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Modified Kernel Density Estimators For Gridded Estimation Of Precipitation Climatologies, Gregory Benton 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Modified Kernel Density Estimators For Gridded Estimation Of Precipitation Climatologies, Gregory Benton

Applied Mathematics Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Estimation of gridded precipitation is a major point of interest in climatological and hydro- logical research. Using a novel approach based around kernel density estimation we attempt to improve on a currently available estimators of gridded precipitation in both accuracy and under- standing uncertainty in predictions by generating robust precipitation climatologies. The method is constructed and validated using the United States Historical Climatology Network dataset covering the continental United States with sparse and irregular observation stations and accurate probability distributions that capture seasonal variance in the data are generated. Spatial estimates of local climatologies at arbitrary locations, both in and ...


Predicting Spatial Patterns In Precipitation Isotope (Δ2h And Δ18o) Seasonality Using Sinusoidal Isoscapes, Scott T. Allen, James W. Kirchner, Gregory R. Goldsmith 2018 ETH Zurich

Predicting Spatial Patterns In Precipitation Isotope (Δ2h And Δ18o) Seasonality Using Sinusoidal Isoscapes, Scott T. Allen, James W. Kirchner, Gregory R. Goldsmith

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Understanding how precipitation isotopes vary spatially and temporally is important for tracer applications. We tested how well month‐to‐month variations in precipitation δ18O and δ2H were captured by sinusoidal cycles, and how well spatial variations in these seasonal cycles could be predicted, across Switzerland. Sine functions representing seasonal cycles in precipitation isotopes explained between 47% and 94% of the variance in monthly δ18O and δ2H values at each monitoring site. A significant sinusoidal cycle was also observed in line‐conditioned excess. We interpolated the amplitudes, phases, and offsets of these sine functions across the landscape ...


Quantifying Factors That Influence Road Deicer Retention And Export In A Multi-Landuse Upstate New York Watershed, David Joseph Saba 2018 Binghamton University--SUNY

Quantifying Factors That Influence Road Deicer Retention And Export In A Multi-Landuse Upstate New York Watershed, David Joseph Saba

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

Chloride contamination of streams and groundwater has become a prevalent issue throughout urbanizing areas in the last half century, particularly in northern latitudes where deicing salts are applied to roadways. This study determined how deicer impacted runoff disperses through sub-urban and urban areas on seasonal and multi-year scales. Chloride concentration changes were then modelled under varying pollutant loading scenarios through an integrated catchment model (INCA-Cl).

Six in-stream conductivity/stage/temperature sondes, recording at 15-minute intervals, were installed within the small (~9.6 km2) Fuler Hollow Creek multi-landuse watershed in Broome County NY and monitored over a 1-year period. Weekly grab ...


An Analysis Of Runoff Ratios Across Urbanizing Gradients, Cole Jermyn 2018 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

An Analysis Of Runoff Ratios Across Urbanizing Gradients, Cole Jermyn

Honors Theses

This study examines precipitation and streamflow patterns in watersheds in the Bronx, New York and Baltimore, Maryland to analyze runoff ratios, the ratio of runoff to precipitation, across varying levels of urbanization. i-Tree Hydro was also utilized to assess its effectiveness at modeling urban hydrology. NEXRAD precipitation data and USGS streamflow measurements were used to calculate monthly average runoff ratios for five watersheds of varying land cover characteristics. This data, supplemented by weather station data from BWI Airport, was also used to run the i-Tree Hydro model. Streamflow predictions from this model were used to calculate average monthly runoff ratios ...


Evaluating Ecohydrological Separation With Geochemical Tracers, Δ2h And Δ18o, From Northern California In An Irrigated And Semi-Arid Setting, Erin Bulson 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Evaluating Ecohydrological Separation With Geochemical Tracers, Δ2h And Δ18o, From Northern California In An Irrigated And Semi-Arid Setting, Erin Bulson

Theses and Dissertations

The two water worlds hypothesis challenges the widely accepted ecohydrology tenet that plant roots access a single, homogeneous reservoir of soil water (McDonnell, 2014). This project aspired to advance the understanding of the two water worlds, or ecohydrological separation (ES) of soil water reservoirs, applied to an irrigated agricultural setting. This study also aimed to correlate plant root morphology with plant water uptake. Using geochemical tracers, δ2H and δ18O, isotopic analysis of soil and plant tissue was used to evaluate irrigated plant water acquisition. Field work was conducted on two irrigated farms, Full Belly Farm and Riverdog Farm, in the ...


