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The Health Costs Of Political Identity: Evidence From Public Safety Responses In The Us And A Natural Experiment In California, Sahiba Chopra 2021 The University of San Francisco

The Health Costs Of Political Identity: Evidence From Public Safety Responses In The Us And A Natural Experiment In California, Sahiba Chopra

Master's Theses

The Covid-19 pandemic has brought political polarization in the US to the forefront of the battle against coronavirus. We find that for every one percentage point increase in votes for Trump there are 881 more Covid-19 cases and 17 more Covid-19 deaths. We find that these results are motivated by political identity as it is mediated through public safety behaviors like maskwearing and social distancing. In addition, a natural experiment in California during the first half of the pandemic in the US finds that 36% of the Covid-19 cases at the census tract level in California can be associated with …


Cost Estimation Alongside A Multi-Regional, Multi-Country Randomized Trial Of Antenatal Ultrasound In Five Low-And-Middle-Income Countries, B W. Bresnahan, E Vodicka, J B. Babigumira, Ashar Muhammad Malik, F Yego, A Lokangaka, B M. Chitah, Z Bauer, H Chavez, Sarah Saleem 2021 University of Washington, Seattle, USA.

Cost Estimation Alongside A Multi-Regional, Multi-Country Randomized Trial Of Antenatal Ultrasound In Five Low-And-Middle-Income Countries, B W. Bresnahan, E Vodicka, J B. Babigumira, Ashar Muhammad Malik, F Yego, A Lokangaka, B M. Chitah, Z Bauer, H Chavez, Sarah Saleem

Community Health Sciences

Background: Improving maternal health has been a primary goal of international health agencies for many years, with the aim of reducing maternal and child deaths and improving access to antenatal care (ANC) services, particularly in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). Health interventions with these aims have received more attention from a clinical effectiveness perspective than for cost impact and economic efficiency.
Methods: We collected data on resource use and costs as part of a large, multi-country study assessing the use of routine antenatal screening ultrasound (US) with the aim of considering the implications for economic efficiency. We assessed typical antenatal outpatient and …


The Effect Of The Fresh Program On Fruit And Vegetable Consumption In Nyc, Haido Andrianos 2021 CUNY Hunter College

The Effect Of The Fresh Program On Fruit And Vegetable Consumption In Nyc, Haido Andrianos

Theses and Dissertations

This study examines whether the NYCEDC's FRESH Program has had an effect on the fruit and vegetable consumption of NYC residents. Using data collected by the NYC DOHMH, a difference-in-difference regression with fixed effects was run. Stratifications for race and sex were also performed.


The Effects Of Hospital-Acquired Condition (Hac) Reduction Program On Hospital Services And Finances, Yuting Chen 2021 CUNY Hunter College

The Effects Of Hospital-Acquired Condition (Hac) Reduction Program On Hospital Services And Finances, Yuting Chen

Theses and Dissertations

Effective 10/01/2014, the HAC Reduction Program was implemented by CMS. Using 2015-2017 hospital-level data, this paper measures the effects of this Program on hospital days, discharges, revenues, costs, and service performance. I find penalized hospitals barely improved healthcare performance; meanwhile they increased patients numbers by 12.0% to cover penalties received.


Seeking Sustainable Solutions To Period Poverty Amongst Homeless Women In Camden County, Nj, Bilal Khan, Alana Smith, Melisa Ibarra-Zavala 2021 Rowan University

Seeking Sustainable Solutions To Period Poverty Amongst Homeless Women In Camden County, Nj, Bilal Khan, Alana Smith, Melisa Ibarra-Zavala

Stratford Campus Research Day

Health Careers Opportunity Program (HCOP) – National Ambassadors is an effort for underserved high school, undergraduate, and medical students to collaborate on a research-based community service project to equip future health professionals with tools to heal their communities.

