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Effect Of Graded Levels Of Condensed Tannin (Ct) From Mimosa Pudica On In-Vitro Methane Production, P. K. Malik, R. Bhatta, N. Ravi, M. Saravanan, L. Baruah 2020 National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, India

Effect Of Graded Levels Of Condensed Tannin (Ct) From Mimosa Pudica On In-Vitro Methane Production, P. K. Malik, R. Bhatta, N. Ravi, M. Saravanan, L. Baruah

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Livestock in the country are primarily being fed on fibrous feed resulted in high enteric methane (CH4) emission along with low nutrients availability to host animal. Rumen methano genesis is necessary for the host system as this process ensure the removal of fermentative H2 through the reduction of CO2 into CH4. At the same time this process is wasteful because the emission also represents a loss of dietary energy (6-12% of gross energy intake) apart from contributing to global warming.

Worldwide livestock contribute around 90-95 Tg methane to the pool with a contribution of 12-13% from ...


Gross Biomass And Root/Shoot Ratio Mediated Drought Sensitivities Of Ecosystem Carbon Exchange In A Meadow Steppe, Yunbo Wang, Wei Sun, Deli Wang 2020 Northeast Normal University, China

Gross Biomass And Root/Shoot Ratio Mediated Drought Sensitivities Of Ecosystem Carbon Exchange In A Meadow Steppe, Yunbo Wang, Wei Sun, Deli Wang

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

According to IPCC’s Report (2007), global precipitation regimes will change largely in the future, with more annual precipitation at the mid-latitude regions. Simultaneously, due to the accelerating industrialization and use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, significant increase in nitrogen deposition has been widely documented (Liu et al., 2013).

Water and nitrogen are the two most important limiting factors for the ecological processes of arid and semi-arid grassland ecosystems; therefore, altered precipitation regimes and enhanced nitrogen deposition are likely to change vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and aboveground vs belowground biomass distribution.

In addition to these long-term changes, short-term climate extremes, such ...


Spatial Heterogeneity Of Soil And Vegetation Characteristics And Soil-Vegetation Relationships Along An Ecotone In Southern Mu Us Sandy Land, China, Yingzhong Xie, Kaiyang Qiu, Dongmei Xu, Richard Pott 2020 Ningxia University, China

Spatial Heterogeneity Of Soil And Vegetation Characteristics And Soil-Vegetation Relationships Along An Ecotone In Southern Mu Us Sandy Land, China, Yingzhong Xie, Kaiyang Qiu, Dongmei Xu, Richard Pott

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Spatial pattern analysis is an essential component of spatial heterogeneity studies on soil properties and vegetation characteristics. It was conducted in several studies for both soil and vegetation characteristics (Strand et al., 2007; Dick and Gilliam, 2007; Zuo et al., 2010). This study aims to examine the changes in the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties at different soil layers, the spatial heterogeneity of soil and vegetation characteristics along an ecotone, and soil-vegetation relationships along the ecotone in a critical area of desertification.


Evaluate The Interactions Between Grassland Ecosystems And Precipitation Anomalies Under Changing Grazing Intensity In Central Asia, Dildora Aralova, Babatunde A. Osunmadewa, Toderich Kristina, Dilshod Gafurov, Elmar Csaplovics 2020 Technical University of Dresden, Germany

Evaluate The Interactions Between Grassland Ecosystems And Precipitation Anomalies Under Changing Grazing Intensity In Central Asia, Dildora Aralova, Babatunde A. Osunmadewa, Toderich Kristina, Dilshod Gafurov, Elmar Csaplovics

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Long term monitoring of grassland being the largest ecosystem on earth plays an important role in understanding its productivity and transformation (changes) over time. With the availability of remote sensing data, most ecological and environmental problems caused either by human activities such as extensive agriculture, pastoralism which might lead to desertification, land degradation, loss of biodiversity and climate change amongst others can be monitored. For this study, vegetation cover was selected as the main source of examination and subsets of area covered with grasslands were profiled for further monitoring of grassland increasing and decreasing trends in selected areas of Central ...


