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The Effect Of Covid-19 On Depression In Hispanic Vs. Non-Hispanic Populations In South Jersey, Rana Cheikhali, Daniel Casal 2022 Rowan University

The Effect Of Covid-19 On Depression In Hispanic Vs. Non-Hispanic Populations In South Jersey, Rana Cheikhali, Daniel Casal

Stratford Campus Research Day

The COVID-19 pandemic has been challenging for Americans and the world as a whole. It has especially taken a toll on mental health. Studies show that the incidence of depression in the United States was three times greater during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic times. One specific community in the United States that has been greatly affected by the pandemic is the Hispanic American community. Many Americans across the country have received federal surveys that aim to determine the social and economic impacts of COVID-19. Results revealed that the Hispanic population had the greatest rise in mental illness, with 40% …


True Price Of A Pack: Tobacco Expenditure And Height-For-Age In Indonesia, Madeline Helfer 2022 William & Mary

True Price Of A Pack: Tobacco Expenditure And Height-For-Age In Indonesia, Madeline Helfer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

While the negative impact of tobacco on the health of smokers is well known, the ways in which smoking impacts the health of the smoker’s children is less understood. This study explores whether tobacco expenditure increases the risk of stunting among children under the age of five in Indonesia, where smoking and stunting rates are among the highest in Southeast Asia. Given the severe income constraints faced by poor Indonesian households, large tobacco expenditure potentially “crowds-out” spending on nutrition, worsening the nutritional health of children in smoking households. To examine this relationship, I use a sample of children under the …


Out-Of-Pocket Healthcare Costs And Undesirable Healthcare Expenditures, Cody Sanford Taylor 2022 William & Mary

Out-Of-Pocket Healthcare Costs And Undesirable Healthcare Expenditures, Cody Sanford Taylor

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Healthcare costs in the U.S. have risen over recent decades, and this issue was a focal point of the last several national election cycles. I investigate the relationship between out-of-pocket healthcare costs and incidences of catastrophic and impoverishing healthcare expenditure. I also explore whether other important factors, such as demographic, personal health, and those related to the healthcare system change the likelihood of such healthcare expenditures. Lastly, I use a difference in means method and logistic regressions to analyze the probability of incurring undesirable healthcare expenses and the impacts of relevant factors for certain subsections of the U.S. population. I …


Economic Impact Of The Western Africa Ebola Outbreak--A Holistic Approach, Xufeng Liu 2022 William & Mary

Economic Impact Of The Western Africa Ebola Outbreak--A Holistic Approach, Xufeng Liu

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The 2014 Western Africa Ebola Epidemic was one of the most severe epidemics in the region’s history, creating considerable health and economic burdens on the affected countries. The first part of this paper relies on several macroeconomic databases from 2009 to 2019 to evaluate the aggregate economic impact of Ebola both in the short- and medium-run. We also use household surveys to assess the microeconomic effects of Ebola on employment and household non-farm enterprises (HNFE) at different phases of the outbreak in Sierra Leone. Our primary estimation method is the Difference-in-Differences approach with the canonical specification where we compare outcome …


Political, Racial, And Household Income Barriers For Access To Healthcare In Illinois Counties, Kennedy Bray '23 2022 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Political, Racial, And Household Income Barriers For Access To Healthcare In Illinois Counties, Kennedy Bray '23

Student Publications & Research

Access to health care impacts many people throughout the United States, as it restricts their ability to solve their health concerns. People who have the highest risk of a lack of access include people who are uninsured, people a part of a specific social class, or people belonging to a specific political party. In a particular geographical region, these factors could lead to groups of people suffering because of circumstances that they cannot control in their region. In my project, I determine how better access to healthcare and the percentage of people insured are affected by a measurement of the …


Evaluation Of The Effect Of Two Polishing Techniques And Thermocycling Process On Surface Roughness, Hardness, And Color Stability Of Composites, Muhammet Fidan, Zeynep Dereli 2022 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Usak University, Usak, Turkey

Evaluation Of The Effect Of Two Polishing Techniques And Thermocycling Process On Surface Roughness, Hardness, And Color Stability Of Composites, Muhammet Fidan, Zeynep Dereli

