated By Banding Pre-Weaning, Joseph A. Daniel, Peter D. Krawczel, Brian K. Whitlock 2013 Berry College

Effect Of Meloxicam On Gain And Behavior Of Calves Castrated By Banding Pre-Weaning, Joseph A. Daniel, Peter D. Krawczel, Brian K. Whitlock

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

The objective was to determine if oral meloxicam (M; a non-steroid anti-inflammatory) administered at castration of pre-weaning calves affected ADG or behavior. Prior to castration (14 d), Angus bulls were assigned to bull (BULL; n = 7; age 106 ± 6 d; BW = 174.2 ±7.7 kg; scrotal circumference 17.7 ± 0.4 cm), castrated (BAN; n = 12; age = 105 ± 5 d; BW = 144.5 ± 7.6 kg; scrotal circumference = 16 ± 0.4 cm) or castrated with meloxicam (BAN+M; n = 13; age = 121 ± 6 d; BW = 145.8 ± 6 kg; scrotal circumference = 16.1 ± .3 cm) treatments with consideration of ...


Effect Of Meloxicam On Gain And Inflammatory Response Of Calves Castrated By Banding Post-Weaning, Brian K. Whitlock, Peter D. Krawczel, Jeff A. Carroll, Nicole C. Burdick Sanchez, Jeff W. Dailey, Joseph A. Daniel, Johann F. Coetzee 2013 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Effect Of Meloxicam On Gain And Inflammatory Response Of Calves Castrated By Banding Post-Weaning, Brian K. Whitlock, Peter D. Krawczel, Jeff A. Carroll, Nicole C. Burdick Sanchez, Jeff W. Dailey, Joseph A. Daniel, Johann F. Coetzee

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Castration may detrimentally affect the health and performance of weaned calves, and painful procedures are increasingly becoming a public concern. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of castration (by banding) with or without administration of meloxicam, a non-steroid anti-inflammatory, on performance and inflammatory response in weaned beef calves. Forty-eight (weaned) beef calves [10.0±0.2 mo old; 304±6 kg BW] were blocked by age, BW, wither height, scrotal circumference, and source, then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments (n=16 calves per treatment: 1) intact bulls (BULL), 2) castration by banding (BAN), or ...


Diploid-Triploid Mixoploidy In An Intersex Goat - Theriogenology Question Of The Month, Brian Whitlock, Elizabeth Coffman, Kathryn Bray, Erica Himmelreich, Herris Maxwell 2013 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Diploid-Triploid Mixoploidy In An Intersex Goat - Theriogenology Question Of The Month, Brian Whitlock, Elizabeth Coffman, Kathryn Bray, Erica Himmelreich, Herris Maxwell

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Dietary Magnesium On Testicular Histology, Steroidogenesis, Spermatogenesis And Oxidative Stress Markers In Adult Rats, Amar K. Chandra, Pallav Sengupta, Haimanti Goswami, Mahitosh Sarkar 2012 University of Calcutta

Effects Of Dietary Magnesium On Testicular Histology, Steroidogenesis, Spermatogenesis And Oxidative Stress Markers In Adult Rats, Amar K. Chandra, Pallav Sengupta, Haimanti Goswami, Mahitosh Sarkar

Pallav Sengupta, PhD

Magnesium is an essential nutrient that acts as a cofactor in numerous enzymatic reactions including energy metabolism, protein and nucleic acid biosynthesis. Its supplementation has shown to be advantageous in hypertension and treatment of angina. The intricate mechanistic aspects of excess dietary magnesium in testicular morphology and functions have been investigated, as the available information found insufficient. Adult male Wister strain rats were fed magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) with standard diet at diverse doses for one and two consecutive seminiferous cycles (13 and 26 days respectively). Significant increase in the activities of testicular Δ 5 3β - hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β - hydroxysteroid ...


