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Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities Commons

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All Articles in Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities

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Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Clinical And Environmental Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Biofilm Formation, Virulence, And Genome Diversity, Nathan Head, Hongwei Yu 2012 Marshall University

Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Clinical And Environmental Isolates Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Biofilm Formation, Virulence, And Genome Diversity, Nathan Head, Hongwei Yu

Hongwei Yu

Chronic lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms are associated with refractory and fatal pneumonia in cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study, a group of genomically diverse P. aeruginosa isolates were compared with the reference strain PAO1 to assess the roles of motility, twitching, growth rate, and overproduction of a capsular polysaccharide (alginate) in biofilm formation. In an in vitro biofilm assay system, P. aeruginosa displayed strain-specific biofilm formation that was not solely dependent on these parameters. Compared with non-CF isolates, CF isolates expressed two opposing growth modes: reduced planktonic growth versus efficient biofilm formation. Planktonic cells of CF isolates showed ...


The Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Sensor Kinase Kinb Negatively Controls Alginate Production Through Algw-Dependent Muca Proteolysis, Hongwei Yu, F. Damron, Dongru Qiu 2012 Marshall University

The Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Sensor Kinase Kinb Negatively Controls Alginate Production Through Algw-Dependent Muca Proteolysis, Hongwei Yu, F. Damron, Dongru Qiu

Hongwei Yu

Mucoidy, or overproduction of the exopolysaccharide known as alginate, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a poor prognosticator for lung infections in cystic fibrosis. Mutation of the anti-sigma factor MucA is a well-accepted mechanism for mucoid conversion. However, certain clinical mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa have a wild-type (wt) mucA. Here, we describe a loss-of-function mutation in kinB that causes overproduction of alginate in the wt mucA strain PAO1. KinB is the cognate histidine kinase for the transcriptional activator AlgB. Increased alginate production due to inactivation of kinB was correlated with high expression at the alginate-related promoters P(algU) and P(algD ...


Therapeutic Silencing Of Mutant Huntingtin By Targeting Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms: A Dissertation, Edith L. Pfister 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Therapeutic Silencing Of Mutant Huntingtin By Targeting Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms: A Dissertation, Edith L. Pfister

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Invariably fatal, HD is caused by expansion of the CAG repeat region in exon 1 of the Huntingtin gene which creates a toxic protein with an extended polyglutamine tract 1. Silencing mutant Huntingtin messenger RNA (mRNA) is a promising therapeutic approach 2-6. The ideal silencing strategy would reduce mutant Huntingtin while leaving the wild-type mRNA intact. Unfortunately, targeting the disease causing CAG repeat expansion is difficult and risks targeting other CAG repeat containing genes.

We examined an alternative strategy, targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Huntingtin mRNA. The ...


Intermediate-Term Mortality And Cardiac Transplantation In Infants With Single-Ventricle Lesions: Risk Factors And Their Interaction With Shunt Type., James S. Tweddell, Lynn A. Sleeper, Richard G. Ohye, Ismee A. Williams, Lynn Mahony, Christian Pizarro, Victoria L. Pemberton, Peter C. Frommelt, Scott M. Bradley, James F. Cnota, Jennifer Hirsch, Paul M. Kirshbom, Jennifer S. Li, Nancy Pike, Michael Puchalski, Chitra Ravishankar, Jeffrey P. Jacobs, Peter C. Laussen, Brian W. McCrindle, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators, Girish S. Shirali 2012 Children's Mercy Hospital

Intermediate-Term Mortality And Cardiac Transplantation In Infants With Single-Ventricle Lesions: Risk Factors And Their Interaction With Shunt Type., James S. Tweddell, Lynn A. Sleeper, Richard G. Ohye, Ismee A. Williams, Lynn Mahony, Christian Pizarro, Victoria L. Pemberton, Peter C. Frommelt, Scott M. Bradley, James F. Cnota, Jennifer Hirsch, Paul M. Kirshbom, Jennifer S. Li, Nancy Pike, Michael Puchalski, Chitra Ravishankar, Jeffrey P. Jacobs, Peter C. Laussen, Brian W. Mccrindle, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators, Girish S. Shirali

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to identify factors associated with death and cardiac transplantation in infants undergoing the Norwood procedure and to determine differences in associations that might favor the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt or a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt.

METHODS: We used competing risks methodology to analyze death without transplantation, cardiac transplantation, and survival without transplantation. Parametric time-to-event modeling and bootstrapping were used to identify independent predictors.

