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Topologically Optimized Electrodes For Electroosmotic Actuation, Jianwen Sun, Jianyu Zhang, Ce Guan, Teng Zhou, Shizhi Qian, Yongbo Deng 2023 Old Dominion University

Topologically Optimized Electrodes For Electroosmotic Actuation, Jianwen Sun, Jianyu Zhang, Ce Guan, Teng Zhou, Shizhi Qian, Yongbo Deng

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Electroosmosis is one of the most used actuation mechanisms for the microfluidics in the current active lab-on-chip devices. It is generated on the induced charged microchannel walls in contact with an electrolyte solution. Electrode distribution plays the key role on providing the external electric field for electroosmosis, and determines the performance of electroosmotic microfluidics. Therefore, this paper proposes a topology optimization approach for the electrodes of electroosmotic microfluidics, where the electrode layout on the microchannel wall can be determined to achieve designer desired microfluidic performance. This topology optimization is carried out by implementing the interpolation of electric insulation and electric …


Surface Temperature Measurement Fidelity In High Enthalpy Plasma Test Facilities, Owen Plante 2023 University of Vermont

Surface Temperature Measurement Fidelity In High Enthalpy Plasma Test Facilities, Owen Plante

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

The classification and study of thermal protection systems (TPS) relies heavily on the accurate measurement of surface temperature. The best way to measure surface temperature in ground test facilities is through optical pyrometery due to the non intrusive nature of this method. Optical pyrometric devices use the emission of a greybody curve to calculate temperatures. These devices are left susceptible to parasitic radiation coming from the plasma generated in ground test facilities. The parasitic radiation comes from the emission lines of the test plasma in the investigation region of the devices. The parasitic radiation from the plasma and short comings …


Application Of Multi-Scale Computational Techniques To Complex Materials Systems, Mujan N. Seif 2023 University of Kentucky

Application Of Multi-Scale Computational Techniques To Complex Materials Systems, Mujan N. Seif

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

The applications of computational materials science are ever-increasing, connecting fields far beyond traditional subfields in materials science. This dissertation demonstrates the broad scope of multi-scale computational techniques by investigating multiple unrelated complex material systems, namely scandate thermionic cathodes and the metallic foam component of micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shielding. Sc-containing "scandate" cathodes have been widely reported to exhibit superior properties compared to previous thermionic cathodes; however, knowledge of their precise operating mechanism remains elusive. Here, quantum mechanical calculations were utilized to map the phase space of stable, highly-faceted and chemically-complex W nanoparticles, accounting for both finite temperature and chemical …


Evaluating System Usability, Workload Suitability, And User Experience Of Game-Based Virtual Reality In Spaceflight Education And Training, Lana Laskey, Joseph Keebler 2022 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Evaluating System Usability, Workload Suitability, And User Experience Of Game-Based Virtual Reality In Spaceflight Education And Training, Lana Laskey, Joseph Keebler

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Game-based instruction and immersive virtual reality are enhanced pedagogical methods beneficial in training environments involving complex disciplines, ranging from medical applications to construction engineering technology. This study investigated the use of game-based virtual reality (GBVR) when applied to the complex discipline of spaceflight education and training. As modern society places increasing demand on space-based amenities, the need for proficient satellite operators will also increase, requiring more accessible and more advanced training options. Spaceflight training scenarios, immersed in the GBVR environment, were developed and deployed to university student participants. Multiple validated scales were used to measure the GBVR system regarding three …


Creating The Next Generation Of Aviation Professionals: Creating Diversity In The Next Generation, Jason T. Lorenzon 2022 Kent State University

Creating The Next Generation Of Aviation Professionals: Creating Diversity In The Next Generation, Jason T. Lorenzon

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

Covid-19, mandatory retirement age, the 1500 Hour ATP rule and lack of future aviation professionals has lead to a global industry crisis. With the boom of the 1990’s, 9/11, the Great Recession, Covid-19, the lack of younger individuals dedicating themselves to the study of aviation has led to a current crisis of a lack of aviation professionals ready to serve the industry currently and in the future. Lorenzon will trace how the work force shortage started well over twenty years ago. Boeing and Airbus both predict that over 2.2 million new workers including over 600000 pilots will be needed. Yet …


