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Law And Behavioral Biology, Owen D. Jones, Timothy H. Goldsmith 2019 Yale University

Law And Behavioral Biology, Owen D. Jones, Timothy H. Goldsmith

Owen Jones

Society uses law to encourage people to behave differently than they would behave in the absence of law. This fundamental purpose makes law highly dependent on sound understandings of the multiple causes of human behavior. The better those understandings, the better law can achieve social goals with legal tools. In this Article, Professors Jones and Goldsmith argue that many long held understandings about where behavior comes from are rapidly obsolescing as a consequence of developments in the various fields constituting behavioral biology. By helping to refine law's understandings of behavior's causes, they argue, behavioral biology can help to ...


Socioeconomic Influences On Property Crime Rates: A Study In Virginia's Counties, Mary Passley 2019 University of Lynchburg

Socioeconomic Influences On Property Crime Rates: A Study In Virginia's Counties, Mary Passley

Student Scholar Showcase

Most research on factors and causes of crime, whether property or violent crime, focuses on individuals’ behavior or their surrounding environment. In this research, I explore the idea of socioeconomic factors correlated to property crime. I conducted a retrospective design to fully explore United States Census data and crime data gathered by the Bureau of Justice Statistics to discover statistically significant variables connected to property crime. Significant findings were shown by average people per house and retail sales per capita in all counties. Additional significant findings were percent employment change and percent with high school degree or higher in low ...


Pareto-Improving Transition To Fully Funded Pensions Under Myopia, Torben M. Andersen, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Marias H. Gestsson 2019 University of Aarhus

Pareto-Improving Transition To Fully Funded Pensions Under Myopia, Torben M. Andersen, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Marias H. Gestsson

Joydeep Bhattacharya

Under dynamic efficiency, a pay-as-you-go (PAYG) pension scheme is often described as an “original sin”: It helps the current generation of retirees but hurts future generations because they are forced to save via a return-dominated scheme. Abandoning it is deemed welfare-improving but typically not for all generations. But what if agents are present-biased (hence, undersave for retirement) and the “paternalistically motivated forced savings” component of a PAYG scheme motivated its existence in the first place? This paper shows it is possible to transition from such a PAYG scheme on to a higher return, mandated fully-funded scheme; yet, no generation is ...


Behavioral Impediments To Valuing Annuities: Complexity And Choice Bracketing, Jeffrey R. Brown, Arie Kapteyn, Erzo Luttmer, Olivia S. Mitchell, Anya Samek 2019 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Behavioral Impediments To Valuing Annuities: Complexity And Choice Bracketing, Jeffrey R. Brown, Arie Kapteyn, Erzo Luttmer, Olivia S. Mitchell, Anya Samek

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

This paper examines two behavioral factors that diminish people’s ability to value a lifetime income stream or annuity, drawing on a survey of about 4,000 adults in a U.S. nationally representative sample. By experimentally varying the degree of complexity, we provide the first causal evidence that increasing the complexity of the annuity choice reduces respondents’ ability to value the annuity, measured by the difference between the sell and buy values people assign to the annuity. We also find that people’s ability to value an annuity increases when we experimentally induce them to think jointly about the ...


Fossil-Fueled Discourse, Henry Walter 2019 University of Kansas

Fossil-Fueled Discourse, Henry Walter

Crossing Borders: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

As industrial civilization confronts the realities of devastating global climate change and the local environmental catastrophes precipitated by coal, oil, and natural gas extraction, this paper moves away from mainstream analyses of demand-side choices and instead considers how miners and rig workers make decisions surrounding the ethicality of their work. This article considers corporate publications including investor and sustainability reports and company-sponsored employee magazines, industry magazines, and news sources in top-producing fossil fuel producing localities in the United States. A discursive analysis of this set of publications uncovers a dense rhetorical lattice of misinformation and disinformation surrounding fossil fuel workers ...


"Baby Factories": Exploitation Of Women In Southern Nigeria, Jacinta Chiamaka Nwaka, Akachi Odoemene 2019 University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

"Baby Factories": Exploitation Of Women In Southern Nigeria, Jacinta Chiamaka Nwaka, Akachi Odoemene

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Despite the writings of feminist thinkers and efforts of other advocates of feminism to change the dominant narratives on women, exploitation of women is a fact that has remained endemic in various parts of the world, and particularly in Africa. Nigeria is one of those countries in Africa where women are largely exposed to varying degrees of exploitation. This paper examines the development and proliferation of baby-selling centers in southern Nigeria and its impacts on and implication for women in Nigeria. It demonstrates how an attempt to give protection to unwed pregnant girls has metamorphosed into “baby harvesting” and selling ...