The average woman spends up to 3500 days of their life menstruating. Menstrual health is therefore not just a fundamental human right, but a robust indicator of community well-being. Despite the biological inevitably of menstruation, barriers to practicing adequate menstrual hygiene, or “Period Poverty,” are far common and often ignored in public forums. Period products face a luxury goods sales tax in …


Mental Illness Economics In The United States: A Comparison With Foreign Countries, Christopher Odum 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Mental Illness Economics In The United States: A Comparison With Foreign Countries, Christopher Odum

Economics Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2018, suicide was the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, claiming the lives of over forty-eight thousand people.1 Globally, eight-hundred thousand people die from suicide every year, which is twice the number from homicide.2 For years, there has been a stigma around mental illness causing it to be a taboo topic, but recently there has been more of a focus and acceptance in our society. Along with the stigma, throughout most of history there has not been a focus on innovating and curing mental health diseases. In many cases, these diseases left unchecked lead to irrational …


The Impact Of Information Shocks And Partisanship On The Evolution Of Covid-19 In Connecticut, Joslin Valiyaveettil 2021 University of Connecticut

The Impact Of Information Shocks And Partisanship On The Evolution Of Covid-19 In Connecticut, Joslin Valiyaveettil

Honors Scholar Theses

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all aspects of life within the United States since early 2020. How people decided to behave during this time heavily influenced the trends that followed, triggering both health and behavioral economic concerns. Those trends seemed to vary based on the area and the beliefs of those constituents. This paper explores how partisan beliefs had an impact on the changes in case rates that occurred within the top 30 most populated towns in the state of Connecticut. In July 2020, former President Donald Trump sent out a tweet publicly endorsing face masks for the first time. …


From Self-Sufficiency To Import Dependence In The Republic Of The Marshall Islands: Data Issues And Challenges, Debra L. Claypool 2021 California State University, San Bernardino

From Self-Sufficiency To Import Dependence In The Republic Of The Marshall Islands: Data Issues And Challenges, Debra L. Claypool

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Although it appears likely that the profoundly asymmetrical political and economic relationship between the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) has contributed to the abandonment of traditional agriculture, import-dependency, and a decrease in quality of life for the citizens of the RMI, limits in existing quantitative data make it impossible to model exactly how this occurred. Therefore, rather than seek to model this causal relationship, the researcher employed three existing ethnographic studies to establish a quantitative measure of the transformation itself. Using additional government documents to supplement the existing data, a measure of relative percentage of …


Behavioral Economic Modeling Of The Effects Of Symptom, Severity, And Cost On Seeking Medical Care, Mark J. Rzeszutek 2021 Western Michigan University

Behavioral Economic Modeling Of The Effects Of Symptom, Severity, And Cost On Seeking Medical Care, Mark J. Rzeszutek

Dissertations

While the United States has some of the highest healthcare spending in the world, it has some of the worst health outcomes. For example, maternal mortality in the United States is almost five times as high as in other similarly wealthy countries. It also has the highest rates of avoidable deaths. One of the reasons for this may be the cost of accessing healthcare due to privatized insurance. For example, Americans may avoid important preventive medical visits and other health screeners due to cost. While lack of health insurance has been correlated with decreased health utilization, a precise understanding of …


Exploring Equity In Health And Poverty Impacts Of Control Measures For Sars-Cov-2 In Six Countries, Sedona Sweeney, Theo Prudencio Juhani Capeding, Rosalind Eggo, Maryam Huda, Mark Jit, Don Mudzengi, Nichola R. Naylor, Simon Procter, Matthew Quaife, Lela Serebryakova 2021 London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Exploring Equity In Health And Poverty Impacts Of Control Measures For Sars-Cov-2 In Six Countries, Sedona Sweeney, Theo Prudencio Juhani Capeding, Rosalind Eggo, Maryam Huda, Mark Jit, Don Mudzengi, Nichola R. Naylor, Simon Procter, Matthew Quaife, Lela Serebryakova

Community Health Sciences

Background: Policy makers need to be rapidly informed about the potential equity consequences of different COVID-19 strategies, alongside their broader health and economic impacts. While there are complex models to inform both potential health and macro-economic impact, there are few tools available to rapidly assess potential equity impacts of interventions.
Methods: We created an economic model to simulate the impact of lockdown measures in Pakistan, Georgia, Chile, UK, the Philippines and South Africa. We consider impact of lockdown in terms of ability to socially distance, and income loss during lockdown, and tested the impact of assumptions on social protection coverage …


Economic And Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Of The Community-Level Interventions For Pre-Eclampsia (Clip) Trials In India, Pakistan And Mozambique, Jeffrey N. Bone, Asif R. Khowaja, Marianne Vidler, Beth A. Payne, Mrutyunjaya B. Bellad, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Ashalata A. Mallapur, Khatia Munguambe, Rahat Qureshi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta 2021 The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Economic And Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Of The Community-Level Interventions For Pre-Eclampsia (Clip) Trials In India, Pakistan And Mozambique, Jeffrey N. Bone, Asif R. Khowaja, Marianne Vidler, Beth A. Payne, Mrutyunjaya B. Bellad, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Ashalata A. Mallapur, Khatia Munguambe, Rahat Qureshi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta

