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Advances On The Development Of Novel Heterogeneous Catalysts For Transesterification Of Triglycerides In Biodiesel, João F. Gomes 2010 Instituto Superior Engenharia Lisboa

Advances On The Development Of Novel Heterogeneous Catalysts For Transesterification Of Triglycerides In Biodiesel, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

This paper describes experimental work done towards the search for more profitable and sustainable alternatives regarding biodiesel production, using heterogeneous catalysts instead of the conventional homogenous alkaline catalysts, such as NaOH, KOH or sodium methoxide, for the methanolysis reaction. This experimental work is a first stage on the development and optimization of new solid catalysts, able to produce biodiesel from vegetable oils. The heterogeneous catalytic process has many differences from the currently used in industry homogeneous process. The main advantage is that, it requires lower investment costs, since no need for separation steps of methanol/catalyst, biodiesel/catalyst and glycerine/catalyst. This work …


Study On The Activity Of New Amine Based Absorbents For Co2 Absorption From Flue Gases, João F. Gomes 2010 Instituto Superior Engenharia Lisboa

Study On The Activity Of New Amine Based Absorbents For Co2 Absorption From Flue Gases, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

The capture of CO2 from flue gases can be done by chemical absorption with aqueous amine solutions like MEA (monoethanolamine). Although this is a proven process, there are still operational problems to overcome [1], namely those resulting from solvent degradation, precipitation, corrosion and foaming. Also, the absorption capacity of the most current amines must be improved in order to obtain a more profitable operation. It has been shown previously that relationships exist between the amine structure and the activity/capacity for CO2 absorption. The introduction of amine substituents at the α-carbon creates a carbamate instability, which causes the hydrolysis to go …


A Simulation Study On The Abatement Of Co2 Emissions By De-Absorption, João F. Gomes 2010 Instituto Superior Engenharia Lisboa

A Simulation Study On The Abatement Of Co2 Emissions By De-Absorption, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

Due to the adverse effect of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion on the earth’s ecosystems, the most cost effective method for CO2 capture is an important area of research. The predominant process for CO2 capture currently employed by industry is chemical absorption in amine solutions. A dynamic model for the de-absorption process was developed with Monoethanolamine (MEA) solution. Henry’s law was used for modeling the vapour phase equilibrium of the CO2, and fugacity ratios calculated by the Peng Robinson equation of state (EOS) were used for H2O, MEA, N2 and O2. Chemical reactions between CO2 and MEA were included in …


Studies On The Development Of Novel Heterogeneous Catalysts For Transesterification Of Triglycerides In Biodiesel, João F. Gomes 2010 Instituto Superior Engenharia Lisboa

Studies On The Development Of Novel Heterogeneous Catalysts For Transesterification Of Triglycerides In Biodiesel, João F. Gomes

João F Gomes

No abstract provided.


Micro- To Macroscopic Observations Of Mnalpo-5 Nanocrystal Growth In Ionic-Liquid Media, Eng-Poh Ng Dr. 2010 Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang

Micro- To Macroscopic Observations Of Mnalpo-5 Nanocrystal Growth In Ionic-Liquid Media, Eng-Poh Ng Dr.

Eng-Poh Ng

Micro- and macroscopic studies of nucleation and growth processes of MnAlPO-5 nanosized crystals under ionothermal synthesis conditions are reported herein. The samples treated at 150 8C were extracted from the reaction mixture at various stages of crystallization, and characterized by XRD; SEM; thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); 31P and 27Al solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR, Raman, UV/Vis, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). The starting raw materials (alumina, manganese, and phosphorous) were dissolved completely in the ionic liquid and transformed into an amorphous solid after 5 h of ionothermal treatment. This amorphous solid then undergoes structural changes over the following 5–25 h, …


Optical Properties Of Photopolymer Layers Doped With Aluminophosphate Nanocrystals, Eng-Poh Ng Dr. 2010 Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang

Optical Properties Of Photopolymer Layers Doped With Aluminophosphate Nanocrystals, Eng-Poh Ng Dr.