Effect Of Climate Change In 50-Years Period On Grassland Productivity In Central Poland, Piotr Goliñski, Marek Czerwinski, Barbara Golinska 2020 Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poland

Effect Of Climate Change In 50-Years Period On Grassland Productivity In Central Poland, Piotr Goliñski, Marek Czerwinski, Barbara Golinska

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In Central Europe, the climate change is predicted to bring more rainfall in winter, less rainfall in summer, and an increased drought risk (Trnka et al., 2011). Smit et al., (2008) reported that significant drops in grassland productivity can usually be attributed to drier summers. Also in Poland, the most important abiotic factor limiting grassland productivity is water shortage and its distribution during vegetative season. Indicating the influence of climate on grass vegetation growth could be an important tool in grassland management on the national, regional and single grassland scales. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect ...


Climate Change Adaptation In Vulnerable Crop And Livestock Production Systems In Mgeta, Tanzania, Leif Jarle Asheim, Zabron C. Nziku, Lars O. Eik, Dismas Mwaseba, George C. Kifaro 2020 Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute, Norway

Climate Change Adaptation In Vulnerable Crop And Livestock Production Systems In Mgeta, Tanzania, Leif Jarle Asheim, Zabron C. Nziku, Lars O. Eik, Dismas Mwaseba, George C. Kifaro

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Awareness regarding effects of climate change on the environment and livelihoods is becoming more apparent than at any time before (Elisha, 2006). Among the farming systems that have attracted the attention in Tanzania, are those in Mgeta in thehigh altitude water catchment area in the Uluguru Mountains. Land degradation have been widely reported in Mgeta (Ponte, 2001), and is currently threatening the source of water for domestic use and livelihoods of the local communities. Increased occurrence of droughts and dry spells during the growing seasons might reinforce the problem. A robust cropping system toreplace the erosion vulnerable vegetables seems needed ...


Response Of Dynamic Change Of Vegetation Index To Precipitation Fluctuations In Hulunbeier Typical Steppe, Zhaoyan Diao, Shihai Lu, Zhirong Zheng, Shengxing Ye 2020 Beijing Forestry University, China

Response Of Dynamic Change Of Vegetation Index To Precipitation Fluctuations In Hulunbeier Typical Steppe, Zhaoyan Diao, Shihai Lu, Zhirong Zheng, Shengxing Ye

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In arid and semi-arid regions, precipitation is an important environmental limiting factor for ecosystems, where precipitation characteristic parameters at different time scales have great variability (Mohammad and Howard, 2006), and the small precipitation events (< 5 mm) is the subject of precipitation events (Loik et al., 2004, Sala and Lauenroth, 1982). In this study, we used vegetation index extracted from TM or MODIS image to establish the regression models between vegetation index and precipitation, and then analyzed the response of typical steppe vegetation to precipitation fluctuations. Our result can supply reference for the productivity measurement model in typical steppe.


Effect Of Silting Yield Index On Biomass And Carbon Sequestration Potential Along An Altitudinal Gradient Of Subtropical Chir Pine Forests And Grasslands In North Western Himalaya, India, Debasis Mahato, B. Gupta, Matber Singh 2020 Birsa Agricultural University, India

Effect Of Silting Yield Index On Biomass And Carbon Sequestration Potential Along An Altitudinal Gradient Of Subtropical Chir Pine Forests And Grasslands In North Western Himalaya, India, Debasis Mahato, B. Gupta, Matber Singh

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Biomass is an important characteristic of vegetation and is regarded as an important indicator of ecological and management processes in the vegetation. Measures of standing crop also reflect the amount of energy stored in the vegetation, which can indicate the potential productivity at the site. Forests are important for carbon sequestration besides playing very important role in the global carbon cycle. They store about 80% of all aboveground and 40% of all belowground terrestrial organic carbon. This study comprises to estimate the biomass and carbon stock of chirpine forests at different altitudinal gradients.


Frost Tolerance, Deacclimation And Reacclimation Traits In Perennial Ryegrass, Mats Höglind, Hans Martin Hanslin 2020 Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Norway

Frost Tolerance, Deacclimation And Reacclimation Traits In Perennial Ryegrass, Mats Höglind, Hans Martin Hanslin

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The ability of perennial grasses to harden and maintain frost tolerance throughout the winter is crucial for winter survival. This includes the ability to resist deacclimation during transient mild spells in winter, and the ability to reacclimate when cold temperatures return. The latter traits are especially critical in regions with cycles of freezing and thawing, and lack of a stable, insulating snowcover that can protect the plants from extreme air temperatures. Such conditions are typical for many coastal areas in Northern Eurasia and America, such as the southwestern coast of Norway. The climate is changing and one of the consequences ...


