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Alternative Splicing Of The Slco1b1 Gene: An Exploratory Analysis Of Isoform Diversity In Pediatric Liver., Bianca D. van Groen, Chengpeng Bi, Roger Gaedigk, Vincent S. Staggs, Dick Tibboel, Saskia N. de Wildt, J Steven Leeder 2020 Children's Mercy Hospitals

Alternative Splicing Of The Slco1b1 Gene: An Exploratory Analysis Of Isoform Diversity In Pediatric Liver., Bianca D. Van Groen, Chengpeng Bi, Roger Gaedigk, Vincent S. Staggs, Dick Tibboel, Saskia N. De Wildt, J Steven Leeder

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

The hepatic influx transporter OATP1B1 (SLCO1B1) plays an important role in the disposition of endogenous substrates and drugs prescribed to children. Alternative splicing increases the diversity of protein products from > 90% of human genes and may be triggered by developmental signals. As concentrations of several endogenous OATP1B1 substrates change during growth and development, with this exploratory study we investigated age-dependent alternative splicing of SLCO1B1 mRNA in 97 postmortem livers (fetus-adolescents). Twenty-seven splice variants were detected; 10 were confirmed by additional bioinformatic analyses and verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and selected for detailed analysis based on relative abundance, association with ...


Genetic Counselors' Approaches To Direct-To-Consumer Genetic Testing For Hereditary Breast Cancer, Sarah Burke 2020 The Texas Medical Center Library

Genetic Counselors' Approaches To Direct-To-Consumer Genetic Testing For Hereditary Breast Cancer, Sarah Burke

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Given the increasing availability of health-related direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) and third-party interpretation (TPI) services, it is likely that genetic counselors (GCs) will continue to encounter consumers that require follow-up counseling for their results. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends clinical-grade genetic testing to confirm commercial results; however, the type of testing that GCs select remains uncharacterized. Therefore, we aimed to describe the specific recommendations that cancer GCs make for confirmatory genetic testing in probands who have already obtained DTC-GT results or TPI data that reported a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant. We recruited 80 GCs specializing in hereditary cancer and ...


Investigating Medical Examiners' Practices: Genetic Evaluation For Fatal Acute Aortic Dissection, Bradley Power 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Investigating Medical Examiners' Practices: Genetic Evaluation For Fatal Acute Aortic Dissection, Bradley Power

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Acute thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is a life-threatening event with a hereditary component. Currently, pathogenic variants in 11 genes associated with aortic aneurysm and dissection predispose to a heritable form of disease thereby conferring an increased risk for TAD. Genetic testing plays a pivotal role not only in diagnosis, but also in risk stratification for relatives and medical management to prevent premature death from dissection. Due to its high fatality rate, medical examiners and coroners (ME/Cs) may be the first to identify TAD cases and initiate genetic testing for the decedent and at-risk relatives. ME/Cs were surveyed using ...


Frequency Of Copy Number Variants Involving The Sex Chromosomes In A Clinical Setting, Autumn Vara 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Frequency Of Copy Number Variants Involving The Sex Chromosomes In A Clinical Setting, Autumn Vara

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Copy number variants (CNVs) are a common finding in the clinical setting and contribute to both genetic variation as well as disease. Recently, studies have described the accumulation of multiple CNVs as a disease modifying mechanism. While it has been characterized how additional CNVs may play a role in phenotype, in which ways and to what extent sex chromosomes are involved has not been fully described. We performed a secondary data analysis using the DECIPHER database on 2,273 de-identified individuals with 2 CNVs. CNVs were designated primary and secondary based on our criteria and characteristics of both CNV groups ...