Potential For Developing Run-Of-River Systems In Eastern Kentucky : A Gis Approach To Site Suitability., Thomas Jeffords 2018 University of Louisville

Potential For Developing Run-Of-River Systems In Eastern Kentucky : A Gis Approach To Site Suitability., Thomas Jeffords

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Coal has a questionable future with the potential exhaustion of available coal. Alternate sources of energy production should be considered, such as hydropower dams, or the more environmentally friendly, Run of River (RoR) hydropower system. This study seeks to answer the question: What is the potential for RoR hydroelectric systems in Eastern Kentucky counties with significant decreases in coal production and employment? I hypothesize that GIS will identify suitable sites within Pike County for RoR systems. Site suitability for Eastern Kentucky was assessed and determined that Pike County did not have a suitable physical environment for RoR systems. The power ...


Chemical And Statistical Analysis Of Karst Groundwater Basin Signatures - Springfield, Mo, Benjamin E. Lockwood 2018 Missouri State University

Chemical And Statistical Analysis Of Karst Groundwater Basin Signatures - Springfield, Mo, Benjamin E. Lockwood

MSU Graduate Theses

Springfield, MO is located on the Springfield Plateau physiographic province. The Springfield plateau contains a number of Mississippian aged units and is mainly capped by the Burlington-Keokuk Formation. The Burlington-Keokuk is a highly fossiliferous limestone with nodular and interbedded chert. Beneath the Burlington-Keokuk lies the Elsey, Reeds Spring, and Pierson Formations respectively which comprise the Springfield Plateau aquifer hydrostratigraphic unit. Within the Springfield Plateau aquifer, a well-developed karst system includes springs, sinkholes, and caves. The Springfield Plateau aquifer is the predominant source for springs and seeps in the Springfield area. The purpose of this study was to understand the differences ...


Using Landlab, A Fine Scale Biogeography Model, To Measure The Sustainability Of Semi-Arid Vegetation In A Changing Climate, Lucy Gelb 2018 Boise State University

Using Landlab, A Fine Scale Biogeography Model, To Measure The Sustainability Of Semi-Arid Vegetation In A Changing Climate, Lucy Gelb

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The distribution of vegetation in water-limited ecosystems is a product of complex and nonlinear interactions between climatic forcings (e.g., precipitation, temperature, solar radiation) and the underlying geomorphic template, which includes topography, geology, and soils. Changes in climate, particularly in precipitation and temperature, can dramatically alter the organization of vegetation. This is especially true in ecotones such as our area of study: the semi-arid transition between Great Basin shrub-steppe ecosystems and the coniferous forests of the Northern Rockies. Understanding and predicting how the spatial composition of terrestrial vegetation communities will change in these ecosystems is critical to predicting important future ...


Nebraska Wetland Condition Assessment: Intensification Of The National Wetland Condition Assessment Throughout Nebraska, Cody Dreier 2018 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Nebraska Wetland Condition Assessment: Intensification Of The National Wetland Condition Assessment Throughout Nebraska, Cody Dreier

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Even though wetlands provide a habitat for many plants and animals and numerous services for humans, they were not always treated as areas of value. Less than half of the United States’ pre-colonial wetlands have survived to the present day. Seeing a need to understand the remaining wetlands more fully, the Environmental Protection Agency developed the National Wetland Condition Assessment to monitor target wetlands throughout the country every five years.

This study is an intensification of the National Wetland Condition Assessment for Nebraska wetlands that allowed us to sample more areas of the state and gather additional information. During the ...


A Comparative Study Of The Role Of Values In Reasoning About Socio-Hydrological Issues In Undergraduate Students From Developed And Developing Countries, Destini Petitt 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Comparative Study Of The Role Of Values In Reasoning About Socio-Hydrological Issues In Undergraduate Students From Developed And Developing Countries, Destini Petitt

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

In a world that is becoming increasingly connected and exploited, it is essential to understand how students’ values influence socio-scientific reasoning, particularly when dealing with complex, multifaceted, ever-connected water-related issues. This research strives to better understand stakeholder reasoning to provide teachers and decision-makers with ways to implement those stakeholders’ ideals into choices about complex socio-hydrological issues. Moreover, with 96% of research behavioral research being conducted on peoples from developed countries – who only represent 17% of the world’s population – this study strives to understand how peoples from developing countries – who represent 83% of the world’s population – reason. For this ...


