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Reproductive and Urinary Physiology Commons

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282 full-text articles. Page 6 of 11.

Vulvodynia; An Under-Recognized Disease, Simona Roxana Georgescu, Cristina I. Mitran, Mădălina I. Mitran, Maria I. Sârbu, Mircea Tampa 2016 Carol Davila University, Department of Dermatology and Venereology

Vulvodynia; An Under-Recognized Disease, Simona Roxana Georgescu, Cristina I. Mitran, Mădălina I. Mitran, Maria I. Sârbu, Mircea Tampa

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Vulvodynia is a chronic condition which affects an increasing number of women; it presents currently an incidence that is higher than had previously been estimated. Regarding pathogenesis, several (hormonal, infectious, inflammatory and psychological) factors have been proposed, but vulvodynia etiology remains still unclear. This disorder is a multifactorial condition with a significant impact on the patient’s quality of life, yet is difficult to diagnose (an under-estimated/ under-recognized affection). Certain medical investigations are required in order to exclude other diseases (the diagnosis of vulvodynia being one of exclusion), but anamnesis and physical examination are essential steps in the diagnosis.

Although ...


The Current Treatment Of Erectile Dysfunction, Maria Isabela Sarbu, Mircea Tampa, Mădălina I. Mitran, Cristina I. Mitran, Vasile Benea, Simona R. Georgescu 2016 Carol Davila University, Department of Dermatology and Venereology

The Current Treatment Of Erectile Dysfunction, Maria Isabela Sarbu, Mircea Tampa, Mădălina I. Mitran, Cristina I. Mitran, Vasile Benea, Simona R. Georgescu

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual intercourse. It is the most frequent sexual dysfunction in elderly men and its prevalence increases with age.

Ever since ED was recognized as a real health problem, several treatment options became available and some of them proved to be very efficient. PDE5 inhibitors are the mainstay treatment of ED.

However, other treatment options such as intracorporal injections, surgery, vacuum devices and prosthesis are also available for patients who are unresponsive to PDE5 inhibitors. Since none of the treatment options available so far has proven ...


Molecular And Cellular Biology Of Prostate Cancer, El-Nasir Lalani, Marc Elie Laniado, Paul David Abel 2016 Aga Khan University

Molecular And Cellular Biology Of Prostate Cancer, El-Nasir Lalani, Marc Elie Laniado, Paul David Abel

El Nasir Lalani

Prostate cancer is an enigmatic disease. Although prostatic-intraepithelial neoplasia appears as early as the third decade and as many as 80% of 80 year old men have epithelial cells in their prostate that fit the morphological criteria for cancer, only about 10% of men will ever have the clinical disease and less than 3% will die from it. There have been no significant proven interventions which have altered the natural history of the disease since hormone down regulation was introduced in the 1940s and new research has been poorly supported. There is however an urgent need to develop new criteria ...


Ultrasonography Of The Scrotum In Adults, Anna L. Kuhn, Eduardo Scortegagna, Kristina M. Nowitzki, Young H. Kim 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ultrasonography Of The Scrotum In Adults, Anna L. Kuhn, Eduardo Scortegagna, Kristina M. Nowitzki, Young H. Kim

Radiology Publications

Ultrasonography is the ideal noninvasive imaging modality for evaluation of scrotal abnormalities. It is capable of differentiating the most important etiologies of acute scrotal pain and swelling, including epididymitis and testicular torsion, and is the imaging modality of choice in acute scrotal trauma. In patients presenting with palpable abnormality or scrotal swelling, ultrasonography can detect, locate, and characterize both intratesticular and extratesticular masses and other abnormalities. A 12-17 MHz high frequency linear array transducer provides excellent anatomic detail of the testicles and surrounding structures. In addition, vascular perfusion can be easily assessed using color and spectral Doppler analysis. In most ...


Ramadan & Pregnancy, Omar Rizvi 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Ramadan & Pregnancy, Omar Rizvi

Celebration of Learning

Fasting during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Muslim calendar, is one of the five pillars of Islam and is fard (obligatory) for all Muslims physically and mentally capable of doing so. In the Qur’an, it is made abundantly clear that religion and its acts of worship are not meant to pose undue difficulty or hardship (Qur’an 22:78, 5:6, 2:185). My paper explores the Islamic definitions for “unnecessary difficulty” and “physically capable” specifically in regards to pregnant women. At what point does fasting incur significant, if any, damage to the fetus that it should prevent ...


