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A Security Approach For The Example Sodium Fast Reactor, Christian X. Young, Robert S. Bean 2018 Purdue University

A Security Approach For The Example Sodium Fast Reactor, Christian X. Young, Robert S. Bean

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Increases in the spread of nuclear technology and the rise of non-state terrorism in the modern era has proved the need for effective security approaches to new nuclear facilities. Many documents about security approaches for nuclear plants are non-public material, however, making it difficult to teach others about the basics of security design. To alleviate this issue, we used available texts in the security realm to design a security approach for the Generation IV International Forum’s Example Sodium Fast Reactor. Our approach utilized infrared, microwave, fiber optic, and other advanced technologies to provide security for the special nuclear material ...


Pnnl Dark Matter Bubble Chamber, Ryan Robinson 2018 STAR Program

Pnnl Dark Matter Bubble Chamber, Ryan Robinson

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) prototype bubble chamber is intended to address issues encountered with the current PICO dark matter search detectors and improve the functionality of future experimental designs. The PNNL bubble chamber accomplishes this with a simplified interface between the hydraulic pressure controls and the target vessel and altering the standard chamber design such that it can be easily exchanged and replaced with vessels of various sizes and materials for testing purposes. The chamber itself is a glass vessel which houses perfluorobutane and holds the target fluid above room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The target fluid becomes ...


Integrated Microsphere Whispering Gallery Mode Probe For Highly Sensitive Refractive Index Measurement, Hanzheng Wang, Lei Yuan, Cheol-Woon Kim, Jie Huang, Xinwei Lan, Hai Xiao 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Integrated Microsphere Whispering Gallery Mode Probe For Highly Sensitive Refractive Index Measurement, Hanzheng Wang, Lei Yuan, Cheol-Woon Kim, Jie Huang, Xinwei Lan, Hai Xiao

Jie Huang

We report an integrated whispering gallery mode microresonator-based sensor probe for refractive index sensing. The probe was made by sealing a borosilicate glass microsphere into a thin-wall glass capillary pigtailed with a multimode optical fiber. The intensities of the resonant peaks were found decreasing exponentially (linearly in a log scale) with the increasing refractive index of the medium surrounding the capillary. The sensing capability of the integrated probe was tested using sucrose solutions of different concentrations and the resolution was estimated to be about 2.5 x 10-5 in the index range of 1.3458 to 1.3847. The ...


Sonomechanical Enhanced Sparging Techniques For Advanced Reactor Applications, Floren V. Rubio 2018 University of New Mexico

Sonomechanical Enhanced Sparging Techniques For Advanced Reactor Applications, Floren V. Rubio

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

The fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) is a Generation IV advanced reactor design that has potential to produce efficient, low carbon, and safe energy. But, there are significant engineering challenges that need to be addressed before the deployment of this reactor. One of the key challenges is tritium release mitigation and sequestration. Because the FHR utilizes a eutectic LiF-BeF2 (flibe) salt as a coolant, the coolant is a significant source of tritium.

High-power ultrasonics have been used in many industrial process streams such as food processing, metal production, chemical production, and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Techniques and concepts from these ...


Recommended Corrective Security Measures To Address The Weaknesses Identified Within The Shapash Nuclear Research Institute, Khadija Moussaid, Oum Keltoum Hakam 2018 University of Ibn Tofail

Recommended Corrective Security Measures To Address The Weaknesses Identified Within The Shapash Nuclear Research Institute, Khadija Moussaid, Oum Keltoum Hakam

International Journal of Nuclear Security

The Shapash Nuclear Research Institute (SNRI) data book was issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2013. The hypothetical facility data book describes the hypothetical site, which is divided into two areas: the low-security area, known as the administrative area, and the very high-security area, known as the protected area. The book contains detailed descriptions of each area’s safety and security measures, along with figures of multiple buildings in both areas, and also includes information about the site’s computer networks.