Importance Of Grassland Management For Carbon Sequestration And To Mitigate Climate Change: A Review, Poonam Yadav, Sheela Choudhary, Sunil Dutt Choudhary, Praveen Kaushik 2020 Post Graduate Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, India

Importance Of Grassland Management For Carbon Sequestration And To Mitigate Climate Change: A Review, Poonam Yadav, Sheela Choudhary, Sunil Dutt Choudhary, Praveen Kaushik

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Grasslands, including rangelands, shrub lands, pastureland, and cropland sown with pasture and fodder crops, covered approximately 3.5 billion ha in 2000, representing 26 percent of the world land area and 70 percent of the world agricultural area, and containing about 20 percent of the world’s soil carbon stocks (Ramankutty et al., 2008). All ecosystems- forested ecosystems, agro-ecosystems, grassland, ecosystems etc. take up atmospheric CO2 and mineral nutrients and transform them into organic products In undisturbed ecosystems, the carbon balance tends to be positive: carbon uptake through photosynthesis exceeds losses from respiration, even in mature, old-growth forest ecosystems ...


Effect Of Topographical Condition On Radioactive Cesium Pollution Of Herbaceous Plants In A Mountainous Grazing Pasture After Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, Shin-ichiro Ogura, Masanori Saito 2020 Tohoku University, Japan

Effect Of Topographical Condition On Radioactive Cesium Pollution Of Herbaceous Plants In A Mountainous Grazing Pasture After Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, Shin-Ichiro Ogura, Masanori Saito

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, followed by tsunami, incurred the accident of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS). The radioactive fallout was dispersed by wind and deposited in large part of eastern Japan by rainfall or snowfall after the accident (Chino et al., 2011; Katata et al., 2012; Terada et al., 2012). That caused extensive pollution by radioactive cesium (Cs) (the sum of 134Cs and 137Cs) in agricultural lands (MEXT, 2011) including permanent pastures and meadows. In mountainous areas, it can be thought that radioactive Cs migrated from convex to concave regions by snow melting ...


Simulating The Effect Of The Climate Change, Genotypes And Management On The Productivity Of Forage Cowpea In Semi-Arid Regions Of India, Suchit K. Rai, Sunil Kumar, D. Deb 2020 Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, India

Simulating The Effect Of The Climate Change, Genotypes And Management On The Productivity Of Forage Cowpea In Semi-Arid Regions Of India, Suchit K. Rai, Sunil Kumar, D. Deb

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Climate variability and change due to increase in green house gases concentration and the resultant increase in temperature has led to notable changes in different sectors including water and agriculture which would impact food security (Rai et al., 2014) in many regions of the developing world, which are largely dependent on rainfed and labor intensive agricultural production (Ziervogel and Calder, 2003). Eco-physiological models are widely used especially the potential impacts of climate change (Gitay et al., 2001; White et al., 2011). The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is an annual herbaceous legume cultivated for its edible seeds or for fodder ...


Change In Migration And Pasture Utilization By Brokpa Pastoral Nomads: A Sustainable Adaptation Strategy For Climate Sensitive Arunachal Pradesh!?, Sanjit Maiti, S. K. Jha, Sanchita Garai, Vijay Paul, G. Krishnan, A. K. Bera, D. Bhattacharya, S. M. Deb 2020 National Research Centre on Yak, India

Change In Migration And Pasture Utilization By Brokpa Pastoral Nomads: A Sustainable Adaptation Strategy For Climate Sensitive Arunachal Pradesh!?, Sanjit Maiti, S. K. Jha, Sanchita Garai, Vijay Paul, G. Krishnan, A. K. Bera, D. Bhattacharya, S. M. Deb

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The north-eastern states of India specially Arunachal Pradesh, one of the bio-diversity hotspot, is expected to be greatly affected by climate change. Climate change will not only adversely impact the biodiversity of Arunachal Pradesh, but also affect the livelihood of local communities as they fully dependent on the natural resources. The Monpa is a primitive tribe inhabiting parts of West Kameng and Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh. The pastoral nomad of the Monpa tribe is popularly known as Brokpa. Transhumance system of livestock mainly yak (Poephagus grunniens L.) rearing is their main source of livelihood. In recent past, challenges of ...