The Medicalization Of Childbirth Within The United States, Alexandria Gesing 2016 Union College - Schenectady, NY

The Medicalization Of Childbirth Within The United States, Alexandria Gesing

Honors Theses

The World Bank rates the United States last amongst developed countries for maternal mortality, with 14 deaths per 100,000 live births compared to Canada and the Netherlands with 7 deaths per 100,000 live births, and the UK with 9 per 100,000 live births. This paper argues that these deaths are strongly linked to excessive use of Cesarean sections, resulting from increased access to technology, and explores the attendant medicalization of childbirth in the United States. Drawing on interviews with patients, midwives, and physicians, in addition to participant observation of hospitals and private practices within the Tristate area ...


The Relationship Of Fertility, Lifestyle, And Longevity Among Women, Peggy A. Lockhart, Peter Martin, Mary Ann Johnson, Elizabeth Shirtcliff, Leonard W. Poon 2016 Iowa State University

The Relationship Of Fertility, Lifestyle, And Longevity Among Women, Peggy A. Lockhart, Peter Martin, Mary Ann Johnson, Elizabeth Shirtcliff, Leonard W. Poon

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

Longevity in women has been found to be associated with several reproductive factors; the age of women when they give birth, their total number of children, and the age at which they experience menopause. In the context of expectations from the evolutionary theory of aging, the focus of this study examined relationships between lifetime reproduction, age at menopause and longevity, while accounting for various lifestyle factors. The purpose of this study was to assess fertility and age at onset of menopause in 197 women of the Georgia Centenarian Study. It was hypothesized that greater lifetime reproduction would predict earlier menopause ...


Acute Kidney Injury Biomarkers: A Prospective Cohort Study In Urological Patients, Daniel Olvera-Posada 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Acute Kidney Injury Biomarkers: A Prospective Cohort Study In Urological Patients, Daniel Olvera-Posada

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Several recent studies have assessed the use of biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), but the information among patients with stone disease and those with obstructive uropathy is limited. For this reason, we conducted a prospective cohort study to determine the urinary levels of KIM-1, Total and Monomeric NGAL in patients with hydronephrosis secondary to renal stone disease, congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction or ureteral stricture, and in a group of healthy controls in our health care center. Urinary biomarker concentrations were evaluated before and after surgical treatment. Patients with hydronephrosis showed significantly higher baseline levels of KIM-1 compared to those ...


Demonstration Of Follicle Waves Using Delay Differential Equations, Andrew A. Wright 2016 North Carolina State University at Raleigh

Demonstration Of Follicle Waves Using Delay Differential Equations, Andrew A. Wright

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Long-Lasting Effects Of Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant On Male Reproductive Outcomes In Rat Model, Ahmed Khalil, Daneal Portman, Jake Jensen, Michael Panchenko, Alexander Suvorov 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Long-Lasting Effects Of Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant On Male Reproductive Outcomes In Rat Model, Ahmed Khalil, Daneal Portman, Jake Jensen, Michael Panchenko, Alexander Suvorov

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Meta-analysis of 101 studies published between 1934 and 1996 indicates that mean sperm concentration decreased around 50% during this period. More recent studies have found alarmingly poor semen quality in the general population of Northern Europe. Additional adverse trends include increased incidence of testicular cancer, and congenital malformations such as cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Testicular germ cell cancers increased by about 400% over the period of 50 years in industrialized countries. Decreased quality of male reproductive health has been linked to environmental endocrine disruptors exposure. However, the ability of xenobiotics to produce long-lasting effects and mechanisms of perturbation of the male ...


Associations Of Peripubertal Serum Dioxin And Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations With Pubertal Timing Among Russian Boys, Jane S. Burns, Mary M. Lee, Paige L. Williams, Susan A. Korrick, Oleg Sergeyev, Thuy Lam, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser 2016 Harvard School of Public Health

Associations Of Peripubertal Serum Dioxin And Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations With Pubertal Timing Among Russian Boys, Jane S. Burns, Mary M. Lee, Paige L. Williams, Susan A. Korrick, Oleg Sergeyev, Thuy Lam, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser

Cell and Developmental Biology Publications

BACKGROUND: Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin-like and nondioxin-like, have been linked to alterations in puberty.

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association of peripubertal serum levels of these compounds (and their toxic equivalents (TEQs)) with pubertal onset and maturity among Russian boys enrolled at ages 8-9 years and followed prospectively through ages 17-18 years.

METHODS: At enrollment, 473 boys had serum dioxin-like compounds and PCBs measured. At the baseline visit and annually until age 17-18 years, a physician performed pubertal staging [Genitalia (G), Pubarche (P), and testicular volume (TV)]. 315 subjects completed the follow-up visit at 17-18 years of age ...