Eng-Poh Ng

The optical properties of photopolymer layers consisting of an acrylamide-based matrix and microporous aluminophosphate nanocrystals of AEI type are investigated. The compatibility of the photopolymer doped with the nanoparticles is studied. The surface and volume properties of the layers with different levels of doping with microporous nanocrystals are characterized. The effective refractive indices and absorption coefficients of the doped photopolymer layers are determined and used to calculate the refractive index and porosity of pure AEI nanoparticles used as dopants. Volume transmission gratings were recorded in the doped photopolymer layers at different spatial frequencies. By spatial monitoring of the characteristic Raman …


Facile Preparation Of Quantum Cutting Gdf3 : Eu3+ Nanoparticles From Ionic Liquids, Chantal Lorbeer, Joanna Cybinska, Anja V. Mudring 2010 Iowa State University

Facile Preparation Of Quantum Cutting Gdf3 : Eu3+ Nanoparticles From Ionic Liquids, Chantal Lorbeer, Joanna Cybinska, Anja V. Mudring

Anja V. Mudring

Microwave reaction of Ln(OAc)3·xH2O, Ln = Gd, Eu; OAc = acetate) with and in the ionic liquid [C4mim][BF4] (C4mim = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) allows the fast and efficient synthesis of small, uniform, oxygen-free lanthanide nanofluorides with excellent photophysical behaviour. For GdF3 : Eu3+ nanoparticles a quantum efficiency of up to 145% was determined.


Size Effect Of Ruthenium Nanoparticles In Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation, Sang Hoon Joo, Jeong Y. Park, J. Russell Renzas, Derek R. Butcher, Wenyu Huang, Gabor A. Somorjai 2010 University of California - Berkeley

Size Effect Of Ruthenium Nanoparticles In Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation, Sang Hoon Joo, Jeong Y. Park, J. Russell Renzas, Derek R. Butcher, Wenyu Huang, Gabor A. Somorjai

Wenyu Huang

Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac)3 precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O2) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm …


Highly Active Heterogeneous Palladium Nanoparticle Catalysts For Homogeneous Electrophilic Reactions In Solution And The Utilization Of A Continuous Flow Reactor, Wenyu Huang, Jack Hung Chang Liu, Pinar Alayoglu, Yimin Li, Cole A. Whitman, Chia-Kuang Tsung, F. Dean Toste, Gabor A/ Somorjai 2010 University of California - Berkeley

Highly Active Heterogeneous Palladium Nanoparticle Catalysts For Homogeneous Electrophilic Reactions In Solution And The Utilization Of A Continuous Flow Reactor, Wenyu Huang, Jack Hung Chang Liu, Pinar Alayoglu, Yimin Li, Cole A. Whitman, Chia-Kuang Tsung, F. Dean Toste, Gabor A/ Somorjai

Wenyu Huang

highly active heterogeneous Pd-nanoparticle catalyst for the intramolecular addition of phenols to alkynes was developed and employed in a continuous flow reaction system. Running the reaction in flow mode revealed reaction kinetics, such as the activation energy and catalyst deactivation, and provides many potential practical advantages.


Seedless Polyol Synthesis And Co Oxidation Activity Of Monodisperse (111)- And (100)-Oriented Rhodium Nanocrystals In Sub-10 Nm Sizes, Yawen Zhang, Michael E. Grass, Wenyu Huang, Gabor A. Somoraji 2010 University of California - Berkeley

Seedless Polyol Synthesis And Co Oxidation Activity Of Monodisperse (111)- And (100)-Oriented Rhodium Nanocrystals In Sub-10 Nm Sizes, Yawen Zhang, Michael E. Grass, Wenyu Huang, Gabor A. Somoraji

Wenyu Huang

Monodisperse sub-10 nm (6.5 nm) sized Rh nanocrystals with (111) and (100) surface structures were synthesized by a seedless polyol reduction in ethylene glycol, with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as a capping ligand. When using [Rh(Ac)2]2 as the metal precursor, (111)-oriented Rh nanopolyhedra containing 76% (111)-twinned hexagons (in 2D projection) were obtained; whereas, when employing RhCl3 as the metal precursor in the presence of alkylammonium bromide, such as tetramethylammonium bromide and trimethyl(tetradecyl)ammonium bromide, (100)-oriented Rh nanocubes were obtained with 85% selectivity. The {100} faces of the Rh nanocrystals are stabilized by chemically adsorbed Br− ions from alkylammonium bromides, which led to (100)-oriented nanocubes. …


Furan Hydrogenation Over Pt(111) And Pt(100) Single-Crystal Surfaces And Pt Nanoparticles From 1 To 7 Nm: A Kinetic And Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study, Christopher J. Kliewer, Cesar Aliaga, Marco Bieri, Wenyu Huang, Chia-Kuang Tsung, Jennifer B. Wood, Kyriankos Komvopoulos, Gabor A. Somorjai 2010 University of California - Berkeley

Furan Hydrogenation Over Pt(111) And Pt(100) Single-Crystal Surfaces And Pt Nanoparticles From 1 To 7 Nm: A Kinetic And Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study, Christopher J. Kliewer, Cesar Aliaga, Marco Bieri, Wenyu Huang, Chia-Kuang Tsung, Jennifer B. Wood, Kyriankos Komvopoulos, Gabor A. Somorjai