This paper aims to identify security weaknesses related to the institute’s location, the Administrative Area ...


The Continuing Quest For Missile Defense: When Lofty Goals Confront Reality, Peter J. Pella 2018 Gettysburg College

The Continuing Quest For Missile Defense: When Lofty Goals Confront Reality, Peter J. Pella

Gettysburg College Faculty Books

For almost three quarters of a century, the United States has spent billions of dollars and countless person-hours in the pursuit of a national missile defense system that would protect the country from intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) carrying nuclear warheads. The system currently in place consists of 44 long-range antiballistic missiles stationed in Alaska and California to protect the United States from a possible nuclear weapon carrying ICBM attack from North Korea. After all this effort, this system is still imperfect, being successful only 10 out of 18 tests.

This book will provide an historical description of past efforts in ...


Actinium-225 Production Via Different Irradiation Beams Of Thorium-232, Naser Burahmah 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Actinium-225 Production Via Different Irradiation Beams Of Thorium-232, Naser Burahmah

Nuclear Engineering Reports

No abstract provided.


Interdigital Capacitance Local Non-Destructive Examination Of Nuclear Power Plant Cable For Aging Management Programs, S. W. Glass, L. S. Fifield, Nicola Bowler, Aishwarya Sriraman, W. C. Palmer 2018 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Interdigital Capacitance Local Non-Destructive Examination Of Nuclear Power Plant Cable For Aging Management Programs, S. W. Glass, L. S. Fifield, Nicola Bowler, Aishwarya Sriraman, W. C. Palmer

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of non-destructive test methods focusing on local cable insulation and jacket testing using an interdigital capacitance (IDC) approach. Earlier studies have assessed a number of non-destructive examination (NDE) methods for bulk, distributed, and local cable tests. A typical test strategy is to perform bulk assessments of the cable response using dielectric spectroscopy, Tan , or partial discharge followed by distributed tests like time domain reflectometry or frequency domain reflectometry to identify the most likely defect location followed by a local test that can include visual inspection, indenter ...


Molecular Dynamics Simulations Of Hydrogen Diffusion And Retention Behavior Near Sub-Surface Defects In Tungsten: Towards Predicting Tritium Retention In The Iter Divertor, Emily Nicole Hutchins 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Molecular Dynamics Simulations Of Hydrogen Diffusion And Retention Behavior Near Sub-Surface Defects In Tungsten: Towards Predicting Tritium Retention In The Iter Divertor, Emily Nicole Hutchins

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of hydrogen diffusion and retention behavior near subsurface defects in tungsten: Towards predicting tritium retention in the ITER divertor

Plasma-facing components within fusion reactors will be exposed to massive particle and thermal loads, which will pose serious material challenges. The plasma-facing component of interest in this project is the divertor, a device that allows for the online removal of the helium reaction product from the deuterium – tritium plasma. The ITER divertor will be constructed from tungsten, which is also a prime candidate for use in future demonstration fusion reactors, because of its superior mechanical properties and low ...


X-Means Clustering Implementing The Gap Statistic For Multiple Positron Emission Particle Tracking, Matthew Herald 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

X-Means Clustering Implementing The Gap Statistic For Multiple Positron Emission Particle Tracking, Matthew Herald

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The most efficient and accurate method for clustering Coincidence Lines (CL) for Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) is undetermined. A number of methods have been created to perform this task. A novel clustering method featuring x-means is presented using an automated k-value estimator for k-means clustering. Gap statistic is used to select the best k-value. Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission is used to simulate particles of 50 µCi and the detection and electronic chain associated with the Siemens Inveon Pre-Clinical Scanner. The simulation produces an array of coincident lines (CL) in a format consistent with scanner output. The CL are ...