A 'Snip' In Time: What Is The Best Age To Circumcise?, Brian J. Morris, Jake H. Waskett, Joya Banerjee, Richard G. Wamai, Aaron A. R. Tobian, Ronald H. Gray, Stefan A. Bailis, Robert C. Bailey, Jeffrey D. Klausner, Robin J. Willcourt, Daniel T. Halperin, Thomas E. Wiswell, Adrian Mindel 2012 University of Sydney

A 'Snip' In Time: What Is The Best Age To Circumcise?, Brian J. Morris, Jake H. Waskett, Joya Banerjee, Richard G. Wamai, Aaron A. R. Tobian, Ronald H. Gray, Stefan A. Bailis, Robert C. Bailey, Jeffrey D. Klausner, Robin J. Willcourt, Daniel T. Halperin, Thomas E. Wiswell, Adrian Mindel

Richard G. Wamai

Background Circumcision is a common procedure, but regional and societal attitudes differ on whether there is a need for a male to be circumcised and, if so, at what age. This is an important issue for many parents, but also pediatricians, other doctors, policy makers, public health authorities, medical bodies, and males themselves. Discussion We show here that infancy is an optimal time for clinical circumcision because an infant's low mobility facilitates the use of local anesthesia, sutures are not required, healing is quick, cosmetic outcome is usually excellent, costs are minimal, and complications are uncommon. The benefits of ...


A Clinically Significant Interaction Between Tacrolimus And Multiple Proton Pump Inhibitors In A Kidney Transplant Recipient, Michelle Maguire, Thaddeus T. Franz, David S. Hains 2012 Cedarville University

A Clinically Significant Interaction Between Tacrolimus And Multiple Proton Pump Inhibitors In A Kidney Transplant Recipient, Michelle Maguire, Thaddeus T. Franz, David S. Hains

Pharmacy Practice Faculty Publications

The shared metabolism of PPIs and tacrolimus through the CYP enzyme system has been associated with clinically significant drug interactions, especially in patients who are classified as CYP 2C19 PMs. However, existing data are conflicting, indicating that a single mechanism does not account for all interactions. A drug interaction between tacrolimus and omeprazole, esomeprazole, but not lansoprazole, occurred in an 18-yr-old female kidney transplant recipient classified as a CYP 2C19 extensive (normal) metabolizer. This case suggests that further research is needed to establish the definitive mechanism of this potentially serious drug–drug interaction. Physicians prescribing PPIs in organ transplant recipients ...


A Pilot Trial Comparing The Effects Of Onabotulinumtoxina And Standard Oxybutynin Therapy As First Line Treatment For The Poorly Compliant Pediatric Neurogenic Bladder, Sumit Dave 2012 The University of Western Ontario

A Pilot Trial Comparing The Effects Of Onabotulinumtoxina And Standard Oxybutynin Therapy As First Line Treatment For The Poorly Compliant Pediatric Neurogenic Bladder, Sumit Dave

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Research question

Is it feasible to conduct a phase III RCT to compare OnabotulinumtoxinA injections to oxybutynin as primary therapy in pediatric neurogenic bladder?

Methods

Patients on a stable oxybutynin regimen were recruited for a pilot RCT and underwent randomization to either OnabotulinumtoxinA or continuation of oxybutynin. Primary outcomes included an a priori defined feasibility and acceptability assessment. Secondary outcomes included continence, urodynamic parameters, side effects and QOL.

Results

The study enrolled 8 subjects in the OnabotulinumtoxinA group and 6 in the oxybutynin group. The recruitment rate was 75 % and the dropout rate was 6.6 %. There were 2 minor ...


Stages Of Hyperadrenocorticism: Response Of Hyperadrenocorticoid Dogs To The Combined Dexamethasone Suppression/Acth Stimulation Test, Hugo Eiler, Jack Oliver, Alfred Legendre 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Stages Of Hyperadrenocorticism: Response Of Hyperadrenocorticoid Dogs To The Combined Dexamethasone Suppression/Acth Stimulation Test, Hugo Eiler, Jack Oliver, Alfred Legendre

Alfred M Legendre DVM, MS, DACVIM

A study was designed to evaluate the response of blood cortisol content in dogs tentatively diagnosed as having hyperadrenocorticism by using the combined dexamethasone suppression/ACTH stimulation test procedure. Four groups of abnormal responses were identified in 54 dogs. In group I (14.8% of the dogs with abnormal responses), the only abnormality was partial suppression with dexamethasone (clinically normal dogs suppressed to less than 10 ng/ml). In group II (29.6%), 2 abnormalities were found: partial suppression with dexamethasone and hyperreactivity to the ACTH stimulation test. In group III (typical pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism, 48.1%), 3 abnormalities were found ...


