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Waste To Phosphorus: A Transdisciplinary Solution To P Recovery From Wastewater Based On The Triz Approach, Anna Jama-Rodzeńska, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Józef Sowiński 2021 Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Waste To Phosphorus: A Transdisciplinary Solution To P Recovery From Wastewater Based On The Triz Approach, Anna Jama-Rodzeńska, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Józef Sowiński

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Phosphorus (P) is a limited yet essential resource. P cannot be replaced, but it can be recovered from waste. We proposed the TRIZ approach (Teoria reszenija izobretatielskich zadacz - Rus., Theory of Inventive Problem Solving - Eng.) to identify a feasible solution. We aimed at minimizing the environmental impact and, by eliminating contradictions, proposed viable technical solutions. P recovery can be more sustainable based on circular economy and 4Rs (reduction, recovery, reuse, and recycling). The TRIZ approach identified sewage sludge (SS) as waste with a large potential for P recovery (up to 90%). Successful selection and application of SS management and P ...


Designing And Testing Of A System For Aerosolization And Recovery Of Viable Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv): Theoretical And Engineering Considerations, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Steven J. Hoff, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, William S. Jenks 2021 Iowa State University

Designing And Testing Of A System For Aerosolization And Recovery Of Viable Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv): Theoretical And Engineering Considerations, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Steven J. Hoff, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, William S. Jenks

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infections cause significant economic losses to swine producers every year. Aerosols containing infectious PRRSV are an important route of transmission, and proper treatment of air could mitigate the airborne spread of the virus within and between barns. Previous bioaerosol studies focused on the microbiology of PRRSV aerosols; thus, the current study addressed the engineering aspects of virus aerosolization and collection. Specific objectives were to (1) build and test a virus aerosolization system, (2) achieve a uniform and repeatable aerosol generation and collection throughout all replicates, (3) identify and minimize sources of variation, and ...


Exploration Of The Sludge Biodiesel Pathway, Zachary Christman 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Exploration Of The Sludge Biodiesel Pathway, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Wastewater sludge is an overlooked source of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) that could be converted into biodiesel. The United States produces about 8 million tons of sludge per year. The disposal cost for this amount of sludge is about 2 billion dollars. The widespread availability and low cost of sludge compared to other biodiesel raw materials make it an economical choice for a renewable fuel. Using sludge as a raw material can produce 25 to 30 mg per gram of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME); the main component of biodiesel. Sludge biodiesel has the potential of transforming a portion ...


Estimating Irrigation In Rice Fields With A Water Balance Approach, Kristen Trinh 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Estimating Irrigation In Rice Fields With A Water Balance Approach, Kristen Trinh

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Global food production must increase to meet the demand associated with increased population growth, so irrigation water use will continue to rise. Therefore, it is important to monitor water usage particularly when an irrigation flowmeter is unavailable. A field water balance was created for a selection of rice fields in East-central Arkansas under observation in 2018 and 2019. From those, irrigation inputs are deduced from the water balance alone. First, each field had sensors that collected water table level (WTL) data. Next, other water inputs and outputs such as precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) were collected from two modeled sources. The ...


Light Intensity Control For Plc-Based Hydroponic Demonstration System, Christian Hitt 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Light Intensity Control For Plc-Based Hydroponic Demonstration System, Christian Hitt

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In order to demonstrate a skill set obtained through the University of Arkansas Biological Engineering, a group of students and I developed a hydroponic system where plants could be grown in a chamber. System parameters such as air quality, irrigation, and lighting were controlled by a Programmable Logic Computer (PLC) and an array of sensors and actuators. Each student focused on a certain aspect of this system, mine being the lighting. Developing this system involved researching the relationship between light intensity and plant growth, designing a system to suspend the lights above the growth chamber, and develop a system to ...


Design Of Control Logic And The Human-Machine Interface For A Demonstration Plant Growth Chamber Implemented On A Programmable Logic Controller, Rachael Koehler 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Design Of Control Logic And The Human-Machine Interface For A Demonstration Plant Growth Chamber Implemented On A Programmable Logic Controller, Rachael Koehler

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This honors thesis covers the planning, development, and implementation of system controls and human-machine interface (HMI) for a demonstration plant growth chamber. The work is a continuation of an ongoing project to be used as an educational and recruiting tool manifesting the skills acquired from the Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Arkansas’ College of Engineering. This work includes emergency controls, overall design interface, and controls for both the aeration and lighting subsystems of the growth chamber. Overall design interface controls established included development of two user modes, Administrator and Visitor. The Administrator user will have full ...