Integrated Evaluation Of Soil Carbon Budget By Manure Application On Forage Production, Mikinori Tsuiki, Ryo Sato, Shoji Matsuura, Mariko Shimizu, Ryusuke Hatano, Takatoshi Arita, Akinori Mori, Akira Miyata, Masayuki Hojito, Mitsuhiro Niimi 2020 Iwate University, Japan

Integrated Evaluation Of Soil Carbon Budget By Manure Application On Forage Production, Mikinori Tsuiki, Ryo Sato, Shoji Matsuura, Mariko Shimizu, Ryusuke Hatano, Takatoshi Arita, Akinori Mori, Akira Miyata, Masayuki Hojito, Mitsuhiro Niimi

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Grasslands and forage crop fields produce forages and also have many services and functions such as repositories of biodiversity, climate regulation and soil conservation (Sala and Paruelo, 1997). Carbon budget is one of these important ecosystem services by high levels of carbon sequestration below ground (Hungate et al., 1997). Manure application increases carbon budget and also affects forage production, NO3- leaching to underground water and N2O emission to atmosphere. Integrated evaluation of these various environmental impacts is important to find optimum condition for forage production and environmental impacts. LIME2 (Life-cycle Impact assessment Method based on Endpoint modeling ...


Regulation Of Nitrification In Soil: Advances In Integration Of Brachiaria Hybrids To Intensify Agriculture And To Mitigate Climate Change, Jacobo Arango, Idupulapati M. Rao, Manabu Ishitani, John W. Miles, Michael Peters, Joe Tohme, Danilo E. Moreta, Margaret Worthington, Rein van der Hoek, Mario Cuchillo, Glenn Hyman, Jeimar Tapasco, Jesus Martinez 2020 Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Colombia

Regulation Of Nitrification In Soil: Advances In Integration Of Brachiaria Hybrids To Intensify Agriculture And To Mitigate Climate Change, Jacobo Arango, Idupulapati M. Rao, Manabu Ishitani, John W. Miles, Michael Peters, Joe Tohme, Danilo E. Moreta, Margaret Worthington, Rein Van Der Hoek, Mario Cuchillo, Glenn Hyman, Jeimar Tapasco, Jesus Martinez

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Higher rates of nitrification in soil facilitate nitrogen (N) losses from agricultural systems through nitrate-leaching and denitrification. Plants’ ability to produce and release nitrification inhibitors from roots and suppress soil-nitrifier activity is termed ‘biological nitrification inhibition’ (BNI) (Subbarao et al., 2015). Up to 70% of applied N-fertilizer is lost (via NO3−leaching and gaseous-N emissions) from agricultural systems and the annual economic loss from lost N-fertilizer is estimated at 90 US$ billion. Previous research has indicated that Brachiaria humidicola (Bh), a tropical forage grass that is well adapted to infertile and waterlogged soils, has high capacity to inhibit nitrification in ...


Down Regulation Of Receptor Like Kinase Gene In Apomictic Cenchrus Ciliaris, Shashi, Anuj Dwivedi, Vishnu Bhat 2020 University of Delhi, India

Down Regulation Of Receptor Like Kinase Gene In Apomictic Cenchrus Ciliaris, Shashi, Anuj Dwivedi, Vishnu Bhat

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Apomixis is a potential technology for agriculture to fix heterosis or hybrid vigor in hybrid plants. Cenchrus ciliaris which is a popular forage crop reproduces predominantly through apomixis and has been used as a model plant to understand genetic and molecular mechanisms controlling apomixis. A partial receptor like kinase gene (CcRLK) was isolated from apomictic C. ciliaris which showed exclusive expression in the embryo sacs of apomictic flowers compared to sexual embryo sacs during in situ hybridization analysis. This gene showed kinase and LRR domains implying its putative role in signaling pathways. In order to understand its functional significance, it ...