Embryo Adoption As An Ethical Option For Couples Faced With Infertility, Rachel M. Walters 2016 Liberty University

Embryo Adoption As An Ethical Option For Couples Faced With Infertility, Rachel M. Walters

Senior Honors Theses

Embryo adoption takes embryos that are still forming and introduces them into the uterus of a woman with whom they do not share any genetic material. If pregnancy does ensue and continues without complications, the child that will be born will not share any genes with the woman who carried him or her. In addition, if the child is born to parents who already have other children, the children in the adoptive family will share no biological link to the newborn. Essentially, the child will have two families—a biological family and an adoptive family. This thesis will explore and ...


Male Psychological Adaptation To Unsuccessful Medically Assisted Reproduction Treatments: A Systematic Review, Mariana Veloso Martins, Miguel Basto-Pereira, Juliana Pedro, Brennan Peterson, Vasco Almeida, Lone Schmidt, Maria Emília Costa 2016 University of Porto

Male Psychological Adaptation To Unsuccessful Medically Assisted Reproduction Treatments: A Systematic Review, Mariana Veloso Martins, Miguel Basto-Pereira, Juliana Pedro, Brennan Peterson, Vasco Almeida, Lone Schmidt, Maria Emília Costa

Marriage and Family Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

BACKGROUND Similarly to women, men suffer from engaging in fertility treatments, both physically and psychologically. Although there is a vast body of evidence on the emotional adjustment of women to infertility, there are no systematic reviews focusing on men's psychological adaptation to infertility and related treatments.

OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE The main research questions addressed in this review were ‘Does male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction (MAR) treatment vary over time?’ and ‘Which psychosocial variables act as protective or risk factors for psychological maladaptation?’

SEARCH METHODS A literature search was conducted from inception to September 2015 on five ...


A Urinary Metabolic Signature For Multiple Sclerosis And Neuromyelitis Optica, Teklab Gebregiworgis, Helle H. Nielsen, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Jay Reddy, Zsolt Illes, Robert Powers 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

A Urinary Metabolic Signature For Multiple Sclerosis And Neuromyelitis Optica, Teklab Gebregiworgis, Helle H. Nielsen, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Jay Reddy, Zsolt Illes, Robert Powers

Jay Reddy Publications

Urine is a metabolite-rich biofluid that reflects the body’s effort to maintain chemical and osmotic homeostasis. Clinical diagnosis routinely relies on urine samples because the collection process is easy and noninvasive. Despite these advantages, urine is an under-investigated source of biomarkers for multiple sclerosis (MS). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has become a common approach for analyzing urinary metabolites for disease diagnosis and biomarker discovery. For illustration of the potential of urinary metabolites for diagnosing and treating MS patients, and for differentiating between MS and other illnesses, 38 urine samples were collected from healthy controls, MS patients, and neuromyelitis ...


Does Aerobic Exercise During Pregnancy Prevent Cesarean Sections?, Kait Lassen 2016 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Does Aerobic Exercise During Pregnancy Prevent Cesarean Sections?, Kait Lassen

PCOM Physician Assistant Studies Student Scholarship

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not aerobic exercise in pregnant women prevents cesarean sections (“C-sections”).

STUDY DESIGN: Review of two English articles and one English/Portuguese article, two of which were randomized control trials (RCTs) and one was a prospective study, all published after 2011.

DATA SOURCES: Two RCTs and one prospective study found via PubMed and Cochrane Database.

OUTCOMES MEASURED: The main clinical outcome in all studies measured the incidence of C-section as compared to vaginal delivery. The outcomes were measured by method of delivery which was categorized as either vaginally ...


Does Oral Gabapentin Administered Prior To Scheduled Cesarean Delivery Decrease Pain With Movement In Adult Women At 24 Hours As Compared To Placebo?, Ashley E. Boller 2016 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Does Oral Gabapentin Administered Prior To Scheduled Cesarean Delivery Decrease Pain With Movement In Adult Women At 24 Hours As Compared To Placebo?, Ashley E. Boller

PCOM Physician Assistant Studies Student Scholarship

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this selective evidence based medicine review is to determine whether or not oral gabapentin administered prior to scheduled cesarean delivery decreases pain with movement in adult women at 24 hours postpartum as compared to placebo.

STUDY DESIGN: Review of three English language, peer-reviewed, primary studies published after 2000.