Genetic Counselors' Experiences With And Approaches To Discordant Genotypic And Phenotypic Sex Detected Via Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing, Emily Stiglich 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Genetic Counselors' Experiences With And Approaches To Discordant Genotypic And Phenotypic Sex Detected Via Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing, Emily Stiglich

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

As the use of non-invasive prenatal testing becomes more ubiquitous during pregnancy, genetic counselors (GCs) will see clients more frequently for discordant sex identification via non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT-DSI). Thus, it is imperative to investigate what GCs consider important when counseling about NIPT-DSI and assess how GCs perceive their role in such cases. Prenatal and pediatric GCs were surveyed regarding previous experiences of NIPT-DSI, comfort levels of topics relating to NIPT-DSI, and perceived importance of potential discussion topics in a counseling session (n = 108). The survey consisted of two vignettes, presenting cases of NIPT-DSI identified prenatally in one scenario and ...


Genetic Relationships And Therapeutic Options For Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Hailie Shertzer 2020 Liberty University

Genetic Relationships And Therapeutic Options For Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Hailie Shertzer

Senior Honors Theses

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of cancer among children and can be lethal to the adult population. Though 80% of patients with ALL reach complete remission after treatment, about 20% of those diagnosed fail to remain cancer-free. Genetic rearrangements are the hallmark of relapsed ALL, but the mechanism by which these rearrangements occur is still unclear. Recent research suggests these mutations may be detectable during initial diagnosis. If researchers are able to accurately assess the probability of relapse during diagnosis by analyzing the genome of the leukemic cells, the likelihood of administering effective therapy would increase ...


Adverse Maternal Environment And Western Diet Impairs Cognitive Function And Alters Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptor Promoter Methylation In Male Mice., Xingrao Ke, Qi Fu, Jennifer Sterrett, Cecilia J. Hillard, Robert H. Lane, Amber Majnik 2020 Children's Mercy Hospital

Adverse Maternal Environment And Western Diet Impairs Cognitive Function And Alters Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptor Promoter Methylation In Male Mice., Xingrao Ke, Qi Fu, Jennifer Sterrett, Cecilia J. Hillard, Robert H. Lane, Amber Majnik

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Adverse maternal environment (AME) and high-fat diet in early childhood increase the risk of cognitive impairment and depression later in life. Cognitive impairment associates with hippocampal dysfunction. A key regulator of hippocampal function is the glucocorticoid receptor. Increased hippocampal GR expression associates with cognitive impairment and depression. Transcriptional control of GR relies in part upon the DNA methylation status at multiple alternative initiation sites that are tissue specific, with exon 1.7 being hippocampal specific. Increased exon 1.7 expression associates with upregulated hippocampal GR expression in early life stress animal models. However, the effects of AME combined with postweaning ...


Students As Investigators: Utilizing Active Learning To Engage Genetic Counseling Students, Stacey E. Wahl Ph.D., Dana L. Ladd Ph.D. 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Students As Investigators: Utilizing Active Learning To Engage Genetic Counseling Students, Stacey E. Wahl Ph.D., Dana L. Ladd Ph.D.

Transforming Libraries for Graduate Students

Providing one-shot instruction sessions can be difficult, particularly in the graduate learning environment. As librarians, we want to provide students with the skills to search effectively for health information without overwhelming or confusing them. In health science graduate programs, we are expected to connect literature searching skills with the content of the courses in a manner that is engaging to students. This challenge can be exacerbated when students are new to graduate school and have not yet become familiar with scientific literature searching or the research process. Two medical librarians sought to overcome these challenges by empowering genetic counseling students ...