Certification Basis For A Fully Autonomous Uncrewed Passenger Carrying Urban Air Mobility Aircraft, Steve Price 2022 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Certification Basis For A Fully Autonomous Uncrewed Passenger Carrying Urban Air Mobility Aircraft, Steve Price

Student Works

The Urban Air Mobility campaign has set a goal to efficiently transport passengers and cargo in urban areas of operation with autonomous aircraft. This concept of operations will require aircraft to utilize technology that currently does not have clear regulatory requirements. This report contains a comprehensive analysis and creation of a certification basis for a fully autonomous uncrewed passenger carrying rotorcraft for use in Urban Air Mobility certified under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 27. Part 27 was first analyzed to determine the applicability of current regulations. The fully electric propulsion system and fully autonomous flight control system …


Quasi 1d Modelling Of A Scramjet Engine Cycle Using Heiser-Pratt Approach, Asmaa Chakir 2022 Mississippi State University

Quasi 1d Modelling Of A Scramjet Engine Cycle Using Heiser-Pratt Approach, Asmaa Chakir

Theses and Dissertations

Scramjet engines are key for sustained hypersonic flights. Analytic models play a critical role in the preliminary design of a scramjet engine configuration. The objective of this research is to develop and validate a quasi-1D model for the scramjet engine encompassing inlet, isolator and combustor, to evaluate the impact of flight conditions and design parameters on the engine functionality. The model is developed assuming isentropic flow in the inlet with a single turn; modified Fanno-flow equations in the isolator that account for the area change of the core flow; and the combustor is modeled using Heiser-Pratt equations accounting for the …


Development And Deployment Of A Dynamic Soaring Capable Uav Using Reinforcement Learning, Jacob Adamski 2022 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Development And Deployment Of A Dynamic Soaring Capable Uav Using Reinforcement Learning, Jacob Adamski

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

Dynamic soaring (DS) is a bio-inspired flight maneuver in which energy can be gained by flying through regions of vertical wind gradient such as the wind shear layer. With reinforcement learning (RL), a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be trained to perform DS maneuvers optimally for a variety of wind shear conditions. To accomplish this task, a 6-degreesof- freedom (6DoF) flight simulation environment in MATLAB and Simulink has been developed which is based upon an off-the-shelf unmanned aerobatic glider. A combination of high-fidelity Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in ANSYS Fluent and low-fidelity vortex lattice (VLM) …


Commercial Airliner Winglet Design Optimization – A Case Study, Anthony Gutierrez 2022 Kennesaw State University

Commercial Airliner Winglet Design Optimization – A Case Study, Anthony Gutierrez

Symposium of Student Scholars

The objective of this research is to determine the effect on aerodynamic performance due to changes of winglets design variables found of the Boeing 737-700 aircraft. The various winglet types studied in this research include the blended, canted, wingtip fence and split scimitar. The variables include height, sweep angle, taper ratio, and the inclination angle. These variables are altered in 5% increments from -15% to +15% of their original baseline values. Each altered winglet design only changes one variable at a time while keeping all other variables constant. The altered models are compared to the original by finding the aerodynamic …


Actively Guided Cansats For Assisting Localization And Mapping In Unstructured And Unknown Environments, Cary Chun, M. Hassan Tanveer 2022 Kennesaw State University

Actively Guided Cansats For Assisting Localization And Mapping In Unstructured And Unknown Environments, Cary Chun, M. Hassan Tanveer

Symposium of Student Scholars

When navigating in unknown and unstructured environments, Unmanned Arial Vehicles (UAVs) can struggle when attempting to preform Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) operations. Particularly challenging circumstance arise when an UAV may need to land or otherwise navigate through treacherous environments. As the primary UAV may be too large and unwieldly to safely investigate in these types of situations, this research effort proposes the use of actively guided CanSats for assisting in localization and mapping of unstructured environments. A complex UAV could carry multiple of these SLAM capable CanSats, and when additional mapping and localization capabilities where required, the CanSat would …