Woman and Child Health

Background: The Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) trials (NCT01911494) in India, Pakistan and Mozambique (February 2014-2017) involved community engagement and task sharing with community health workers for triage and initial treatment of pregnancy hypertension. Maternal and perinatal mortality was less frequent among women who received ≥8 CLIP contacts. The aim of this analysis was to assess the incremental costs and cost-effectiveness of the CLIP intervention overall in comparison to standard of care, and by PIERS (Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk) On the Move (POM) mobile health application visit frequency.
Methods: Included were all women enrolled in the three …


Concentration And Nurse Staffing Outcomes In The Healthcare Labor Market, Lizzy Crotty 2021 William & Mary

Concentration And Nurse Staffing Outcomes In The Healthcare Labor Market, Lizzy Crotty

Undergraduate Honors Theses

I investigate impacts to the nursing occupation from a perspective of market concentration. I measure the concentration of healthcare employment opportunities across the U.S. with a Herfindahl-Hirshman Index, finding moderate levels of concentration that vary greatly in markets with different population sizes and different locations. I use a Weighted Least Squares model to investigate how changing market concentration is affecting nurse employment. Analysis across different regions and different levels of urbanicity finds statistically insignificant heterogeneous effects with noisy zero estimates. The results are inconclusive evidence against monopsony presence in the nursing labor market.


The Impact Of Mindfulness On Healthy Food Choices, Kaylea Hopfer 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Impact Of Mindfulness On Healthy Food Choices, Kaylea Hopfer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The practice of mindfulness has a long history in research, particularly psychological studies. In this paper I examine the effects of a short mindfulness intervention on healthy food purchases. Specifically, I developed an online survey and recruited 634 participants via Prolific between July 24 - July 27, 2020. I randomly assigned participants to either a mindfulness manipulation or a control condition. Following treatment (or control) participants completed a food choice task and various other control. Following the survey, I analyzed data using R version 4.0.2 (2020-06-22) and R-Studio. I estimated three different regression models, ordinary least squares (OLS), Poisson, and …


The Effects Of The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program On Non-Targeted Interventions, Anna Kate Peterson 2021 Hope College

The Effects Of The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program On Non-Targeted Interventions, Anna Kate Peterson

20th Annual Celebration of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activity (2021)

According to the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, the rate of hospital readmissions for Medicare patients fell from 18.3 percent in 2010 to 17.1 percent in 2016. Still, since avoidable readmission within 30 days of discharge is a negative healthcare outcome and costly, whether the readmission is due to low-quality care or random complication, it captures the attention of healthcare cost-conscious policymakers. The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP), implemented in 2012, aims to decrease readmission following selected procedures. This research analyzes the effect of the HRRP on readmission rates that were not a part of the HRRP’s intended scope, referred …


Periodontal Parameters And Anti-Cardiolipin Antibodies Following Periodontal Therapy In Chronic Periodontitis, Wan Majdiah Wan Mohamad, Noor Rashidah Saad, Siti Lailatul Akmar Zainuddin, Haslina Taib 2021 School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Periodontal Parameters And Anti-Cardiolipin Antibodies Following Periodontal Therapy In Chronic Periodontitis, Wan Majdiah Wan Mohamad, Noor Rashidah Saad, Siti Lailatul Akmar Zainuddin, Haslina Taib

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Anti-cardiolipin (anti-CL) antibodies are autoantibodies which are directed against cell membrane phospholipids. A significant number of periodontitis patients showed positive for anti-CL antibody. Objective: This study aimed to determine the periodontal parameters and anti-CL antibodies levels before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis. Methods: This cross-sectional study had been carried out at Periodontal Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. Thirty five chronic periodontitis (CP) and 39 non-periodontitis (NP) patients underwent clinical periodontal examination at baseline. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), periodontal pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured. Scaling …


The Role Of Peer Influence On Oral Health Knowledge And Behaviors Among Adolescents, Maryam Sadeghipour Roudsari, Seyed Peyman Shariatpanahi, Mahshid Namdari, Mohammad Hossein Khoshnevisan, Mahsa Malek-Mohammadi, Mohammad Hadi Foroughmand 2021 Dental Research Center, Research Institute of Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Community Oral Health Department, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences(SBMU)., Tehran, IR-Iran