Electroejaculation Increased Vocalization And Plasma Concentrations Of Cortisol And Progesterone, But Not Substance P, In Beef Bulls, Brian Whitlock, Elizabeth Coffman, Johann Coetzee, Joseph Daniel 2012 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Electroejaculation Increased Vocalization And Plasma Concentrations Of Cortisol And Progesterone, But Not Substance P, In Beef Bulls, Brian Whitlock, Elizabeth Coffman, Johann Coetzee, Joseph Daniel

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Electroejaculation is a reliable method of obtaining a semen sample for a bull breeding soundness examination, but is sometimes regarded as painful. Substance P is a neuropeptide involved in the integration of pain, stress, and anxiety. We hypothesized that substance P is a measure of pain in bulls following electroejaculation. The specific objective was to compare vocalization and plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, and substance P immunoreactivity in bulls following electroejaculation. Nine Angus bulls (501.9 +/- 14.3 kg) were used. Blood samples were collected at -60, -30, 0, 2, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120 min relative ...


Resource Availability, Mortality And Fertility: A Path Analytic Approach To Global Life History Variation, Mark A. Caudell, Robert J. Quinlan 2012 Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4910

Resource Availability, Mortality And Fertility: A Path Analytic Approach To Global Life History Variation, Mark A. Caudell, Robert J. Quinlan

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Humans exhibit considerable diversity in timing and rate of reproduction. Life history theory suggests that ecological cues of resource richness and survival probabilities shape human phenotypes across populations. Populations experiencing high extrinsic mortality due to uncertainty in resources should exhibit faster life histories. Here we use a path analytic approach informed by life history theory to model the multiple pathways between resources, mortality rates, and reproductive behavior in 191 countries. Resources that account for the most variance in population mortality rates are predicted to explain the most variance in total fertility rates. Results indicate that resources (e.g., calories, sanitation ...


Book Review: Reproduction And Adaptation: Topics In Human Reproductive Ecology, Geoff Kushnick PhD 2012 Biocultural Anthropology Program, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

Book Review: Reproduction And Adaptation: Topics In Human Reproductive Ecology, Geoff Kushnick Phd

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Reproduction and Adaptation: Topics in Human Reproductive Ecology. Edited by C.G. Mascie-Taylor and Lyliane Rosetta. Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology, Vol. 59. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2011. 282 pp. $99.00 (hardback). ISBN 978-0-521-50963-3.


Do Photoperiodic Changes In Melatonin Secretion Detrimentally Affect The Female Reproductive Cycle?, Riki Szlafrok 2012 Touro College

Do Photoperiodic Changes In Melatonin Secretion Detrimentally Affect The Female Reproductive Cycle?, Riki Szlafrok

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Melatonin, better known as "the hormone of darkness," is secreted by the pineal gland during the night and helps us fall asleep. Because its internal regulation depends on light, melatonin is part of chronobiology, the study of biological mechanisms and their adaptations to lunar and solar related rhythms (Klein et al. 1991). Therefore, photoperiod changes greatly impact melatonin concentration, influencing changes in neuronal and hormonal mechanisms of the photo neuro-endocrine systems, namely reproduction. Research has shown that a disruption in the circadian rhythm of melatonin due to photoperiod changes detrimentally affects the rhythmic function of the female reproductive cycle. Research ...