RESULTS: Data from 549 subjects (follow-up, 2.7 ± 0.9 years) were analyzed. Mortality risk was characterized by early and constant phases; transplant was characterized by only a constant phase. Early phase factors ...


Cell And Gene Therapy For Genetic Diseases: Inherited Disorders Affecting The Lung And Those Mimicking Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Allison M. Keeler, Terence R. Flotte 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cell And Gene Therapy For Genetic Diseases: Inherited Disorders Affecting The Lung And Those Mimicking Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Allison M. Keeler, Terence R. Flotte

Pediatric Publications

Some of the first human gene therapy trials targeted diseases of the lung and provided important information that will continue to help shape future trials. Here we describe both cell and gene therapies for lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and alpha-1 antitrypsin disorder as well as fatty acid oxidation disorders that mimic sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Human clinical gene therapy trials for cystic fibrosis and alpha-1 antitrypsin have been performed using a variety of vectors including adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, and nonviral vectors. No human clinical gene therapy trials have been performed for disorders of fatty acid oxidation; however ...


The Role Of Actin Polymerization In The Development Of The Fetal Vertebrate Heart During S-Looping, Kevan Benn 2012 Union College - Schenectady, NY

The Role Of Actin Polymerization In The Development Of The Fetal Vertebrate Heart During S-Looping, Kevan Benn

Honors Theses

Research on fetal cardiac looping is an important because cardiac looping is the first organ to undergo asymmetrical organogenesis. As well, birth defects occur due to errors in the development process, of which congenital heart defects are very common. Most heart defects begin in the looping process that preludes the shape of a mature heart. Therefore, research into heart looping can give light to how these defects develop. The looping process, which occurs between 30 and 56 hours post incubation (stage 10-16 in development), is divided into two processes. The first process, C-looping, is the process where the heart tube ...


Does Initial Shunt Type For The Norwood Procedure Affect Echocardiographic Measures Of Cardiac Size And Function During Infancy?: The Single Vventricle Reconstruction Trial., Peter C. Frommelt, Lin T. Guey, L LuAnn Minich, Majeed Bhat, Tim J. Bradley, Steve D. Colan, Greg Ensing, Jessica Gorentz, Haleh Heydarian, J Blaine John, Wyman W. Lai, Jami C. Levine, William T. Mahle, Stephen G. Miller, Richard G. Ohye, Gail D. Pearson, Girish S. Shirali, Pierre C. Wong, Meryl S. Cohen, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators 2012 Children's Mercy Hospital

Does Initial Shunt Type For The Norwood Procedure Affect Echocardiographic Measures Of Cardiac Size And Function During Infancy?: The Single Vventricle Reconstruction Trial., Peter C. Frommelt, Lin T. Guey, L Luann Minich, Majeed Bhat, Tim J. Bradley, Steve D. Colan, Greg Ensing, Jessica Gorentz, Haleh Heydarian, J Blaine John, Wyman W. Lai, Jami C. Levine, William T. Mahle, Stephen G. Miller, Richard G. Ohye, Gail D. Pearson, Girish S. Shirali, Pierre C. Wong, Meryl S. Cohen, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Heart Network trial comparing outcomes in 549 infants with single right ventricle undergoing a Norwood procedure randomized to modified Blalock-Taussig shunt or right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunt (RVPAS) found better 1-year transplant-free survival in those who received RVPAS. We sought to compare the impact of shunt type on echocardiographic indices of cardiac size and function up to 14 months of age.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A core laboratory measured indices of cardiac size and function from protocol exams: early after Norwood procedure (age 22.5 ± 13.4 days), before stage II procedure (age 4.8 ± 1.8 months), and ...


Codon Optimization For Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Disease, Timothy Menz, Qiushi Tang, Lina Song, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Codon Optimization For Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Disease, Timothy Menz, Qiushi Tang, Lina Song, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte

Christian Mueller

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic disorder caused by defective production of alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT). Gene therapy approaches have been conducted in patients with AAT deficiency with successful AAT expression, but not to the therapeutic levels required to reduce the risk of emphysema. Codon optimization, a somewhat new and evolving technique, is used by many scientists to maximize protein expression in living organisms by altering translational and transcriptional efficiency as well as protein refolding. The purpose of this study was to develop single stranded and double stranded AAT gene constructs, test their protein expression in vitro, and compare with those ...