Mitigation Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Barn With Uv-A And Uv-C Photocatalysis, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik 2021 Iowa State University

Mitigation Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Barn With Uv-A And Uv-C Photocatalysis, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

UV-A (ca. 365 nm wavelength, a.k.a. ‘black light’) photocatalysis has been investigated to comprehensively mitigate odor and selected air pollutants in the livestock environment. This study was conducted to confirm the performance of UV-A photocatalysis on the swine farm. The objectives of this research were to (1) scale-up of the UV-A photocatalysis treatment, (2) evaluate the mitigation of odorous gases from swine slurry pit, (3) test different UV sources, (4) evaluate the effect of particulate matter (PM) and (5) conduct preliminary economic analyses. We tested UV-A photocatalysis at a mobile laboratory-scale capable of treating ~0.2–0.8 ...


Evaluation Of Tio2 Based Photocatalytic Treatment Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Manure With Uv-A And Uv-C, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik 2021 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Tio2 Based Photocatalytic Treatment Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Manure With Uv-A And Uv-C, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

It is essential to mitigate gaseous emissions that result from poultry and livestock production to increase industry sustainability. Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gases (GHGs) have detrimental effects on the quality of life in rural communities, the environment, and climate. This study’s objective was to evaluate the photocatalytic UV treatment of gaseous emissions of odor, odorous VOCs, NH3, and other gases (GHGs, O3—sometimes considered as by-products of UV treatment) from stored swine manure on a pilot-scale. The manure emissions were treated in fast-moving air using a ...


Preclinical Development Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Optical Biosensors, Eric M. Hofferber 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Preclinical Development Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Optical Biosensors, Eric M. Hofferber

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

High resolution, long-term monitoring of key biological analytes would improve patient outcomes by providing earlier detection of disease states and improved efficacy of treatment. One class of biosensors that have gained much attention in recent years are optical biosensors. Optical probes are attractive biosensors due to their noninvasive nature of detection, as certain light can pass through tissue, water, and blood. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are a specific type of optical biosensor that fluoresce in the near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum and offer unparalleled spatial and temporal resolution. SWNT have been applied as biosensors in vitro, ex ...


Detecting Recent Crop Phenology Dynamics In Corn And Soybean Cropping Systems Of Kentucky, Yanjun Yang, Bo Tao, Liang Liang, Yawen Huang, Christopher J. Matocha, Chad D. Lee, Michael Sama, Bassil El Masri, Wei Ren 2021 University of Kentucky

Detecting Recent Crop Phenology Dynamics In Corn And Soybean Cropping Systems Of Kentucky, Yanjun Yang, Bo Tao, Liang Liang, Yawen Huang, Christopher J. Matocha, Chad D. Lee, Michael Sama, Bassil El Masri, Wei Ren

Geography Faculty Publications

Accurate phenological information is essential for monitoring crop development, predicting crop yield, and enhancing resilience to cope with climate change. This study employed a curve-change-based dynamic threshold approach on NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index) time series to detect the planting and harvesting dates for corn and soybean in Kentucky, a typical climatic transition zone, from 2000 to 2018. We compared satellite-based estimates with ground observations and performed trend analyses of crop phenological stages over the study period to analyze their relationships with climate change and crop yields. Our results showed that corn and soybean planting dates were delayed by 0 ...


Evaluating Evapotranspiration Values In Rwanda Using The Fao-56 Pm, Turc, And Hargreaves-Samani Equations, Elizabeth Uwase 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluating Evapotranspiration Values In Rwanda Using The Fao-56 Pm, Turc, And Hargreaves-Samani Equations, Elizabeth Uwase

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the hydrologic cycle and involves exchange of water between the surrounding water bodies, soil, crop surfaces, and the atmosphere. Therefore, this research was aimed at determining ET and its trend across Rwanda using climatic data measured at five sites. Equations were used to calculate ET using extra-terrestrial radiations, solar radiations, evapotranspiration using the FAO-56 guidelines - Turc method (1961) and Hargreaves-Samani (HS) method (1983). The obtained data from the weather stations were analyzed using the two methods and graphs were plotted for visualization. The average monthly reference evapotranspiration for both equations ranges from 3 ...