Unmanned Aerial System Design For Civil Engineering Operations – A Vip Study, Ezra Robles, Harrison Vicknair, Derek Price, Logan Westra, George Pitcock, Joshua Diamond, Bhuvan Saraswat, Jeremiah Prayor, Fon Saliki 2022 Kennesaw State University

Unmanned Aerial System Design For Civil Engineering Operations – A Vip Study, Ezra Robles, Harrison Vicknair, Derek Price, Logan Westra, George Pitcock, Joshua Diamond, Bhuvan Saraswat, Jeremiah Prayor, Fon Saliki

Symposium of Student Scholars

Unmanned Aerial System Design for Civil Engineering Operations – A Case Study

The objective of the project is to design and build a modular Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) that meets the specifications set forth by United Consulting – a local civil engineering company. These specifications are achieved through three unique missions. In each mission, data is collected using different methods. These missions include land surveying, bridge structure inspection and manhole probing. The key requirements of the drone are to maintain a minimum flight time of 30 minutes and the ability to receive and transmit telemetry, photographic and video data from …


Natural 2d Layered Mineral Cannizzarite With Anisotropic Optical Responses, Arindam Dasgupta, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao 2022 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Natural 2d Layered Mineral Cannizzarite With Anisotropic Optical Responses, Arindam Dasgupta, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Cannizzarite is a naturally occurring mineral formed by van der Waals (vdW) stacking of alternating layers of PbS-like and Bi2S3-like two-dimensional (2D) materials. Although the PbS-type and Bi2S3-type 2D material layers are structurally isotropic individually, the forced commensuration between these two types of layers while forming the heterostructure of cannizzarite induces strong structural anisotropy. Here we demonstrate the mechanical exfoliation of natural cannizzarite mineral to obtain thin vdW heterostructures of PbS-type and Bi2S3-type atomic layers. The structural anisotropy induced anisotropic optical properties of thin cannizzarite flakes are explored through angle-resolved polarized Raman scattering, linear dichroism, and polarization-dependent anisotropic third-harmonic generation. …


Stress-Based Topology Optimization Of Pi Preform-Bonded Composite Laminate Structure, Iwan Broodryk 2022 Florida Institute of Technology

Stress-Based Topology Optimization Of Pi Preform-Bonded Composite Laminate Structure, Iwan Broodryk

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this work is to explore the stress-based topology optimization of structure that utilizes laminated composites and 3D woven Pi preform joints. Simple geometry, loading, and boundary conditions are considered. At a finite element level, an aggregate stress ratio is developed for Pi joint and acreage laminate elements. A basic descent method of moving asymptotes (BDMMA) algorithm is created to solve all optimization problems. Topology results for two different stress-based formulations and a compliance minimization problem are compared, followed by an in-depth analysis at a Pi joint and laminate level.


Waypoint Control For A Wingtip Connected Meta Aircraft, Maxwell J. Cobar 2022 University of South Alabama

Waypoint Control For A Wingtip Connected Meta Aircraft, Maxwell J. Cobar

Theses and Dissertations

A meta aircraft is multiple aircraft connected together to form a composite aircraft. There are three configurations for a meta aircraft which are wingtip to wingtip, nose to tail, and lattice formation. In this thesis, a waypoint control law to be used on a meta aircraft is discussed. The control law controls the roll and pitch stability, velocity, altitude, and heading to move the aircraft to a desired location. The control law was tested in both simulation and in the field. To test the waypoint control law, the design and testing of a configurable autopilot and simulation software were also …


Lifting-Line Predictions For Life And Twist Distributions To Minimize Induced Drag In Ground Effect, Kyler Church 2022 Utah State University

Lifting-Line Predictions For Life And Twist Distributions To Minimize Induced Drag In Ground Effect, Kyler Church

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The elliptic lift distribution produces the minimum induced drag for a given wingspan and desired lift outside of ground effect. This distribution can be generated on any wing by using geometric and/or aerodynamic twist. However, in ground effect, the elliptic lift distribution is not necessarily that which minimizes induced drag. The present work uses a modern numerical lifting-line algorithm to evaluate how the optimum lift distribution varies as a function of height above ground. The algorithm is also used to obtain the twist distributions that should be applied to wings of varying aspect ratios and taper ratios to produce the …