Mechanisms Of Ovarian Atresia Induced By Xenobiotic Exposures, Jason W. Ross, Aileen F. Keating 2012 Iowa State University

Mechanisms Of Ovarian Atresia Induced By Xenobiotic Exposures, Jason W. Ross, Aileen F. Keating

Animal Science Publications

The focus of this chapter is the mechanisms of apoptosis that occur during “normal” (physiologically-induced) or “abnormal” (chemical- or pathology-induced) attrition of ovarian oocytes. One of the primary functions of the ovary is development and maturation of oocytes, which occur within a follicular structure. During fetal development of the ovary, primordial germ cells (oogonia) are formed and become oocytes when they stop dividing, and are arrested at the diplotene stage (prophase) of the first meiotic division. At this stage the oocyte is surrounded by a single layer of flattened somatic cells (pre-granulosa cells) and a basement membrane to form primordial ...


Excessive Dietary Calcium In The Disruption Of Structural And Functional Status Of Adult Male Reproductive System In Rat With Possible Mechanism, A K. Chandra, Pallav Sengupta, Haimanti Goswami, Mahitosh Sarkar 2011 University of Calcutta

Excessive Dietary Calcium In The Disruption Of Structural And Functional Status Of Adult Male Reproductive System In Rat With Possible Mechanism, A K. Chandra, Pallav Sengupta, Haimanti Goswami, Mahitosh Sarkar

Pallav Sengupta, PhD

Calcium is essential for functioning of different systems including male reproduction. However, it has also been reported as chemo-castrative agent. The study has been undertaken to elucidate the effect of excessive dietary calcium on male reproductive system in animals with possible action. Adult male healthy rats fed CaCl2 at different doses (0.5 g %, 1.0 g % and 1.5 g %) in diet for 13 and 26 days to investigate reproductive parameters as well as the markers of oxidative stress. Significant alteration was found (p<0.05) in testicular and accessory sex organs weight, epididymal sperm count, testicular steroidogenic enzyme ...


Gestation Length, Mode Of Delivery And Neonatal Line Thickness Variation, Clément Zanolli, Luca Bondioli, Franz Manni, Paola Rossi, Roberto Macchiarelli 2011 Département de Préhistoire, UMR 7194 CNRS, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 75005 Paris, France

Gestation Length, Mode Of Delivery And Neonatal Line Thickness Variation, CléMent Zanolli, Luca Bondioli, Franz Manni, Paola Rossi, Roberto Macchiarelli

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The transition from an intra- to extra-uterine environment leaves its mark in deciduous teeth (and first permanent molars) as an accentuated enamel incremental ring called the neonatal line (NL). This prominent microfeature separates the enamel formed during intrauterine life from that formed after leaving the womb. However, while the physical structure of this scar is well known, the bases of its formation are still a matter of investigation. In particular, besides the influence of the birth-related abrupt environmental and dietary changes and the role played by physiological factors such as hypocalcaemia, it has been suggested a direct relationship between NL ...


Supplemental Fish Oil Decreases Urinary Excretion Of A Marker Of Bone Resorption In Healthy Adults, Eric E. Noreen, Josef Brandauer, Megan H. MacNabb 2011 Gettysburg College

Supplemental Fish Oil Decreases Urinary Excretion Of A Marker Of Bone Resorption In Healthy Adults, Eric E. Noreen, Josef Brandauer, Megan H. Macnabb

Health Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Incorporation of fish oil (FO) into the diet of rodents has been shown to result in positive changes in bone health. Currently it is poorly understood if FO has the same effects on bone health in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental FO on levels of urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (NTx), which is a marker of bone breakdown, and how this is related to the morning levels of salivary cortisol and urinary excretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6).

Methods: A total of twenty-eight females and twelve males(35 ± 13yrs; 69.1 ± 14.1kg ...