Mitigation Of Acute Ammonia Emissions With Biochar During Swine Manure Agitation Before Pump-Out: Proof-Of-The-Concept, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Myeongseong Lee, Hantian Ma, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Robert C. Brown 2021 Iowa State University

Mitigation Of Acute Ammonia Emissions With Biochar During Swine Manure Agitation Before Pump-Out: Proof-Of-The-Concept, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Myeongseong Lee, Hantian Ma, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Robert C. Brown

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal agriculture can cause eutrophication of water ecosystems and are precursors to secondary particulate matter (PM2.5). NH3 emissions from stored swine manure represent nutrient loss affecting the fertilizing value of manure. The short-term emission bursts occur when farmers agitate manure before emptying storage and fertilizing fields. There is no proven technology to mitigate gaseous emissions during agitation, while the hazards of acute releases (e.g., H2S) are well-known. Biochar mitigates NH3 emissions from manure over the long-term. The objective of this research was to evaluate the mitigation of acute NH3 emissions during/after agitation. Two ...


Comparing Biochar-Swine Manure Mixture To Conventional Manure Impact On Soil Nutrient Availability And Plant Uptake—A Greenhouse Study, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Darcy Bonds, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht 2021 Iowa State University

Comparing Biochar-Swine Manure Mixture To Conventional Manure Impact On Soil Nutrient Availability And Plant Uptake—A Greenhouse Study, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Darcy Bonds, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The use of swine manure as a source of plant nutrients is one alternative to synthetic fertilizers. However, conventional manure application with >90% water and a low C:N ratio results in soil C loss to the atmosphere. Our hypothesis was to use biochar as a manure nutrient stabilizer that would slowly release nutrients to plants upon biochar-swine manure mixture application to soil. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of biochar-treated swine manure on soil total C, N, and plant-available macro- and micronutrients in greenhouse-cultivated corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Neutral pH red oak ...


Water News, Spring 2021, Department of Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering 2021 South Dakota State University

Water News, Spring 2021, Department Of Agriculture And Biosystems Engineering

SDWRI Water News

Contents:
North Central Region tackle harmful algal blooms
Algae pull nutrients from swine facility manure, air
Study examines woodchip quality in bioreactors
Nonprofit joins battle to mitigate Lake Mitchell algal blooms


Comparison Of Three Commercial Automatic Boom Height Systems For Agricultural Sprayers, Travis A. Burgers, John D. Gaard, Brian J. Hyronimus 2021 South Dakota State University

Comparison Of Three Commercial Automatic Boom Height Systems For Agricultural Sprayers, Travis A. Burgers, John D. Gaard, Brian J. Hyronimus

Mechanical Engineering Engineering Faculty Publications

Automatic boom height systems reduce the variability of agricultural sprayer boom height. Consistent boom height is important for three key reasons: to reduce uneven spray dispersion if the boom is too low, to reduce spray droplet drift if the boom is too high, and to reduce damage to the boom or crop if the boom is too low. No data is available comparing commercial boom height systems. Three leading North American automatic boom height systems were compared: John Deere BoomTrac Pro (System A), Raven AutoBoom® XRT (System B), and Norac UC5TM Passive Roll (System C) on a John Deere R4045 ...


Niche Differentiation Of Bacteria And Fungi In Carbon And Nitrogen Cycling Of Different Habitats In A Temperate Coniferous Forest: A Metaproteomic Approach, Robert Starke, Rubén López Mondéjar, Zander Rainer Human, Diana Navrátilová, Martina Štursová, Tomáš Větrovský, Heather M. Olson, Daniel J. Orton, Stephen J. Callister, Mary S. Lipton, Adina Howe, Lee Ann McCue, Christa Pennacchio, Igor Grigoriev, Petr Baldrian 2021 Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences

Niche Differentiation Of Bacteria And Fungi In Carbon And Nitrogen Cycling Of Different Habitats In A Temperate Coniferous Forest: A Metaproteomic Approach, Robert Starke, Rubén López Mondéjar, Zander Rainer Human, Diana Navrátilová, Martina Štursová, Tomáš Větrovský, Heather M. Olson, Daniel J. Orton, Stephen J. Callister, Mary S. Lipton, Adina Howe, Lee Ann Mccue, Christa Pennacchio, Igor Grigoriev, Petr Baldrian

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Temperate coniferous forests sustain the highest levels of biomass of all terrestrial ecosystems and belong to the major carbon sinks on Earth. However, the community composition and its functional diversity depending on the habitat have yet to be unveiled. Here, we analyzed the proteomes from litter, plant roots, rhizosphere, and bulk soil in a temperate coniferous forest at two time points to improve the understanding of the interplay between bacterial and eukaryotic communities in different habitats. Our metaproteomic approach yielded a total of 139,127 proteins that allowed to differentiate the contribution of microbial taxa to protein expression as well ...