A Theoretical Trade-Off Between Wave Drag And Sonic Boom Loudness Due To Equivalent Area Changes On A Supersonic Body, Nolan L. Dixon 2022 Utah State University

A Theoretical Trade-Off Between Wave Drag And Sonic Boom Loudness Due To Equivalent Area Changes On A Supersonic Body, Nolan L. Dixon

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The NASA University Leadership Initiative (ULI) titled ”Adaptive Aerostructures for Revolutionary Civil Supersonic Transportation” consists of a team of university and industry partners studying the feasibility of reducing the perceived loudness of the sonic boom by introducing an adaptive geometry at localized regions of an aircraft’s outer-mold line. The Utah State University AeroLab is a member of this ULI team and has produced low-fidelity tools to predict the aerodynamic and boom loudness effects from localized changes to the geometry.

Such changes to the geometry affect both the sonic boom loudness and wave drag; however, the precise relationship between boom loudness …


Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling Of Hemodialysis In Patients With An Arteriovenous Fistula, Maximilian Roth 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling Of Hemodialysis In Patients With An Arteriovenous Fistula, Maximilian Roth

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

With the advent of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for use in hemodialysis, the anastomosis built for such use has become a central point of the study to understand the flow and wall shear stresses in such a system since very large wall shear stresses can lead to arterial/vein rupture. Considering the commonly used creation site of an anastomosis as connecting the radial artery to the cephalic vein, a model is created to calculate the wall shear stresses across various components of the system. The model depicts a connection of the specified vein and artery bridged together allowing the increase in blood …


Feasibility Study Of Slotted, Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoils For High-Lift Applications, Hector David Ortiz Melendez 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Feasibility Study Of Slotted, Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoils For High-Lift Applications, Hector David Ortiz Melendez

Doctoral Dissertations

A computational fluid dynamics approach to evaluate the feasibility of a slotted, natural-laminar-flow airfoil designed for transonic applications, to perform as a high-lift system was developed. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a laminar-turbulent transition model for subsonic flow at representative flight conditions were used for this analysis. Baseline high-lift simulations were performed to understand the stall characteristics of the slotted, natural-laminar-flow airfoil. Maximum aerodynamic efficiency was observed with a constant slot-width. In addition, the effectiveness of the aft-element as a high-lift device was explored. Results indicate that a micro-flap is a viable option as a lift effector. These are most effective …


Towards Reduced-Order Model Accelerated Optimization For Aerodynamic Design, Andrew L. Kaminsky 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Towards Reduced-Order Model Accelerated Optimization For Aerodynamic Design, Andrew L. Kaminsky

Doctoral Dissertations

The adoption of mathematically formal simulation-based optimization approaches within aerodynamic design depends upon a delicate balance of affordability and accessibility. Techniques are needed to accelerate the simulation-based optimization process, but they must remain approachable enough for the implementation time to not eliminate the cost savings or act as a barrier to adoption.

This dissertation introduces a reduced-order model technique for accelerating fixed-point iterative solvers (e.g. such as those employed to solve primal equations, sensitivity equations, design equations, and their combination). The reduced-order model-based acceleration technique collects snapshots of early iteration (pre-convergent) solutions and residuals and then uses them to project …


Development And Implementation Of A Novel Resonantly Ionized Photoemission Thermometry Technique For One-Dimensional Measurements, Walker B. McCord 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Development And Implementation Of A Novel Resonantly Ionized Photoemission Thermometry Technique For One-Dimensional Measurements, Walker B. Mccord

Doctoral Dissertations

In this work, Resonantly Ionized Photoemission Thermometry (RIPT) is established and validated as a novel, non-intrusive, non-seeded, One-Dimensional (1D) line thermometry technique. The RIPT technique resonantly ionizes a target molecule via REMPI (Resonant Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization) of selectively chosen rotational peaks within a resonant absorption band. Thus, efficiently ionizing and subsequently exciting local nitrogen molecules either by direct or indirect schemes. The excited nitrogen deexcites through photoemissions of the first negative band of N2+[molecular nitrogen], specifically near 390, 425, and 430nm [nanometers], that is then acquired as a 1D line signal. The signal strength at all transitions …


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