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two polishing techniques and 10.000 thermocycles on the color stability, surface roughness, and hardness of two nanohybrid (Tetric N-Ceram, Escom100) and one bulkfill (Filtek) resin composites. Methods: A total of 60 specimens were prepared using three resin composites and 20 discs from each composite. Specimens for each composite were randomly divided into two different polishing groups (Optrapol rubber and Sof-Lex discs) (n=10). Surface roughness (Ra, μm), microhardness (VHN), and color change (ΔE00) values were measured pre- and post-thermocycling. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate …


A Comparison Of Four Different Methods Of Prediction Of Mesiodistal Widths Of Unerupted Permanent Canines And Premolars, Waqar Jeelani, Washma Asad, Maheen Ahmed 2022 Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Bakhtawar Amin Medical and Dental College, Multan, Pakistan

A Comparison Of Four Different Methods Of Prediction Of Mesiodistal Widths Of Unerupted Permanent Canines And Premolars, Waqar Jeelani, Washma Asad, Maheen Ahmed

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

The success of orthodontic treatment depends upon the accurate assessment of mesiodistal widths of unerupted canines and premolars in mixed dentition stage. There are several methods available for mixed dentition analysis with dubious reliability in our population. Objective: To statistically develop new prediction equations for Pakistani subjects to predict the widths of unerupted upper canines and premolars (U345) and lower canine and premolars (L345) using mesiodistal widths of lower incisors (I1I2) and lower incisors and first molars (I1I2M1) and compare their performance with previously established methods of Moyers and Tanaka-Johnston. Methods: Study was conducted using the data from the dental …


Endodontic Management Of Mandibular First Molar With Four Roots - A Rare Case Report With Clinical Management Guidelines, Shaikh Shahbaz, Huma Iftekhar, Sharique Alam, Zehra Shavez 2022 Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India

Endodontic Management Of Mandibular First Molar With Four Roots - A Rare Case Report With Clinical Management Guidelines, Shaikh Shahbaz, Huma Iftekhar, Sharique Alam, Zehra Shavez

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Mandibular molar is usually two rooted with one mesial and one distal root. Additional roots are rare which requires accurate diagnosis and a methodical and scrupulous endodontic treatment. Objective: This paper aims to report the endodontic management of an unusual case of a mandibular permanent first molar with four roots (two mesial & two distal) and provide a clinical guideline to detect and manage these variant cases. Case report: A 15-year-old boy reported with a deep carious lesion in the lower left first molar (#36). The apical root contour of #36 on an intraoral periapical radiograph taken in different angulations …


Effect Of Brushing Time With A Whitening Dentifrice On Surface Roughness Of Anterior Composite Resins, Ahmet Hazar, Sinem Akgül, Sibel Koçak, Mustafa Murat Koçak 2022 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey

Effect Of Brushing Time With A Whitening Dentifrice On Surface Roughness Of Anterior Composite Resins, Ahmet Hazar, Sinem Akgül, Sibel Koçak, Mustafa Murat Koçak

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Objectives: This study aimed to compare the surface roughness of three anterior composite resins with different filler size, rate, and shape after brushing for 5000, 10000, and 20000 cycles with a whitening dentifrice. Methods: 44 disk-shaped specimens of each material (5mm diameter, 2mm depth) G-aenial Anterior, Harmonize, Asteria were prepared and divided into four groups according to the brushing cycles (Initial, 5000, 10000, and 20000 cycles). Initial surface roughness values (Ra-values) were assessed using a profilometer and measurements were repeated after each brushing cycle. 4 specimens from each composite resin were observed by scanning electron microscopy before and after brushing. …


Salivary Iga Depression In Drug-Influenced Gingival Enlargement Among Hypertensive Patients, Muhammad Annurdin Sabarudin, Haslina Taib, Wan Majdiah Wan Mohamad, Siti Lailatul Akmar Zainuddin, Wan Syamimee Wan Ghazali, Ahmad Azhar Misran 2022 Department of Periodontology and Community Oral Health, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Jalan Pandan Utama, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Salivary Iga Depression In Drug-Influenced Gingival Enlargement Among Hypertensive Patients, Muhammad Annurdin Sabarudin, Haslina Taib, Wan Majdiah Wan Mohamad, Siti Lailatul Akmar Zainuddin, Wan Syamimee Wan Ghazali, Ahmad Azhar Misran