Proliferation Of Acid-Secretory Cells In The Kidney During Adaptive Remodelling Of The Collecting Duct, Desa Welsh-Bacic, Marta Nowik, Brigitte Kaissling, Carsten A. Wagner 2011 University of Zurich

Proliferation Of Acid-Secretory Cells In The Kidney During Adaptive Remodelling Of The Collecting Duct, Desa Welsh-Bacic, Marta Nowik, Brigitte Kaissling, Carsten A. Wagner

Desa Welsh

The renal collecting duct adapts to changes in acid-base metabolism by remodelling and altering the relative number of acid or alkali secreting cells, a phenomenon termed plasticity. Acid secretory A intercalated cells (A-IC) express apical H+-ATPases and basolateral bicarbonate exchanger AE1 whereas bicarbonate secretory B intercalated cells (B-IC) express basolateral (and apical) H+-ATPases and the apical bicarbonate exchanger pendrin. Intercalated cells were thought to be terminally differentiated and unable to proliferate. However, a recent report in mouse kidney suggested that intercalated cells may proliferate and that this process is in part dependent on GDF-15. Here we extend these ...


Heifer Estrous Cycle Stage Impacts Luteinizing And Growth Hormone Response To Kisspeptin, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Robyn R. Wilborn, Barbara P. Steele, James L. Sartin 2011 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Heifer Estrous Cycle Stage Impacts Luteinizing And Growth Hormone Response To Kisspeptin, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Robyn R. Wilborn, Barbara P. Steele, James L. Sartin

Animal Science Publications and Other Works

The reproductive neuropeptide, kisspeptin (KP), may have a role in regulation of growth hormone (GH) secretion. Expression of KP and its receptor (Kiss1r) are developmentally and hormonally regulated. This study was conducted to determine the effects of KP on plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and GH in pubertal heifers during different functional reproductive stages. Heifers received a single injection of KP (100 pmole / kg) or saline intravenously during proestrus, estrus, and diestrus, and serial blood samples were collected for 3 hours to determine the response of both LH and GH after treatment. Mean concentrations of LH were increased (P < 0.05) for animals receiving KP during proestrus and diestrus but not estrus. However, area under the LH curves following treatment with KP were increased (P < 0.05) during all reproductive stages tested. Mean concentrations of GH were unaffected by treatment. Administration of KP increased (P < 0.05) area under GH curves during proestrus and diestrus but not estrus. Thus, KP can stimulate increased circulating concentrations of LH and GH in pubertal heifers and functional reproductive stage affects the gonadotropic and somatotropic responses.


Heifer Estrous Cycle Stage Impacts Luteinizing And Growth Hormone Response To Kisspeptin, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Robyn R. Wilborn, Barbara P. Steele, James L. Sartin 2011 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Heifer Estrous Cycle Stage Impacts Luteinizing And Growth Hormone Response To Kisspeptin, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Robyn R. Wilborn, Barbara P. Steele, James L. Sartin

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

The reproductive neuropeptide, kisspeptin (KP), may have a role in regulation of growth hormone (GH) secretion. Expression of KP and its receptor (Kiss1r) are developmentally and hormonally regulated. This study was conducted to determine the effects of KP on plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and GH in pubertal heifers during different functional reproductive stages. Heifers received a single injection of KP (100 pmole / kg) or saline intravenously during proestrus, estrus, and diestrus, and serial blood samples were collected for 3 hours to determine the response of both LH and GH after treatment. Mean concentrations of LH were increased (P ...


Effect Of Kisspeptin On Regulation Of Growth Hormone, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Robyn R. Wilborn, Herris S. Maxwell, Barbara P. Steele, James L. Sartin 2011 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Effect Of Kisspeptin On Regulation Of Growth Hormone, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Robyn R. Wilborn, Herris S. Maxwell, Barbara P. Steele, James L. Sartin

Animal Science Publications and Other Works

Kisspeptin ( KP ), a neuroendocrine regulator of reproduction, is hypothesized to be an integrator of metabolism and hormones critical to the regulation of reproduction. Lactation is associated with enhanced growth hormone (GH) responsiveness and reduced fertility. Our study was designed to determine the effects of lactation on KP-stimulated GH and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Five non-lactating and five lactating dairy cows were used in the study. Experiments were conducted with lactating cows at weeks 1, 5 and 11 after parturition. The experimental treatments ( saline and KP [100 and 400 pmol / kg body weight]) were given intravenously and blood was collected and ...


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