Performance Analysis And Drying Kinetics Of Maize In An Aflastop Dryer, Ernest Owusu-Sekyere, George Obeng-Akrofi, Joseph O. Akowuah, Dirk Maier 2021 South China Agricultural University

Performance Analysis And Drying Kinetics Of Maize In An Aflastop Dryer, Ernest Owusu-Sekyere, George Obeng-Akrofi, Joseph O. Akowuah, Dirk Maier

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The performance of an AflaSTOP dryer which utilises biomass energy for drying maize was investigated. The drying behaviour of maize grains in the dryer was also investigated using ten (10) thin-layer mathematical models. The models were compared based on coefficient of determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values between experimental and predicted moisture ratios. At an average drying air temperature of 50˚C and drying air velocity of 2.5 m/s, maize at average moisture content (MC) of 17.5% (wb) was dried to an average MC of 11.5% (wb) in three (3) hours. The ...


Sweet Dreams (Are Made Of This): A Review And Perspectives On Aspartic Acid Production, Holly Appleton, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2021 Iowa State University

Sweet Dreams (Are Made Of This): A Review And Perspectives On Aspartic Acid Production, Holly Appleton, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Aspartic acid, or “aspartate,” is a non-essential, four carbon amino acid produced and used by the body in two enantiomeric forms: L-aspartic acid and D-aspartic acid. The L-configuration of amino acids is the dominant form used in protein synthesis; thus, L-aspartic acid is by far the more common configuration. However, D-aspartic acid is one of only two known D-amino acids biosynthesized by eukaryotes. While L-aspartic acid is used in protein biosynthesis and neurotransmission, D-aspartic acid is associated with neurogenesis and the endocrine system. Aspartic acid production and use has been growing in recent years. The purpose of this article is ...


Juvenile Bluegill (Lepomis Macrochirus) Can Be Fed Diets Without Marine Fish Meal Without Adverse Effects On Growth, Survival, Diet Utilization, And Body Composition, Carl D. Webster, Steven D. Rawles, Anita M. Kelly, Luke A. Roy, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2021 Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

Juvenile Bluegill (Lepomis Macrochirus) Can Be Fed Diets Without Marine Fish Meal Without Adverse Effects On Growth, Survival, Diet Utilization, And Body Composition, Carl D. Webster, Steven D. Rawles, Anita M. Kelly, Luke A. Roy, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

There has been an increasing global demand for large bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) to supply the food‐fish market. Current bluegill diets resemble those for largemouth bass and contain a high percentage of marine fish meal (FM). Research into the use of alternative protein ingredients for bluegill diets need to be conducted to not only conserve finite marine resources, but to reduce cost and expand the supply of bluegill to the global market. We evaluated growth, survival and body composition of bluegill fed diets in which FM was partially or totally replaced by various combinations of soybean meal, poultry by‐product ...


Mitigation Of Airborne Prrsv Transmission With Uv Light Treatment: Proof-Of-Concept, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, William S. Jenks, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, Steven J. Hoff 2021 Iowa State University

Mitigation Of Airborne Prrsv Transmission With Uv Light Treatment: Proof-Of-Concept, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, William S. Jenks, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Proper treatment of infectious air could potentially mitigate the spread of airborne viruses such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objective of this research is to test the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) in inactivating aerosolized PRRSV, specifically, four UV lamps, UV-A (365 nm, both fluorescent and LED-based), “excimer” UV-C (222 nm), and germicidal UV-C (254 nm), were tested. The two UV-C lamps effectively irradiated fast-moving PRRSV aerosols with short treatment times (<2 s). One-stage and two-stage UV inactivation models estimated the UV doses needed for target percentage (%) reductions on PRRSV titer. UV-C (254 nm) dose needed for 3-log (99.9%) reduction was 0.521 and 0.0943 mJ/cm2, respectively, based on one-stage and two-stage models. An order of magnitude lower UV-C (222 nm) doses were needed for a 3-log reduction, i.e., 0 ...


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