Journal of Dentistry Indonesia

Drug-influenced gingival enlargement (DIGE) among hypertensive patients is commonly associated with antihypertensive drugs such as calcium channel blockers (CCBs). Immune response alteration is one of the proposed mechanisms for DIGE. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) in saliva which involves in defense mechanism was shown to be affected in patients with DIGE. Objective: This study aimed to determine the association of salivary IgA level with DIGE. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 47 hypertensive patients who had consumed antihypertensive drugs for at least 3 months. Twenty-one (44.7%) males and 26 (55.3%) females had participated in this study. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 26.0. …


Indie Illness: An Evaluation Of The Orphan Drug Act, Nicholas Castellanos 2022 University of Mississippi

Indie Illness: An Evaluation Of The Orphan Drug Act, Nicholas Castellanos

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Orphan Drug Act of 1983 by subtracting the cost of incentives for drug development from the estimated value created by each drug in the form of quality-adjusted life-year gains. Data regarding costs of incentives is retrieved from the FDA as well as a report released by the National Organization for Rare Disorders. Data regarding value created by each drug is retrieved from a Freedom of Information Act request to the FDA, the CEA registry, and a report released by the US Department of Health and Human Sciences. Sufficient data was available …


The Impact Of Afghan Opium Cultivation On The U.S. Opioid Epidemic, Zachary Wahab Cheek 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Impact Of Afghan Opium Cultivation On The U.S. Opioid Epidemic, Zachary Wahab Cheek

UNL Student Research Days Posters, Undergraduate

I argue here that increases in Afghan opium cultivation, the most prolific in the world, has depressed American prescription opioid and heroin prices, thereby increasing abuse risk in U.S. addict populations and increasing death rates. Utilizing a two-stage regression model with a sparse dataset from several national and international sources, I find evidence that a one percent increase in Afghan opium production is associated with a 0.122 percent increase in prescription opioid overdose deaths, and a 0.367 percent increase in heroin overdose deaths. Assessing the 2001-2002 Taliban opium ban with an identification strategy, I find that in this timeframe prescription …


The Effects Of The Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Mandate On Parents’ Labor Market Outcomes, KIM, KOH Kanghyock 2022 Singapore Management University

The Effects Of The Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Mandate On Parents’ Labor Market Outcomes, Kim, Koh Kanghyock

Research Collection School Of Economics

We examine the labor market impacts of the Affordable Care Act dependent mandate (ACA-DM), which has significantly increased dependent children's health insurance coverage through parents’ employer-sponsored health benefits. Using data from the American Community Survey, we find that the ACA-DM reduced parents’ annual wages by about $2,600. However, the probability of employment and working hours only decreased marginally. The back-of-the-envelope calculation indicates that the magnitude of the estimated wage impact is similar to the increased insurance premium of a family plan due to the ACA-DM. These findings imply that a deadweight loss associated with the expansion of dependent health coverage …


A Comparative Analysis Of Migrant Health Policies And Practices In The Us And Switzerland, Rebecca Mak 2022 SIT Study Abroad

A Comparative Analysis Of Migrant Health Policies And Practices In The Us And Switzerland, Rebecca Mak

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Migrants compose a large proportion of the population in both the US and Switzerland. The social vulnerability of migrants has been well-established in literature, but few studies have attempted to compare healthcare policies and approaches that most effectively support migrant health using multiple measures.

To fill this gap in the literature, this study will comparatively analyze of the efficacy of US and Switzerland migrant health policies and services by assessing access to and quality of care for migrants in each country. Four main features of healthcare systems were analyzed: insurance policy, healthcare utilization, NCD outcomes, and patient perceptions of care. …


The Effects Of Physician Retirement On Patient Outcomes: Anticipation And Disruption, Xuan ZHANG 2022 Singapore Management University

The Effects Of Physician Retirement On Patient Outcomes: Anticipation And Disruption, Xuan Zhang

Research Collection School Of Economics

The physician retirement rate in the United States is increasing as the population ages. I use an event study model allowing for anticipation to evaluate the effects of primary care physician (PCP) retirement on elderly adults’ health care utilization and quality of care. I find that, despite moderate anticipatory effects, PCP retirement results in an approximately $572 increase in total Medicare costs per beneficiary in the first 1.5 years post-retirement and an over 10% increase in detection of new chronic conditions. Heterogeneity analyses show that the increase in costs is disproportionately driven by the retirement of solo practitioners; Medicare beneficiaries …