Identification Of Resource Extraction Technologies When The Resource Stock Is Unobservable, Quinn Weninger, Larry Perruso, Helle Bunzel 2019 Iowa State University

Identification Of Resource Extraction Technologies When The Resource Stock Is Unobservable, Quinn Weninger, Larry Perruso, Helle Bunzel

Economics Working Papers

This paper consistently estimates the structural properties of a fishery resource extraction technology. We overcome two ubiquitous features of fisheries data generating processes that invalidate classical estimators: unobservability by the researcher (but partial observability by fishermen) of the fish stock, and endogenous production decisions that vary with private information about stock abundance and economic variables. We adopt methods used in fisheries stock assessment to control for unobserved stock effects on productivity. A nonlinear instrumental variables estimator controls for endogenous choices of the output mix. The approach is applied to the US Gulf of Mexico commercial reef fish fishery. Comparison with ...


Motherhood, Migration, And Self-Employment Of College Graduates, Zhengyu Cai, Heather M. Stephens, John V. Winters 2019 Southwestern University of Finance and Economics

Motherhood, Migration, And Self-Employment Of College Graduates, Zhengyu Cai, Heather M. Stephens, John V. Winters

Economics Working Papers

Women face unique challenges in starting and running their own businesses and may have differing motives to men for pursuing self-employment. Previous research suggests that married women with families value the flexibility that self-employment can offer, allowing them to balance their family responsibilities with their career aspirations. This may be especially true for college graduates, who tend to have more successful businesses. Access to childcare may also affect their labor force decisions. Using American Community Survey microdata, we examine how birth-place residence, a proxy for access to extended family and child care, relates to self-employment and hours worked for college-graduate ...


The Impact Of The Durbin Amendment On Banks, Merchants, And Consumers, Vladimir Mukharlyamov, Natasha Sarin 2019 Georgetown University

The Impact Of The Durbin Amendment On Banks, Merchants, And Consumers, Vladimir Mukharlyamov, Natasha Sarin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

After the Great Recession, new regulatory interventions were introduced to protect consumers and reduce the costs of financial products. Some voiced concern that direct price regulation was unlikely to help consumers, because banks offset losses in one domain by increasing the prices that they charge consumers for other products. This paper studies this issue using the Durbin Amendment, which decreased the interchange fees that banks are allowed to charge merchants for processing debit transactions. Merchant interchange fees, previously averaging 2 percent of transaction value, were capped at $0.22, decreasing bank revenue by $6.5 billion annually. The objective of ...


Actual And Self-Assessed Financial Literacy Among Employees Of A South African University, Gizelle D. Willows 2019 The University of Cape Town

Actual And Self-Assessed Financial Literacy Among Employees Of A South African University, Gizelle D. Willows

Numeracy

This study examines the level of financial literacy and self-assessed financial literacy amongst members of a South African tertiary institution’s retirement fund. Based on surveys of the fund’s members, I employ descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses to examine differences in financial literacy within and across groups. The results show that, despite working for an employer implementing many best practices identified by financial literacy advocates, respondents from all demographic subgroups possess relatively low levels of financial knowledge. Men, White respondents, and those with a higher cost of employment or higher educational attainment were more likely to have a ...


One Step At A Time: Does Gradualism Build Coordination?, Maoliang Ye, Jie Zheng, Plamen Nikolov, Sam Asher 2019 Xiamen University

One Step At A Time: Does Gradualism Build Coordination?, Maoliang Ye, Jie Zheng, Plamen Nikolov, Sam Asher

Economics Faculty Scholarship

This study investigates a potential mechanism to promote coordination. With theoretical guidance using a belief-based learning model, we conduct a multi-period, binary-choice, and weakest-link laboratory coordination experiment to study the effect of gradualism – increasing the required levels (stakes) of contributions slowly over time rather than requiring a high level of contribution immediately – on group coordination performance. We randomly assign subjects to three treatments: starting and continuing at a high stake, starting at a low stake but jumping to a high stake after a few periods, and starting at a low stake while gradually increasing the stakes over time (the Gradualism ...


The Effects Of Environmental Factors On Maternal Health, Infant Health And Mental Health, Li Zeng 2019 Lehigh University

The Effects Of Environmental Factors On Maternal Health, Infant Health And Mental Health, Li Zeng

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores the effects of environmental factors on adult’s health and infant’s health at birth. The first chapter of this dissertation studies the impact of maternal stress triggered by wildfire on infant birth outcomes. As a common natural event, one of the most noticeable effects of wildfires is the stress caused by their threat to people’s life and property. This study estimates the impact of exposure to wildfire events during pregnancy, especially the effects of maternal stress triggered by wildfire outbreaks, on infant birth outcomes. By linking three data sources – birth records from the New Jersey ...