DATA SOURCES: Three randomized, placebo-controlled trials comparing the efficacy of oral gabapentin to a lactose placebo in adult women undergoing elective cesarean delivery. Sources were selected from PubMed, Medline, Ovid, and the Cochrane Database to include all studies matching the keywords that were published in peer-reviewed, English language ...


Pelvic Floor Muscle Training In Management Of Postpartum Pelvic Floor Dysfunctions: A Literature Review, Rebecca S. Tanner 2016 University of Central Florida

Pelvic Floor Muscle Training In Management Of Postpartum Pelvic Floor Dysfunctions: A Literature Review, Rebecca S. Tanner

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Women can face a wide range of pelvic floor dysfunctions following pregnancy, ranging from urinary incontinence to pelvic pain. Unfortunately, these problems are not routinely checked for in postpartum check-ups and women do not always bring it to the physician’s attention. Strengthening of the pelvic floor muscles may be able to help women prevent these disorders and improve these women’s lifestyles.

The purpose of this thesis was to review and analyze different trials to determine if different pelvic floor dysfunctions (urinary incontinence, sexual dysfunction, and pelvic girdle pain) can be treated using pelvic floor muscle training in the ...


Education Intervention Of Preconception Screening In Primary Care, Tracy Schuler 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Education Intervention Of Preconception Screening In Primary Care, Tracy Schuler

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects

Problem: The risk of a poor pregnancy outcome among women of reproductive age in Providence, Rhode Island is indicated by the high rates of unintended pregnancies, low multivitamin use prior to pregnancy, obesity, and smoking. Although recommended, health professionals often fail to routinely screen and educate women of reproductive age for preconception risk factors. Purpose: Evaluate the efficacy of an educational intervention on preconception risk factors, lifestyle modifications, and current screening recommendations; and introduce a preconception tool and education sheet among a population of health care providers. Method: Preconception health material and a modified preconception screening tool was presented to ...


The Hormonal Regulation Of The Claudin Genes In The Ovary, Sean Gadson, April Binder, Kenneth Korach, Katherine Hamilton 2016 Central Washington University

The Hormonal Regulation Of The Claudin Genes In The Ovary, Sean Gadson, April Binder, Kenneth Korach, Katherine Hamilton

All Master's Theses

The ovary is a dynamic organ that responds to many hormonal signals. When these hormonal signals are disrupted, ovarian dysfunction can occur. One such example is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). PCOS patients suffer from high levels of testosterone. Excess testosterone may misregulate genes in the ovary and disrupt ovarian function. The Claudin (Cldn) 3 and Cldn11 genes have been shown to be regulated by androgens in the testis, while studies in ovarian cancer cells suggests a coregulatory mechanism for the expressions of Cldn3 and Cldn4 in the ovary. The objective of this study was to characterize the hormonal regulation of ...


Proceedings Of The Working Group Session On Fertility Preservation For Individuals With Gender And Sex Diversity., Courtney Finlayson, Emilie K. Johnson, Diane Chen, Elizabeth Dabrowski, Yasmin Gosiengfiao, Lisa Campo-Engelstein, Ilina Rosoklija, Jill Jacobson, Margarett Shnorhavorian, Mary Ellen Pavone, Molly B. Moravek, Herbert J. Bonifacio, Lisa Simons, Janella Hudson, Patricia Y. Fechner, Veronica Gomez-Lobo, Rachel Kadakia, Angela Shurba, Erin Rowell, Teresa K. Woodruff 2016 Children's Mercy Hospital

Proceedings Of The Working Group Session On Fertility Preservation For Individuals With Gender And Sex Diversity., Courtney Finlayson, Emilie K. Johnson, Diane Chen, Elizabeth Dabrowski, Yasmin Gosiengfiao, Lisa Campo-Engelstein, Ilina Rosoklija, Jill Jacobson, Margarett Shnorhavorian, Mary Ellen Pavone, Molly B. Moravek, Herbert J. Bonifacio, Lisa Simons, Janella Hudson, Patricia Y. Fechner, Veronica Gomez-Lobo, Rachel Kadakia, Angela Shurba, Erin Rowell, Teresa K. Woodruff

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Children and adolescents with gender and sex diversity include (1) gender-nonconforming and transgender individuals for whom gender identity or expression are incongruent with birth-assigned sex (heretofore, transgender) and (2) individuals who have differences in sex development (DSD). Although these are largely disparate groups, there is overlap in the medical expertise necessary to care for individuals with both gender and sex diversity. In addition, both groups face potential infertility or sterility as a result of desired medical and surgical therapies. The Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago (Lurie Children's) gender and sex development program (GSDP) provides specialized ...


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