Detector Arrays For Nuclear Security And Safeguards Applications, Jessica Hartman 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Detector Arrays For Nuclear Security And Safeguards Applications, Jessica Hartman

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Over the last two decades it has become increasingly apparent that there is a need for new technologies capable of reliable and efficient fast neutron detection. As national and international stockpiles of 3He continue to dwindle, the need to find a new gold standard of neutron detection becomes more critical. Moreover, neutrons are generated typically in the MeV energy range. The use of 3He detectors for fast neutron measurements requires the use of moderators. Detector arrays capable of fast neutron detection are one solution to this problem. To this end, the focus of this work was the study of detector ...


Irradiation Experiment For Living Insect-Based Radiological Dispersal Device, Braden Goddard, Walid Metwally, Ahmad Ababneh 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Irradiation Experiment For Living Insect-Based Radiological Dispersal Device, Braden Goddard, Walid Metwally, Ahmad Ababneh

International Journal of Nuclear Security

People generally associate fear with “nuclear”, “radioactive” and “insects”. It is speculated that a release of radioactive living insects would instill more fear into the general public than a “traditional” style radiological dispersion device (RDD). This paper evaluates the potential threat of an insect-based RDD using experimental data. The results of this project found that insect-based RDDs are an insignificant threat due to the challenges in making insects radioactive enough to pose any danger to humans without killing the insects.


Scintillator-Based Uav, Austin Mullen, Chris Haseler, Sarah Davis, Brooke McMurrer, Tanner Jefferies, Peyton Lara 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Scintillator-Based Uav, Austin Mullen, Chris Haseler, Sarah Davis, Brooke Mcmurrer, Tanner Jefferies, Peyton Lara

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Design And Characterization Of Systems For Direct Spatial Imaging Of Low-Energy Gamma-Radiation Sources, Phoenix Baldez 2018 Doctoral Student, Nuclear Engineering

Design And Characterization Of Systems For Direct Spatial Imaging Of Low-Energy Gamma-Radiation Sources, Phoenix Baldez

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

This work describes the development of radiation detection systems to identify and image special nuclear material (SNM) using low energy gamma rays. The imaging of these materials is crucial for timely, in the field responses to potential threats to national security. Using a spectroscopy system, the sources can be identified while images can be produced concurrently for the sources which are present. Two systems were designed and characterized in this study, a collimated imager which used collimation in front of a small CdTe detector, and a pixelated pinhole imager, using a pinhole mask in front of a pixelated CZT detector ...


Developing Kenya’S Educational Capacity In Nuclear Security Through Nuclear Forensics Research, Hudson Kalambuka Angeyo 2018 Department of Physics, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Developing Kenya’S Educational Capacity In Nuclear Security Through Nuclear Forensics Research, Hudson Kalambuka Angeyo

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Nuclear energy’s distinctive characteristics give rise to special educational requirements. These requirements are necessary to not only address the danger of nuclear proliferation, but also to build capacity for a secure nuclear fuel circle. In this paper, I assess the status of educational capacity in nuclear security both in response to, and in support of, Kenya’s nuclear power program. I highlight the nuclear security educational infrastructure’s key features in the context of nuclear power, noting the low capacity at Kenyan universities. I identify the steps required to ensure that the country’s dynamic nuclear regulatory infrastructural framework ...


An Exploration Of The Optical Detection Of Ionizing Radiation Utilizing Modern Optics Technology, Sean D. Fournier, Adam Hecht, Cassiano de Oliveira, Jeffrey B. Martin, Richard K. Harrison, Charles Potter 2018 The University of New Mexico, Sandia National Laboratories

An Exploration Of The Optical Detection Of Ionizing Radiation Utilizing Modern Optics Technology, Sean D. Fournier, Adam Hecht, Cassiano De Oliveira, Jeffrey B. Martin, Richard K. Harrison, Charles Potter

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Modern ultraviolet (UV) cameras, when combined with UV-transmitting lenses/filter arrangements, can be used to detect radiation dose in air. Ionizing radiation excites nitrogen molecules in ambient air, the resulting decay includes weak emission of ultraviolet photons. Previous work has proven this phenomenon is detectable using highly-sensitive electronically cooled cameras traditionally used in astronomy for low-background imaging. While the ability to detect the presence of radiation (i.e. qualitative measurement) has been demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratories, there are several challenges in correlating images to known dose-fields (quantitative measurement). These challenges include: a low signal to background ratio, interferences due ...