Immune Checkpoint Modulation Enhances Hiv-1 Antibody Induction., Todd Bradley, Masayuki Kuraoka, Chen-Hao Yeh, Ming Tian, Huan Chen, Derek W Cain, Xuejun Chen, Cheng Cheng, Ali H Ellebedy, Robert Parks, Maggie Barr, Laura L. Sutherland, Richard M. Scearce, Cindy M. Bowman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Sampa Santra, Kevin Wiehe, Mark G. Lewis, Ane Ogbe, Persephone Borrow, David Montefiori, Mattia Bonsignori, M Anthony Moody, Laurent Verkoczy, Kevin O. Saunders, Rafi Ahmed, John R. Mascola, Garnett Kelsoe, Frederick W. Alt, Barton F. Haynes 2020 Children's Mercy Hospital

Immune Checkpoint Modulation Enhances Hiv-1 Antibody Induction., Todd Bradley, Masayuki Kuraoka, Chen-Hao Yeh, Ming Tian, Huan Chen, Derek W Cain, Xuejun Chen, Cheng Cheng, Ali H Ellebedy, Robert Parks, Maggie Barr, Laura L. Sutherland, Richard M. Scearce, Cindy M. Bowman, Hilary Bouton-Verville, Sampa Santra, Kevin Wiehe, Mark G. Lewis, Ane Ogbe, Persephone Borrow, David Montefiori, Mattia Bonsignori, M Anthony Moody, Laurent Verkoczy, Kevin O. Saunders, Rafi Ahmed, John R. Mascola, Garnett Kelsoe, Frederick W. Alt, Barton F. Haynes

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Eliciting protective titers of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development, but current vaccine strategies have yet to induce bnAbs in humans. Many bnAbs isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals are encoded by immunoglobulin gene rearrangments with infrequent naive B cell precursors and with unusual genetic features that may be subject to host regulatory control. Here, we administer antibodies targeting immune cell regulatory receptors CTLA-4, PD-1 or OX40 along with HIV envelope (Env) vaccines to rhesus macaques and bnAb immunoglobulin knock-in (KI) mice expressing diverse precursors of CD4 binding site HIV-1 bnAbs. CTLA-4 blockade augments HIV-1 Env ...


Rivastigmine Modifies The Α-Secretase Pathway And Potentially Early Alzheimer's Disease, Balmiki Ray, Bryan Maloney, Kumar Sambamurti, Hanuma K. Karnati, Peter T. Nelson, Nigel H. Greig, Debomoy K. Lahiri 2020 Indiana University

Rivastigmine Modifies The Α-Secretase Pathway And Potentially Early Alzheimer's Disease, Balmiki Ray, Bryan Maloney, Kumar Sambamurti, Hanuma K. Karnati, Peter T. Nelson, Nigel H. Greig, Debomoy K. Lahiri

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Rivastigmine (or Exelon) is a cholinesterase inhibitor, currently used as a symptomatic treatment for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) generated from its precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase (or BACE1) and γ-secretase endoproteolysis. Alternative APP cleavage by α-secretase (a family of membrane-bound metalloproteases– Adamalysins) precludes the generation of toxic Aβ and yields a neuroprotective and neurotrophic secreted sAPPα fragment. Several signal transduction pathways, including protein kinase C and MAP kinase, stimulate α-secretase. We present data to suggest that rivastigmine, in addition to anticholinesterase activity, directs APP processing away from BACE1 and towards α-secretases. We treated rat neuronal PC12 ...


Identification Of Functional Regulatory Elements In The Human Genome Using Pooled Crispr Screens., Samantha M. Borys, Scott T. Younger 2020 Children's Mercy Hospital

Identification Of Functional Regulatory Elements In The Human Genome Using Pooled Crispr Screens., Samantha M. Borys, Scott T. Younger

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

BACKGROUND: Genome-scale pooled CRISPR screens are powerful tools for identifying genetic dependencies across varied cellular processes. The vast majority of CRISPR screens reported to date have focused exclusively on the perturbation of protein-coding gene function. However, protein-coding genes comprise < 2% of the sequence space in the human genome leaving a substantial portion of the genome uninterrogated. Noncoding regions of the genome harbor important regulatory elements (e.g. promoters, enhancers, silencers) that influence cellular processes but high-throughput methods for evaluating their essentiality have yet to be established.