Investigating Mechanisms Of Hydraulic Conductivity Transience In Sandy Streambeds, Wilhelm Fraundorfer 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Investigating Mechanisms Of Hydraulic Conductivity Transience In Sandy Streambeds, Wilhelm Fraundorfer

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Streambed hydraulic conductivity (K) is known to be spatially and temporally heterogeneous, but few attempts to understand the controls on temporal variability have been made. This study documents temporal K transience and demonstrates how hydraulic, geophysical, and sedimentological methods can be combined to understand the processes that give rise to changes in streambed K. Falling head permeameter tests and slug tests were conducted to determine vertical K (Kv) and K (slug test K), respectively. These tests were repeated three times over a twelve-week period on the same grid at a depth of 0.5 meters below the bed of ...


Applications Of Reservoir Limnology Theory And Steady-State Modeling To Eutrophication Management In Beaver Lake, Arkansas, Matthew Rich 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Applications Of Reservoir Limnology Theory And Steady-State Modeling To Eutrophication Management In Beaver Lake, Arkansas, Matthew Rich

Theses and Dissertations

Reservoir limnology theory predicts that phytoplankton biomass (PB) is greatest in riverine-transition zones and least in lacustrine zones leading to an inverse pattern in water clarity. These theoretical patterns were utilized to create a statistical model of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), an indicator of PB, and Secchi transparency (ST), an indicator of Chl-a, in Beaver Lake, Arkansas, a 12,800-ha reservoir, in order to hindcast historical conditions. Sampling for Chl-a, ST, and photic depth occurred semimonthly at 12 locations along a 78-km transect from the river inflow to the dam during the 2015 growing season. The ratio of Chl-a and ST measured ...


Floods, Drying, Habitat Connectivity, And Fish Occupancy Dynamics In Restored And Unrestored Oxbows Of West Central Iowa, Usa, Jesse R. Fischer, Bryan D. Bakevich, Colin P. Shea, Clay L. Pierce, Michael C. Quist 2018 Iowa State University

Floods, Drying, Habitat Connectivity, And Fish Occupancy Dynamics In Restored And Unrestored Oxbows Of West Central Iowa, Usa, Jesse R. Fischer, Bryan D. Bakevich, Colin P. Shea, Clay L. Pierce, Michael C. Quist

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

1. In the agricultural landscape of the Midwestern USA, waterways are highly altered. Oxbows are among the few remaining off‐channel habitats associated with streams, supporting fish assemblages that include the endangered Topeka shiners Notropis topeka in portions of their remaining range. Oxbow restorations seek to increase the number and quality of oxbows for Topeka shiners. For oxbows to provide optimal habitat, periods of isolation from streams and connection with streams during floods are necessary.

2. Water levels and patterns of drying and hydrological connectivity between 12 oxbows and their neighboring streams in West Central Iowa were continuously monitored from ...


The Impact Of Land Use On Nitrate-N Movement And Storage In The Vadose Zone Of The Hastings’ Whpa, Craig Adams 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Impact Of Land Use On Nitrate-N Movement And Storage In The Vadose Zone Of The Hastings’ Whpa, Craig Adams

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Nebraska has one of the largest agricultural economies in the United States and relies heavily on irrigation and fertilizer application to maintain crop yields. Over-irrigation and continuous application of nitrogen (N) in many areas has led to accumulation of nitrate-N in soils and sediments throughout the state’s vadose zone. Because nitrate-N is both persistent and mobile, groundwater concentrations in many areas of Nebraska and other agriculturally intensive states are increasing. Nitrate-N contamination of public and private drinking water supplies that utilize groundwater are of particular concern. Vadose zone sampling is an important method for rapidly assessing the effect of ...