Wenyu Huang

Sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy and kinetic measurements using gas chromatography have been used to systematically study the adsorption and hydrogenation of furan over Pt(111) and Pt(100) single-crystal surfaces and size-controlled 1.0-nm, 3.5-nm and 7.0-nm Pt nanoparticles at Torr pressures (10 Torr of furan, 100 Torr of H2) to form dihydrofuran, tetrahydrofuran, and the ring-cracking products butanol and propylene. As determined by SFG, the furan ring lies parallel to all Pt surfaces studied under hydrogenation conditions. Upright THF and the oxametallacycle intermediate are observed over the nanoparticle catalysts under reaction conditions. Butoxy increases in surface concentration over Pt(111) with …


Oscillatory And Monotonic Modes Of Long-Wave Marangoni Convection In A Thin Film, Sergey Shklyaev, Mikhail Khenner, Alexei Alabuzhev 2010 Western Kentucky University

Oscillatory And Monotonic Modes Of Long-Wave Marangoni Convection In A Thin Film, Sergey Shklyaev, Mikhail Khenner, Alexei Alabuzhev

Mikhail Khenner

We study long-wave Marangoni convection in a layer heated from below. Using the scaling k=OBi, where k is the wave number and Bi is the Biot number, we derive a set of amplitude equations. Analysis of this set shows presence of monotonic and oscillatory modes of instability. Oscillatory mode has not been previously found for such direction of heating. Studies of weakly nonlinear dynamics demonstrate that stable steady and oscillatory patterns can be found near the stability threshold.


Easy Access To Ultra Long-Time Stable, Luminescent Europium(Ii) Fluoride Nanoparticles In Ionic Liquids, Nina von Prondzinski, Joanna Cybinska, Anja V. Mudring 2010 Iowa State University

Easy Access To Ultra Long-Time Stable, Luminescent Europium(Ii) Fluoride Nanoparticles In Ionic Liquids, Nina Von Prondzinski, Joanna Cybinska, Anja V. Mudring

Anja V. Mudring

Physical vapour deposition into ionic liquids allows for the first time the synthesis of a reduced lanthanide halide on the nanoscale. The obtained EuF2 nanoparticles show a bright blue luminescence and form long-time stable-colloidal solutions in the ionic liquids.


Dynamics Of Individual Molecules Of Linear Polyethylene Liquids Under Shear: Atomistic Simulation And Comparison With A Free-Draining Bead-Rod Chain, David Keffer, J. M. Kim, B. J. Edwards, B. Khomami 2010 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Dynamics Of Individual Molecules Of Linear Polyethylene Liquids Under Shear: Atomistic Simulation And Comparison With A Free-Draining Bead-Rod Chain, David Keffer, J. M. Kim, B. J. Edwards, B. Khomami

David Keffer

Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations of a dense liquid composed of linear polyethylene chains were performed to investigate the chain dynamics under shear. Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations of a freely jointed chain with equivalent contour length were also performed in the case of a dilute solution. This allowed for a close comparison of the chain dynamics of similar molecules for two very different types of liquids. Both simulations exhibited a distribution of the end-to-end vector, |Rete|, with Gaussian behavior at low Weissenberg number (Wi). At high Wi, the NEMD distribution was bimodal, with two peaks …


Tungsten Oxide (Wo3) Thin Films For H2s Sensor Application In Energy Systems, Satya Kiran Gullapalli 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Tungsten Oxide (Wo3) Thin Films For H2s Sensor Application In Energy Systems, Satya Kiran Gullapalli

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The sulfur containing emissions in coal gasification systems to produce energy are devastating and hostile to the requirements of clean, environmental friendly, efficient, and economical energy. Therefore, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions in coal gasification plants must be monitored, controlled and effectively removed before the syngas is used for energy production. The present research focuses on the development and utilization of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films and nanostructures for H2S application in the coal gasification systems. As a part of that overall goal, the present work was performed with a specific objective of understanding the …


Three Dimensional Collagen Gels As A Cell Culture Matrix For The Study Of Live Cells By Raman Spectroscopy, Franck Bonnier, Aidan Meade, S. Merzha, Peter Knief, Kunal Bhattacharya, Fiona Lyng, Hugh Byrne 2010 Technological University Dublin