The Role Of Peer Influence On Oral Health Knowledge And Behaviors Among Adolescents, Maryam Sadeghipour Roudsari, Seyed Peyman Shariatpanahi, Mahshid Namdari, Mohammad Hossein Khoshnevisan, Mahsa Malek-Mohammadi, Mohammad Hadi Foroughmand

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Although many researchers, in different social sciences fields, are being attracted to the new potential promotional phenomenon, the influence of peer connections, the literature in dental public health is very poor. Objective: This article investigates the role of peer influence on individuals’ oral health knowledge and behavior among adolescents. Methods: The purpose of the study was to explore the correlation between secondary school students’ oral health u and knowledge within friendship groups. A valid and reliable questionnaire was developed. A total of 421 students (228 boys and 193 girls) aged between 12-13 years old participated in the study. …


Assessment Of Gingival Status And Gingival Overgrowth Among Immunosuppressed Patients In Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital, Wan Majdiah Wan Mohamad, Syamimi Izzati Mat Zaid, Haslina Taib 2021 School of Dental Sciences, USM Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia 2School of Medical

Assessment Of Gingival Status And Gingival Overgrowth Among Immunosuppressed Patients In Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital, Wan Majdiah Wan Mohamad, Syamimi Izzati Mat Zaid, Haslina Taib

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) is defined as an abnormal growth of the gingiva due to adverse effect of some drugs such as immunosuppressant, calcium channel blocker, and anticonvulsant. Immunosuppressive drugs play an important role in controlling organ transplant rejection and were widely used to treat different diseases. Objective: Immunosuppressive drugs are used for prevention of transplant rejection and management of autoimmune disease. Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (GO) is abnormal growth of gingiva due to adverse effect of these drugs. This study aimed to assess the gingival status, the prevalence of gingival overgrowth and its associated factors among immunosuppressed patients. Methods …


Multiple Oral Ulcerations In A Seizure Patient With Undiagnosed Brain Arteriovenous Malformation, Ambar Kusuma Astuti, Febrina Rahmayanti 2021 Department of Oral Medicine Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia

Multiple Oral Ulcerations In A Seizure Patient With Undiagnosed Brain Arteriovenous Malformation, Ambar Kusuma Astuti, Febrina Rahmayanti

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Multiple ulcerations are rarely caused by a traumatic event, but seizures can induce repeated injury to the oral mucosa. A patient with a seizure history possesses a challenge in their dental management. Objective: In order to describe a case of multiple oral ulceration in a post-seizure patient with undiagnosed arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the left parietal lobe and provide short guidelines for dentists in managing patient with a seizure history. Case report: A 23-years old female had multiple oral ulceration in the right and left buccal mucosa and her tongue. She reported having a seizure attack six days before. …


210— Factors Affecting Teenage Pregnancy In The Philippines, Tashi Sherpa 2021 SUNY Geneseo

210— Factors Affecting Teenage Pregnancy In The Philippines, Tashi Sherpa

GREAT Day

The Philippines has one of the highest adolescent birth rates among the Southeast Asian countries. In 2019, the Philippines National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) declared the number of teenage pregnancies a "national social emergency". Rodrigo Duterte, the President of the Philippines, realized the urgency as the Commission on Population and Development in 2019 recorded that almost seven girls, aged ten to fourteen, gave birth everyday- 2,411 girls that year. Teenage pregnancy prevents the opportunity for women to escape from poverty and improve their human development levels. Increased risk of these outcomes are predominantly caused by inadequate sex education, lack …


Assessing The Patient-Perceived Monetary Value Of Patient-Reported Outcome Improvement For Patients With Chronic Knee Conditions, Sarah B. Floyd, Alicia Oostdyk, Melanie Cozad, John M. Brooks, Paul Siffri, Brian Burnikel 2021 Clemson University

Assessing The Patient-Perceived Monetary Value Of Patient-Reported Outcome Improvement For Patients With Chronic Knee Conditions, Sarah B. Floyd, Alicia Oostdyk, Melanie Cozad, John M. Brooks, Paul Siffri, Brian Burnikel

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: The high cost of orthopaedic care has attracted criticism in the current value-based health care environment. The objective of this work was to assess the properties of a willingness to pay (WTP)-based approach to estimate the monetary value that patients place on health improvements in chronic knee conditions following orthopaedic treatment.

Methods: A sample of patients with a chronic knee condition were surveyed between January and May of 2018 at a large orthopaedic practice. Each patient provided their WTP for restoration to ideal knee health and completed the Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE) to describe their baseline knee state. …


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