Assessing Land Deformation And Sea Encroachment In The Nile Delta, Egypt, Esayas Gebremichael 2018 Western Michigan University

Assessing Land Deformation And Sea Encroachment In The Nile Delta, Egypt, Esayas Gebremichael

Research and Creative Activities Poster Day

Persistent scatterer interferometric analyses were conducted on a stack of 84 Envisat ASAR scenes spanning 7 years (2004 to 2010) over the entire Nile Delta of Egypt and surroundings to monitor the ongoing spatial and temporal land deformation, identify the factors controlling the deformation, and model the interplay between sea level rise and land subsidence to identify areas and populations threatened by sea encroachment by the end of the 21st century. Findings include: (1) general patterns of subsidence in the northern delta, near-steady (none) subsidence in the southern delta, separated by a previously mapped flexure zone undergoing uplift; (2) high ...


A Hydrologic And Hydraulic Analysis Of Massie’S Creek Gorge, Greene County, Oh, Using Hec-Ras, Joshua W. Perez 2018 Cedarville University

A Hydrologic And Hydraulic Analysis Of Massie’S Creek Gorge, Greene County, Oh, Using Hec-Ras, Joshua W. Perez

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Massie’s Creek is a small tributary of the Little Miami River, located in southwest Ohio near the village of Cedarville. For approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) it flows westward through the Indian Mound Reserve Park, an area which occasionally undergoes flooding. In the first ½ mile (0.8 km) of the park, the stream is confined by a deep gorge, 40 feet (12 m) or more tall, and quickly flattens to a meandering stream through the rest of the park. The present study describes the application of HEC-RAS with the integration of ArcGIS for steady flow analyses ...


Grain Size Analysis Of Massie’S Creek Near Flax Pond And Community Park, Andrew R. Rivera 2018 Cedarville University

Grain Size Analysis Of Massie’S Creek Near Flax Pond And Community Park, Andrew R. Rivera

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The goal of this research is to better understand the stream bed conditions at the confluence of North Fork and South Fork Massie’s Creek next to Community Park in downtown Cedarville, OH. Stream depth as well as sediment type where determined as a result of field work done for this project. The depth data was then used to create a contour map of the pool behind the low-head dam that defines the lower boundary of the confluence area. Sediment distribution is represented on this map based on laboratory particle size analysis and gross piratical size analysis done in the ...


Reconstructing Late Holocene Paleofloods Along The Middle Tennessee River And Exploring Links With Climate And Land Use, Lance Stewart 2018 Murray State University

Reconstructing Late Holocene Paleofloods Along The Middle Tennessee River And Exploring Links With Climate And Land Use, Lance Stewart

Scholars Week

Sediment stored in floodplains and low alluvial terraces along the middle Tennessee River reflects flood frequency and magnitude during the past ca. 2800 years. This study uses the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and geochronology of three alluvial terraces to infer past flooding and explore links with climate change and anthropogenic land-use practices. Four sites located on different geomorphic landforms adjacent to the Tennessee River preserve records of at least 11 major flood events from 2780 ± 185 BP to 100 ± 10 BP. Buried soils at three sites are older than ca. 1380 BP and suggest a relatively recent period of landscape stability compared ...


Modeling Climate Change Impacts On Water Balance Components Of The Mackinaw River Watershed, Central Illinois, Joseph Honings 2018 Illinois State University

Modeling Climate Change Impacts On Water Balance Components Of The Mackinaw River Watershed, Central Illinois, Joseph Honings

Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the response of water cycle dynamics to climate change and human activity is essential for best management of water resources. This study used the USDA Soil-Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to measure and predict major water balance variables including stream discharge, potential aquifer recharge, and surface storage in a small-scale watershed (~2,930 km²) in Central Illinois. The watershed is predominantly tile-drained agricultural land, which controls the nutrient dynamics and hydrology. Two reservoirs, Evergreen Lake and Lake Bloomington, and the Mahomet Aquifer in the watershed are used for public water supply. The subject watershed has been very sensitive to recent ...


Flow And Transport In Low-Gradient Rivers And Estuaries, Hunter Lee Clasen 2018 University of South Florida

Flow And Transport In Low-Gradient Rivers And Estuaries, Hunter Lee Clasen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

For this dissertation I studied flow and transport in low gradient Florida streams. Chapter 2 is a statewide analysis of long-term variations in stream discharge. The results from Chapter 2 suggest that changes in mean annual stream discharge are controlled by the Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO). During the warm phase, mean annual discharge decreases in central Florida and increases in north Florida. The opposite is true during the cool phase, with mean annual discharge increasing in central Florida and decreasing in north Florida. This pattern is observed for both components of stream discharge, base flow and runoff.

The following two ...


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