Patient Specific Radiation Doses From Projection Radiography Images: Improving The Accuracy Of Low Dose Radiation Calculations, Daniel J. Sandoval 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Patient Specific Radiation Doses From Projection Radiography Images: Improving The Accuracy Of Low Dose Radiation Calculations, Daniel J. Sandoval

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Due to an increase in regulatory scrutiny and medical facility accreditation requirements to monitor patient radiation dose from diagnostic imaging procedures, there is a growing necessity to determine and record accurate patient radiation dose from diagnostic medical imaging procedures. Current methods of patient dosimetry in diagnostic imaging are both extremely difficult and time consuming, require large computing resources (such as Monte Carlo computations), or lack accuracy due to using data based on homogeneous materials and “standard-man sized” anthropomorphic models.

This dissertation provides an algorithm that calculates a more accurate dose using patient-specific projection radiographic images. The algorithm includes measurements acquired ...


Case Study On The Development Of Engineering Design Modification Projects For U.S. Nuclear Power Plants: A Knowledge Retention Tool In Support Of The Longevity And Resilience Of The Nuclear Power Industry, Pamela M. Torres-Jiménez 2018 Old Dominion University

Case Study On The Development Of Engineering Design Modification Projects For U.S. Nuclear Power Plants: A Knowledge Retention Tool In Support Of The Longevity And Resilience Of The Nuclear Power Industry, Pamela M. Torres-Jiménez

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The nuclear power industry in the United States (U.S.) has gone through various changes throughout its history. Most recently, plans to grow the industry through the construction of new power plants have ceased. Because of this, the industry is at a period where the longevity and resilience of existing nuclear power plants are vital to its subsistence.

One of the ways existing nuclear power plants can assure longevity and resilience is by performing engineering design modifications efficiently and at a lower cost. Strategic plans, such as the Delivering the Nuclear Promise, can support nuclear utilities to achieve this. Another ...


Development Of A Novel Framework For The Application Of Signature Based Safeguards (Sbs) To Pyroprocessing, Philip Leo Lafreniere 2018 University of New Mexico

Development Of A Novel Framework For The Application Of Signature Based Safeguards (Sbs) To Pyroprocessing, Philip Leo Lafreniere

Nuclear Engineering ETDs

Traditional nuclear material accountancy (NMA) faces several challenges when applied to pyroprocessing facilities. To address these challenges, alternative methods of safeguarding nuclear material are being developed. One method is process monitoring (PM). PM involves taking operational process data and applying it to safeguards using an advanced framework. Signature Based Safeguards (SBS), a proposed PM framework, involves the identification of anomalous scenarios and the subsequent identification and detection of their respective PM signatures from a system of measurements. SBS has previously focused on failure modes that result in transfer of mass to unexpected places in the mass flowsheet. This work developed ...


The "Double Standard" Of Nonproliferation: Regime Type And The U.S. Response To Nuclear Weapons Program, Alina Shymanska 2018 NEREC Research Fellow

The "Double Standard" Of Nonproliferation: Regime Type And The U.S. Response To Nuclear Weapons Program, Alina Shymanska

International Journal of Nuclear Security

There is no doubt that the NPT regime is far from being equal for all states involved. As the predominant hegemonic power since WWII, the United States plays a major role in deciding the fates of non-great power proliferators. This article tries to find the logical explanation of the phenomenon whereby some nuclear proliferators are absolved regardless of their active accumulation of nuclear arsenals while others are labeled as “rogue states” and ordered to disarm. The article suggests that a particular proliferator’s political regime could affect the way in which its state is approached by the U.S., known ...


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