Building The Cell's Antenna: Protein Targeting To The Ciliary Membrane: A Dissertation, John A. Follit 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Building The Cell's Antenna: Protein Targeting To The Ciliary Membrane: A Dissertation, John A. Follit

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Protruding from the apical surface of nearly every cell in our body lies a specialized sensory organelle—the primary cilium. Eukaryotic cells use these ubiquitous structures to monitor the extracellular environment, defects in which result in an ever-growing list of human maladies termed ciliopathies including obesity, retinal degeneration and polycystic kidney disease. The sensory functions of primary cilia rely on the unique complement of receptors concentrated within the ciliary membrane. Vital to the proper functioning of the cilium is the cell's ability to target specific proteins to the ciliary membrane yet little is known how a cell achieves this ...


Codon Optimization For Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Disease, Timothy Menz, Qiushi Tang, Lina Song, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Codon Optimization For Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Disease, Timothy Menz, Qiushi Tang, Lina Song, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte

Senior Scholars Program

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic disorder caused by defective production of alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT). Gene therapy approaches have been conducted in patients with AAT deficiency with successful AAT expression, but not to the therapeutic levels required to reduce the risk of emphysema. Codon optimization, a somewhat new and evolving technique, is used by many scientists to maximize protein expression in living organisms by altering translational and transcriptional efficiency as well as protein refolding. The purpose of this study was to develop single stranded and double stranded AAT gene constructs, test their protein expression in vitro, and compare with those ...


Immediate Effects Of High Intensity Training In Children With Cerebral Palsy Gmfcs Levels I-Iii: A Pilot Study, Andrea Blahovec, Andrea Kuiken, Jillian Mears, Heather Riggins 2012 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Immediate Effects Of High Intensity Training In Children With Cerebral Palsy Gmfcs Levels I-Iii: A Pilot Study, Andrea Blahovec, Andrea Kuiken, Jillian Mears, Heather Riggins

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Background: Cerebral Palsy is one of the most common causes of motor disability in the U.S., but there is still a lack of consensus for best intervention strategies to improve function and gait efficiency.

Objective: Determine if ambulatory children with CP, exposed to a brief, high intensity training session, will: 1) experience changes in temporal-spatial gait characteristics 2) demonstrate increased gait speed and 3) demonstrate improved gait kinematics.

Design: Five participants walked at preferred and fast speeds over an instrumented walkway followed by a 15-minute intervention. After a short rest, post-intervention walking was completed.

Results: Ten dependent variables were ...


Early Developmental Outcome In Children With Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome And Related Anomalies: The Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial., Jane W. Newburger, Lynn A. Sleeper, David C. Bellinger, Caren S. Goldberg, Sarah Tabbutt, Minmin Lu, Kathleen A. Mussatto, Ismee A. Williams, Kathryn E. Gustafson, Seema Mital, Nancy Pike, Erica Sood, William T. Mahle, David S. Cooper, Carolyn Dunbar-Masterson, Catherine Dent Krawczeski, Alan Lewis, Shaji C. Menon, Victoria L. Pemberton, Chitra Ravishankar, Teresa W. Atz, Richard G. Ohye, J William Gaynor, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators, Girish S. Shirali 2012 Children's Mercy Hospital

Early Developmental Outcome In Children With Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome And Related Anomalies: The Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial., Jane W. Newburger, Lynn A. Sleeper, David C. Bellinger, Caren S. Goldberg, Sarah Tabbutt, Minmin Lu, Kathleen A. Mussatto, Ismee A. Williams, Kathryn E. Gustafson, Seema Mital, Nancy Pike, Erica Sood, William T. Mahle, David S. Cooper, Carolyn Dunbar-Masterson, Catherine Dent Krawczeski, Alan Lewis, Shaji C. Menon, Victoria L. Pemberton, Chitra Ravishankar, Teresa W. Atz, Richard G. Ohye, J William Gaynor, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators, Girish S. Shirali

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

BACKGROUND: Survivors of the Norwood procedure may experience neurodevelopmental impairment. Clinical trials to improve outcomes have focused primarily on methods of vital organ support during cardiopulmonary bypass.

METHODS AND RESULTS: In the Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial of the Norwood procedure with modified Blalock-Taussig shunt versus right-ventricle-to-pulmonary-artery shunt, 14-month neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed by use of the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. We used multivariable regression to identify risk factors for adverse outcome. Among 373 transplant-free survivors, 321 (86%) returned at age 14.3 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD) months. Mean ...