Variation In Reported Hospital Cash Prices Across The United States And How They Compare To Reported Payer-Specific Negotiated Rates [Post-Print], Gerardo Ruiz Sánchez 2022 Trinity College Hartford

Variation In Reported Hospital Cash Prices Across The United States And How They Compare To Reported Payer-Specific Negotiated Rates [Post-Print], Gerardo Ruiz Sánchez

Faculty Scholarship

There is little empirical evidence on the hospital “cash” prices that self-paying patients (e.g., self-paying uninsured patients) face, and little empirical evidence of how these hospital cash prices compare to payer-specific negotiated rates. To address this gap in the literature, I use new data from U.S. hospitals on their reported cash prices and payer-specific negotiated rates for fourteen “shoppable” hospital services that are subject to mandated disclosure under a new federal rule that took effect on January 1, 2021. I find that the cash prices reported by hospitals for these services vary meaningfully across the United States. For example, hospitals …


Nature Of Health Insurance Demand In India, Brijesh C. Purohit Ph.D 2022 Professor, Madras School of Economics, Chennai, INDIA

Nature Of Health Insurance Demand In India, Brijesh C. Purohit Ph.D

Himalayan Research Papers Archive

In this study an attempt is made to explore elasticity of health insurance demand in India. It is important to note that both the Central and state governments have been trying to help people through their budgetary policies. Keeping in view their efforts and rural urban disparities in the country, we have tried to make an attempt to evaluate whether the people have been provided appropriate information about these governmental policies and how other socio economic factors are influencing the individual household choices to adopt a particular type of health insurance scheme.

This is based on latest National Family Health …


Pengaruh Kerawanan Pangan, Bantuan Pangan Dan Jaminan Kesehatan Terhadap Keluhan Kesehatan, Ofi Ana Sari, Nachrowi Djalal Nachrowi 2022 Badan Pusat Statistik

Pengaruh Kerawanan Pangan, Bantuan Pangan Dan Jaminan Kesehatan Terhadap Keluhan Kesehatan, Ofi Ana Sari, Nachrowi Djalal Nachrowi

Jurnal Ekonomi dan Pembangunan Indonesia

The health condition of the Indonesian from life expectancy at birth tends to increase, but not all years are in a healthy. The health conditions can be influenced by food insecurity, food aid and health insurance. This study aims to study the effects of food insecurity, food assistance and health insurance on health complaints. Indonesian Socio-Economic Survey (Susenas) data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. The results show that food insecure individu are risky health complaints and are disrupted more than twice than food secure individu. BPJS PBI has a lower risk of health complaints than for paid BPJS. Food …


Redesigning Price Setting Under The Universal Health Insurance In Egypt / إعادة تصميم التسعير في ظل التأمين الصحي الشامل في مصر, Ahmed El Agamy, Hebatalla Ahmed Ismail, Hend Hassan, Reem Gouda, Samah El Sayed 2022 American University in Cairo

Redesigning Price Setting Under The Universal Health Insurance In Egypt / إعادة تصميم التسعير في ظل التأمين الصحي الشامل في مصر, Ahmed El Agamy, Hebatalla Ahmed Ismail, Hend Hassan, Reem Gouda, Samah El Sayed

Papers, Posters, and Presentations

Since the Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by the United Nations Development Programme, Universal Health coverage became the main target for many nations. One of the main challenges facing the governments to achieve universal health coverage is maintaining adequate policies to set fair pricing for the healthcare services. Each country has different strategies to apply fair pricing and this paper is discussing the current pricing methods in Egypt and suggesting three policies to tackle its challenges.


Fertility Trends And The Rising Costs Of Children, Sarita O'Neill 2022 William & Mary

Fertility Trends And The Rising Costs Of Children, Sarita O'Neill

Undergraduate Research Awards

"From 1958 to 2021, fertility rates in the United States have declined from 3.5 births per woman to 1.8 births per woman (macrotrends). Declining fertility is a common trend in developed countries, specifically for countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Fertility is crucial to workforce replacement, so declining fertility rates have a direct impact on GDP. In the United States, the working-age population growth rate has fallen below the total population growth rate. Workforce replacement is the ratio of working-age people entering the workforce to retired age people exiting the workforce. Thispaper studies the relationship between …


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