RESULTS: Here, we describe a CRISPR-based screening approach that facilitates the functional profiling of thousands of noncoding regulatory elements in parallel. We selected the tumor suppressor p53 as a model system and designed a pooled CRISPR library targeting thousands of p53 binding sites throughout the genome. Following transduction into dCas9-KRAB-expressing cells we identified several regulatory elements that influence cell proliferation. Moreover ...


Deficient Histone H3 Propionylation By Brpf1-Kat6 Complexes In Neurodevelopmental Disorders And Cancer., Kezhi Yan, Justine Rousseau, Keren Machol, Laura A. Cross, Katherine E. Agre, Cynthia Forster Gibson, Anne Goverde, Kendra Engleman, Hannah Verdin, Elfride De Baere, Lorraine Potocki, Dihong Zhou, Maxime Cadieux-Dion, Gary A. Bellus, Monisa D. Wagner, Rebecca J. Hale, Natacha Esber, Alan F. Riley, Benjamin D. Solomon, Megan T. Cho, Kirsty McWalter, Roy Eyal, Meagan K. Hainlen, Bryce A. Mendelsohn, Hillary M. Porter, Brendan C. Lanpher, Andrea M. Lewis, Juliann Savatt, Isabelle Thiffault, Bert Callewaert, Philippe M. Campeau, Xiang-Jiao Yang 2020 Children's Mercy Hospital

Deficient Histone H3 Propionylation By Brpf1-Kat6 Complexes In Neurodevelopmental Disorders And Cancer., Kezhi Yan, Justine Rousseau, Keren Machol, Laura A. Cross, Katherine E. Agre, Cynthia Forster Gibson, Anne Goverde, Kendra Engleman, Hannah Verdin, Elfride De Baere, Lorraine Potocki, Dihong Zhou, Maxime Cadieux-Dion, Gary A. Bellus, Monisa D. Wagner, Rebecca J. Hale, Natacha Esber, Alan F. Riley, Benjamin D. Solomon, Megan T. Cho, Kirsty Mcwalter, Roy Eyal, Meagan K. Hainlen, Bryce A. Mendelsohn, Hillary M. Porter, Brendan C. Lanpher, Andrea M. Lewis, Juliann Savatt, Isabelle Thiffault, Bert Callewaert, Philippe M. Campeau, Xiang-Jiao Yang

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Lysine acetyltransferase 6A (KAT6A) and its paralog KAT6B form stoichiometric complexes with bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1) for acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 23 (H3K23). We report that these complexes also catalyze H3K23 propionylation in vitro and in vivo. Immunofluorescence microscopy and ATAC-See revealed the association of this modification with active chromatin. Brpf1 deletion obliterates the acylation in mouse embryos and fibroblasts. Moreover, we identify BRPF1 variants in 12 previously unidentified cases of syndromic intellectual disability and demonstrate that these cases and known BRPF1 variants impair H3K23 propionylation. Cardiac anomalies are present in a subset of the ...


Understanding Medical Mistrust In Black Women At Risk Of Brca 1/2 Mutations, Arnethea L. Sutton, Jun He, Erin Tanner, Megan C. Edmonds, Alesha Henderson, Alejandra Hurtado de Mendoza, Vanessa B. Sheppard 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine

Understanding Medical Mistrust In Black Women At Risk Of Brca 1/2 Mutations, Arnethea L. Sutton, Jun He, Erin Tanner, Megan C. Edmonds, Alesha Henderson, Alejandra Hurtado De Mendoza, Vanessa B. Sheppard

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The benefits of genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) are well documented; however, Black women are less likely to use these services compared to White women. Mistrust of the medical system has been associated with Black women’s use of genetic counseling and testing (GCT). However, relatively little is known about the correlates of medical mistrust in Black women at increased risk of HBOC. In this study, we examined the prevalence and predictors of medical mistrust in 94 Black women at-risk of HBOC. Most women were married (48.7%) and had at least some ...