Phenotypic And Electrophysiologic Characterization Of A Mouse Model Of Fragile X Syndrome, Snigdha Roy 2012 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Phenotypic And Electrophysiologic Characterization Of A Mouse Model Of Fragile X Syndrome, Snigdha Roy

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. It is caused by a mutation in the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome. Many children with FXS exhibit autistic behaviors and deficits in motor coordination including speech articulation deficits. The development of the FMR1 knockout (Fmr1 KO) mouse, in which the Fmr1 gene is inactivated, has provided an animal model that can be used to investigate underlying neuro-physiological mechanisms associated with FXS as well as to evaluate potential therapeutic treatments. In this study, quantitative behavioral assays were used, such as long term ...


Lack Of Cftr In Cd3+ Lymphocytes Leads To Aberrant Cytokine Secretion And Hyper-Inflammatory Adaptive Immune Responses: A Master's Thesis, Christian Mueller 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Lack Of Cftr In Cd3+ Lymphocytes Leads To Aberrant Cytokine Secretion And Hyper-Inflammatory Adaptive Immune Responses: A Master's Thesis, Christian Mueller

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) remains the most common fatal monogenic disease in the US, affecting 1 in 3,300 live births. CF is the result of mutations in CFTR, a chloride channel and regulator of other ion channels. The mechanisms by which CFTR mutations cause chronic lung disease in CF are not fully defined, but may include the combined effects of altered ion and water transport across the airway epithelium and aberrant inflammatory and immune responses to pathogens within the airways. We have shown that Cftr-/- mice mount an exaggerated IgE response towards Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) when compared to Cftr ...


Analysis Of The Effects And Current Treatments Of Laminin Deficiency, Joshua Mark Reynolds 2012 Liberty University

Analysis Of The Effects And Current Treatments Of Laminin Deficiency, Joshua Mark Reynolds

Senior Honors Theses

Laminin (LM) is a network of proteins that functions as a connective framework of most cells in the body. It is composed of multiple different subunits and therefore has many different variations. It is a trimeric protein, meaning that it is composed primarily of ⍺, β, and γ chains. The differentiation of these subunits is what gives the different variants their functions. In addition, although LM is the primary molecule in scope, the network of other connective proteins involved in LM-associated diseases will also be covered in lesser detail because molecules like dystrophin, dystroglycan, collagen, and integrin are vital to the ...


A Social Controversy: Autism Spectrum Disorder's Correlation To The Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, Lindsay A. Frye 2012 Liberty University

A Social Controversy: Autism Spectrum Disorder's Correlation To The Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, Lindsay A. Frye

Senior Honors Theses

A 1998 research study lead by Dr. Andrew Wakefield linked the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination as a probable cause to autism spectrum disorder. This publication has started a significant debate among healthcare professionals and instigated an anti-vaccination movement within the general population. This vaccination controversy was started by parents who readily accepted Wakefield’s findings as truth and frequently would choose to withdrawal the administration of vaccinations from their children’s care plans. There has also been disapproval by healthcare professionals over Wakefield’s study since numerous research teams have been unable to replicate his findings. This disagreement surrounding the MMR ...


Overt Cleft Palate Phenotype And Tbx1 Genotype Correlations In Velo-Cardio-Facial/Digeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Patients, Sean Herman, Tingwei Guo, Donna M. McDonald McGinn, Anna Blonska, Alan L. Shanske, Anne S. Bassett, Eva Chow, Mark Bowser, Molly Sheridan, Frits Beemer, Koen Devriendt, Ann Swillen, Jeroen Breckpot, Maria Christina Digilio, Bruno Marino, Bruno Dallapiccola, Courtney Carpenter, Xin Zheng, Jacob Johnson, Jonathan Chung, Anne Marie Higgins, Nicole Philip, Tony J. Simon, Karlene Coleman, Damian Heine Suñer, Jordi Rosell, Wendy R. Kates, Marcella Devoto, Elaine Zackai, Tao Wang, Robert J. Shprintzen, Beverly Emanuel, Bernice Morrow, International Chromosome 22q11.2 Consortium 2012 SUNY Upstate Medical University