Product Concentration And Usage: Behavioral Effects In The Glyphosate Market, Edward D. Perry, David A. Hennessy, Giancarlo Moschini 2019 Kansas State University

Product Concentration And Usage: Behavioral Effects In The Glyphosate Market, Edward D. Perry, David A. Hennessy, Giancarlo Moschini

CARD Working Papers

People often ignore or misunderstand information that would help them make better decisions. For products that differ by concentration level, a critical choice concerns the correct dosage rate. We study the effects of changing glyphosate product concentration levels on farmers’ glyphosate usage behavior. Glyphosate is the world’s most widely used herbicide. After glyphosate went off patent in 2000, product variants with higher concentration levels entered the market. Using detailed farmlevel glyphosate use data in U.S. corn and soybeans over the period 1998-2011, we estimate the impact of product concentration levels on glyphosate application rates. We control for prices ...


The Changing Nature Of Work, Leadership, And Organizational Culture In Future Ready Organizations, Saloni Dhir 2019 Claremont Colleges

The Changing Nature Of Work, Leadership, And Organizational Culture In Future Ready Organizations, Saloni Dhir

CMC Senior Theses

Abstract

The relationship between individual and organizational performance is a key challenge for leaders in modern organizations, especially with the current disruption in technology and innovation. This thesis is a literature review and compilation of the relevant empirical evidence on various processes of industrial groups and organizational characteristics such as the changing nature of work, leadership, and company culture in detail. I investigate the complex challenges that millennials and organizations are facing in the current VUCA work environment as well as their potential responses to these changes. I map out the evolution of the concept of work and compare changes ...


Stock Recommendations In China: Buyer Beware, Singapore Management University 2019 Singapore Management University

Stock Recommendations In China: Buyer Beware, Singapore Management University

Perspectives@SMU

Research analysts have incentives to issue positive recommendations; social ties with fund managers exert considerable influence


Accounting For Agent Heterogeneity In Market And Policy Analysis, Konstantinos Giannakas 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Accounting For Agent Heterogeneity In Market And Policy Analysis, Konstantinos Giannakas

Zea E-Books

doi:10.13014/K2416V8V

This book presents a multi-market framework of market and policy analysis that explicitly accounts for the empirically relevant heterogeneity in consumer preferences and producer characteristics. The explicit consideration of consumer and producer heterogeneity represents a significant departure from the representative consumer and producer that have been at the center of most of the literature on market and policy analysis, and enables the distributional impacts of changes in market conditions and policies to be fully identified. The framework is used to analyze the system-wide market and welfare impacts of a number of changes in market conditions (like ...


Domestic Violence: The Financial Implications Of Abuse, Yenny Masmela 2019 Seton Hall University

Domestic Violence: The Financial Implications Of Abuse, Yenny Masmela

Petersheim Academic Exposition

No abstract provided.


Elaborations On Multiattribute Utility Theory Dominance, David L. Vairo 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Elaborations On Multiattribute Utility Theory Dominance, David L. Vairo

Theses and Dissertations

ELABORATIONS ON MULTIATTRIBUTE UTILITY THEORY DOMINANCE

By David L. Vairo

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Virginia Commonwealth University.

Virginia Commonwealth University, 2019.

Major Director: Dissertation director’s name, Dr. Jason Merrick, Supply Chain Management and Analytics

Multiattribute Utility Theory (MAUT) is used to structure decisions with more than one factor (attribute) in play. These decisions become complex when the attributes are dependent on one another. Where linear modeling is concerned with how factors are directly related or correlated with each other, MAUT is concerned with how a decision ...


Examining The Utility Of Behavioral Economic Demand In Addiction Science, Justin Charles Strickland 2019 University of Kentucky

Examining The Utility Of Behavioral Economic Demand In Addiction Science, Justin Charles Strickland

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

The marriage of perspectives from behavioral economic theory and learning theory has the potential to advance an understanding of substance use and substance use disorder. Behavioral economic demand is a central concept to this interdisciplinary approach. Evaluating demand in the laboratory and clinic can improve previous research on the relative reinforcing effects of drugs by accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of reinforcement rather than viewing reinforcement as a unitary construct. Recent advances in the commodity purchase task methodology have further simplified the measurement of demand values in human participants. This dissertation project presents a programmatic series of studies designed to ...


Monthly Spending Dynamics Of The Elderly Following A Health Shock: Evidence From Singapore, Terence CHENG, Li JING, Rhema VAITHIANATHAN 2019 University of Adelaide

Monthly Spending Dynamics Of The Elderly Following A Health Shock: Evidence From Singapore, Terence Cheng, Li Jing, Rhema Vaithianathan

Research Collection School Of Economics

We use novel longitudinal datafrom 19 monthly waves of the Singapore Life Panel to examine the short-termdynamics of the effects health shocks have on household health and non-healthspending and income by the elderly. The health shocks we study are theoccurrence of new major conditions such as cancer, heart problems, and minorconditions (e.g. diabetes, and hypertension). Our empirical strategy exploits unanticipated changesin health status through the diagnosis of new health conditions, combined withan individual fixed effect framework. We find that major shocks have large and persistent effects while minorshocks have small and mainly contemporaneous effects. We find that householdincome reduces ...


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