Three Dimensional Collagen Gels As A Cell Culture Matrix For The Study Of Live Cells By Raman Spectroscopy, Franck Bonnier, Aidan Meade, S. Merzha, Peter Knief, Kunal Bhattacharya, Fiona Lyng, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Three dimensional collagen gels are evaluated as matrices for the study of live cells by Raman spectroscopy. The study is conducted on a human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and a spontaneously immortalized human epithelial keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell line. It is demonstrated, using the Alamar Blue assay, that both cell models exhibit enhanced viability in collagen matrices compared to quartz substrates, commonly used for Raman spectroscopy. Using principal component analysis, it is shown that the Raman spectral analysis of cells in collagen matrices are minimally contaminated by substrate contributions and the cell to cell spectral variations are greatly reduced compared to those …


An Investigation Of The Rwpe Prostate Derived Family Of Cell Lines Using Ftir Spectroscopy, M. Baker, Colin Clarke, D. Demoulin, J. Nicolson, Fiona Lyng, Hugh Byrne, C. Hart, M. Brown, N. Clarke, P. Gardner 2010 University of Manchester

An Investigation Of The Rwpe Prostate Derived Family Of Cell Lines Using Ftir Spectroscopy, M. Baker, Colin Clarke, D. Demoulin, J. Nicolson, Fiona Lyng, Hugh Byrne, C. Hart, M. Brown, N. Clarke, P. Gardner

Articles

Interest in developing robust, quicker and easier diagnostic tests for cancer has lead to an increased use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to meet that need. In this study we present the use of different experimental modes of infrared spectroscopy to investigate the RWPE human prostate epithelial cell line family which are derived from the same source but differ in their mode of transformation and their mode of invasive phenotype. Importantly, analysis of the infrared spectra obtained using different experimental modes of infrared spectroscopy produce similar results. The RWPE family of cell lines can be separated into groups based …


A Comparative Study Of The Interaction Of Different Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons On Different Types Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Sourabhi Debnath, Qiaohun Cheng, Theresa Hedderman, Hugh Byrne 2010 Technological University Dublin

A Comparative Study Of The Interaction Of Different Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons On Different Types Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Sourabhi Debnath, Qiaohun Cheng, Theresa Hedderman, Hugh Byrne

Articles

A comparative study of the solubilising effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) produced by high pressure decomposition of carbon monoxide (HiPco) and the arc discharge (AD) method has been carried out with the aid of fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. For this study, polyphenyl and polyacene PAHs of different lengths are used. From the study it has been found that the binding energy of PAHs with AD SWCNTs is the same as that with HiPco SWCNTs. Shorter PAHs molecules better solubilise SWCNTs and in general smaller diameter SWCNTs. Thus, given their smaller diameter profile, significantly …


Ultrasound-Assisted Swnts Dispersion: Effects Of Sonication Parameters And Solvent Properties, Qiaohuan Cheng, Sourabhi Debnath, Elizabeth Gregan, Hugh Byrne 2010 Technological University Dublin

Ultrasound-Assisted Swnts Dispersion: Effects Of Sonication Parameters And Solvent Properties, Qiaohuan Cheng, Sourabhi Debnath, Elizabeth Gregan, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Ultrasonication is widely used for preparing Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWNT) dispersions in different solvent media and it has been shown to play a critical role in dispersing and debundling SWNTs. The strong shear force that can exfoliate the SWNT bundles during sonication comes from cavitation, which entails a process of bubble formation, growth, and collapse. The efficiency of the cavitation process is closely correlated to many solvent parameters, including vapor pressure, viscosity, and surface tension, as well as the sonication frequency, intensity, and time. In this study, SWNTs were dispersed in a range of organic solvents assisted by tip sonication. …


Resonant Mie Scattering (Rmies) Correction Of Infrared Spectra From Highly Scattering Biological Samples Analyst, Paul Bassan, Achim Kohler, Harald Martens, Joe Lee, Hugh Byrne, Paul Dumas, Ehsan Gazi, Michael Brown, Noel Clarke, Peter Gardner 2010 University of Manchester

Resonant Mie Scattering (Rmies) Correction Of Infrared Spectra From Highly Scattering Biological Samples Analyst, Paul Bassan, Achim Kohler, Harald Martens, Joe Lee, Hugh Byrne, Paul Dumas, Ehsan Gazi, Michael Brown, Noel Clarke, Peter Gardner

Articles

Infrared spectra of single biological cells often exhibit the “dispersion artefact” observed as a sharp decrease in intensity on the high wavenumber side of absorption bands, in particular the Amide I band at ~1655 cm-1, causing a downward shift of the true peak position. The presence of this effect makes any biochemical interpretation of the spectra unreliable. Recent theory has shed light on the origins of the ‘dispersion artefact’ which has been attributed to resonant Mie scattering (RMieS). In this paper a preliminary algorithm for correcting RMieS is presented and evaluated using simulated data. Results show that the ‘dispersion artefact’ …


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