Overt Cleft Palate Phenotype And Tbx1 Genotype Correlations In Velo-Cardio-Facial/Digeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Patients, Sean Herman, Tingwei Guo, Donna M. Mcdonald Mcginn, Anna Blonska, Alan L. Shanske, Anne S. Bassett, Eva Chow, Mark Bowser, Molly Sheridan, Frits Beemer, Koen Devriendt, Ann Swillen, Jeroen Breckpot, Maria Christina Digilio, Bruno Marino, Bruno Dallapiccola, Courtney Carpenter, Xin Zheng, Jacob Johnson, Jonathan Chung, Anne Marie Higgins, Nicole Philip, Tony J. Simon, Karlene Coleman, Damian Heine Suñer, Jordi Rosell, Wendy R. Kates, Marcella Devoto, Elaine Zackai, Tao Wang, Robert J. Shprintzen, Beverly Emanuel, Bernice Morrow, International Chromosome 22q11.2 Consortium

Communication Disorders Faculty Publications

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome, with an estimated incidence of 1/2,000 – 1/4,000 live births. Approximately 9–11% of patients with this disorder have an overt cleft palate (CP), but the genetic factors responsible for CP in the 22q11DS subset are unknown. The TBX1 gene, a member of the T-box transcription factor gene family, lies within the 22q11.2 region that is hemizygous in patients with 22q11DS. Inactivation of one allele of Tbx1 in the mouse does not result in CP, but inactivation of ...


Sickle Cell Anemia, Derek Hayse 2012 Parkland College

Sickle Cell Anemia, Derek Hayse

A with Honors Projects

What Sickle Cell Anemia is, its symptoms, how it is acquired, how it can be prevented, and how to deal with having it.


Long-Term Systemic Myostatin Inhibition Via Liver-Targeted Gene Transfer In Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy, Lawrence T. Bish, Margaret M. Sleeper, Sean C. Forbes, Kevin J. Morine, Caryn A. Reynolds, Gretchen E. Singletary, Dennis Trafny, Jennifer Pham, Janet Bogan, Joe N. Kornegay, Krista Vandenborne, Glenn A. Walter, H. Lee Sweeney 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Long-Term Systemic Myostatin Inhibition Via Liver-Targeted Gene Transfer In Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy, Lawrence T. Bish, Margaret M. Sleeper, Sean C. Forbes, Kevin J. Morine, Caryn A. Reynolds, Gretchen E. Singletary, Dennis Trafny, Jennifer Pham, Janet Bogan, Joe N. Kornegay, Krista Vandenborne, Glenn A. Walter, H. Lee Sweeney

Departmental Papers (Vet)

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, X-linked recessive disease affecting 1 in 3,500 newborn boys for which there is no effective treatment or cure. One novel strategy that has therapeutic potential for DMD is inhibition of myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass that may also promote fibrosis. Therefore, our goal in this study was to evaluate systemic myostatin inhibition in the golden retriever model of DMD (GRMD). GRMD canines underwent liver-directed gene transfer of a self-complementary adeno-associated virus type 8 vector designed to express a secreted dominant-negative myostatin peptide (n =4) and were compared with age-matched ...


Factors Affecting Growth In Infants With Single Ventricle Physiology: A Report From The Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Trial., Richard V. Williams, Victor Zak, Chitra Ravishankar, Karen Altmann, Jeffrey Anderson, Andrew M. Atz, Carolyn Dunbar-Masterson, Nancy Ghanayem, Linda Lambert, Karen Lurito, Barbara Medoff-Cooper, Renee Margossian, Victoria L. Pemberton, Jennifer Russell, Mario Stylianou, Daphne Hsu, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators, Girish S. Shirali 2011 Children's Mercy Hospital

Factors Affecting Growth In Infants With Single Ventricle Physiology: A Report From The Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Trial., Richard V. Williams, Victor Zak, Chitra Ravishankar, Karen Altmann, Jeffrey Anderson, Andrew M. Atz, Carolyn Dunbar-Masterson, Nancy Ghanayem, Linda Lambert, Karen Lurito, Barbara Medoff-Cooper, Renee Margossian, Victoria L. Pemberton, Jennifer Russell, Mario Stylianou, Daphne Hsu, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators, Girish S. Shirali

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

OBJECTIVES: To describe growth patterns in infants with single ventricle physiology and determine factors influencing growth.

STUDY DESIGN: Data from 230 subjects enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Enalapril Trial were used to assess factors influencing change in weight-for-age z-score (z) from study enrollment (0.7 ± 0.4 months) to pre-superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC; 5.1 ± 1.8 months, period 1) and pre-SCPC to final study visit (14.1 ± 0.9 months, period 2). Predictor variables included patient characteristics, feeding regimen, clinical center, and medical factors during neonatal (period 1) and SCPC hospitalizations (period 2). Univariate regression ...


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