Development Of Est Derived Microsatellite Markers In Buffel Grass And Their Cross Transferability To Other Forage Grasses, Auji Radhakrishna, Krishna Kumar Dwivedi 2020 Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, India

Development Of Est Derived Microsatellite Markers In Buffel Grass And Their Cross Transferability To Other Forage Grasses, Auji Radhakrishna, Krishna Kumar Dwivedi

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) is an important perennial grass grown widely in arid and semiarid regions of the world. It is one of the prominent species of the Dichanthium-Cenchrus-Lasiurus grass cover spread over the Peninsular India (Dabadghao and Shankarnarayan, 1973). C. ciliaris is a warm season, C4 grass well adapted to survive harsh conditions, elevated CO2 levels and wide range of climates and soil regimes. It is considered an excellent pasture grass as it provides highly nutritious and palatable forage during drought periods. Despite its excellent forage characteristics genetic improvement through conventional breeding methods has been difficult ...


Ploidy Dependent Expression Of Apomixis Components In Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum Jacq.), P. Kaushal, Krishna Kumar Dwivedi, Auji Radhakrishna, Sheena Saxena, Sharmishtha Paul, Ajoy K. Roy, D. R. Malaviya 2020 Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, India

Ploidy Dependent Expression Of Apomixis Components In Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum Jacq.), P. Kaushal, Krishna Kumar Dwivedi, Auji Radhakrishna, Sheena Saxena, Sharmishtha Paul, Ajoy K. Roy, D. R. Malaviya

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Apomixis is an asexual method of reproduction through seeds. The potential of apomixis has been envisaged as “asexual revolution” by virtue of its capacity to fix hybrid vigour, a much desirable feature in breeding of agricultural crops. The genetic mechanism of apomixis regulation is complex and is believed to be largely affected by polyploidy (Nogler 1984). Expression of apomixis essentially contains three components, viz. apomeiosis (formation of unreduced egg cell), parthenogenesis (fertilization independent embryo development) and functional endosperm development (autonomous or psuedogamous). In contrast to previous reports, the evidence has now gathered that these three components can be functionally uncoupled ...


Establishment Of High-Efficiency Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Of Callus Derived From Sehima Nervosum, An Important Range Grass Species, Krishna Kumar Dwivedi, Tanu Sonkar, R. Katiyar, Auji Radhakrishna, P. Kaushal 2020 Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, India

Establishment Of High-Efficiency Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Of Callus Derived From Sehima Nervosum, An Important Range Grass Species, Krishna Kumar Dwivedi, Tanu Sonkar, R. Katiyar, Auji Radhakrishna, P. Kaushal

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Sehima nervosum is one of the important rangeland grass in India, It is commonly known as Saen grass in India, white grass in Australia, and has also been reported from the Central East Africa and Sudan. It is a good forage grass and maybe utilized for grazing as well as for hay preparation. It is a perennial grass, prefers hot and dry climate and survive even in limited rainfalls. As this natural grass is found inherently rich in precursors for several industrially important biomolecules, fractionation of these precursors seems to be a promising endeavour. Production of nutraceuticals (prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides) from ...


Transcriptome Analysis Of Differentially Expressed Genes At Pre-Meiotic Developmental Stage In Pennisetum Hybrids With Contrasting Modes Of Reproduction, Krishna Kumar Dwivedi, Auji Radhakrishna, D. R. Malaviya, Ajoy K. Roy, P. Kaushal 2020 Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, India

Transcriptome Analysis Of Differentially Expressed Genes At Pre-Meiotic Developmental Stage In Pennisetum Hybrids With Contrasting Modes Of Reproduction, Krishna Kumar Dwivedi, Auji Radhakrishna, D. R. Malaviya, Ajoy K. Roy, P. Kaushal

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Apomixis is an asexual reproduction through seeds where embryo develops without meiosis and fertilization. It is widely distributed throughout plant kingdom, but is more prevalent in families like Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Poaceae (Carman, 1997). This trait is highly desirable for fixing heterosis in F1 hybrids with significant implications for crop improvement (Dwivedi et al., 2007). Therefore it is necessary to unravel the molecular and genetic basis of apomixis to tap its potential. Pennisetum is an important genus of the Poaceae family which contains a wide range of species exhibiting wide variability in morphological, molecular, and reproductive traits (Jauhar, 1998). It ...


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