Frontotemporal Dementia Nonsense Mutation Of Progranulin Rescued By Aminoglycosides, Lisha Kuang, Kei Hashimoto, Eric J. Huang, Matthew S. Gentry, Haining Zhu 2020 University of Kentucky

Frontotemporal Dementia Nonsense Mutation Of Progranulin Rescued By Aminoglycosides, Lisha Kuang, Kei Hashimoto, Eric J. Huang, Matthew S. Gentry, Haining Zhu

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is an early onset dementia and is characterized by progressive atrophy of the frontal and/or temporal lobes. FTD is highly heritable with mutations in progranulin accounting for 5-26% of cases in different populations. Progranulin is involved in endocytosis, secretion and lysosomal processes, but its function under physiological and pathological conditions remains to be defined. Many FTD-causing nonsense progranulin mutations contain a premature termination codon (PTC), thus progranulin haploinsufficiency has been proposed as a major disease mechanism. Currently, there is no effective FTD treatment or therapy.

Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that possess a less known ...


Generation Of In-Frame Gene Deletion Mutants In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa And Testing For Virulence Attenuation In A Simple Mouse Model Of Infection, Meagan E. Valentine, Brandon D. Kirby, Hongwei D. Yu 2020 Marshall University

Generation Of In-Frame Gene Deletion Mutants In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa And Testing For Virulence Attenuation In A Simple Mouse Model Of Infection, Meagan E. Valentine, Brandon D. Kirby, Hongwei D. Yu

Biomedical Sciences

Microorganisms are genetically versatile and diverse and have become a major source of many commercial products and biopharmaceuticals. Though some of these products are naturally produced by the organisms, other products require genetic engineering of the organism to increase the yields of production. Avirulent strains of Escherichia coli have traditionally been the preferred bacterial species for producing biopharmaceuticals; however, some products are difficult for E. coli to produce. Thus, avirulent strains of other bacterial species could provide useful alternatives for production of some commercial products. Pseudomonas eruginosa is a common and well-studied Gram-negative bacterium that could provide a suitable alternative ...


Clincial Translational Science Research Of The Functional Role Of Large Conductance Potassium Channels In Selective Destruction Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells, Gina Sizemore 2020 West Virginia University

Clincial Translational Science Research Of The Functional Role Of Large Conductance Potassium Channels In Selective Destruction Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells, Gina Sizemore

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

ABSTRACT

The preliminary background that puts this research into context is threefold; it is the aggressive nature of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), the complexity surrounding its pathology, and the significant lack of targeted treatment for this disease. To clarify the focus of my research, I have concentrated on identifying a targeted treatment for TNBC. In the process, I have identified cycles of reciprocity between treatment, clinical diagnosis, staging, and pathology that will be addressed in smaller papers. However, the weight of this work is in the discovery of a novel target for triple negative breast cancer. The value of ...


Nanopore-Based Metagenomic Comparison Of Airway Colonizers Between Cystic Fibrosis Patients And Healthy Individuals, Anita Samadabadi 2020 University of Central Florida

Nanopore-Based Metagenomic Comparison Of Airway Colonizers Between Cystic Fibrosis Patients And Healthy Individuals, Anita Samadabadi

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder involving a mutation in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR), which causes dysfunctional transport of chloride ions across cell membranes. CF affects multiple body systems and a few of its symptoms include chronic cough, difficulty breathing, obstructive airway disease, bacterial pulmonary infections, maldigestion, malabsorption, pancreatitis, and male infertility. Until recently, treatment options have been limited to alleviating symptoms, but a new classification of drugs, CFTR modulators, provide an opportunity to slow the progression of the disease and improve clinical outcomes. The effect of CFTR modulators may be attributed to the ...


Long Non-Coding Rna Profiling Of Pediatric Medulloblastoma, Varun Kesherwani, Mamta Shukla, Don W. Coulter, J. Graham Sharp, Shantaram Joshi, Nagendra K. Chaturvedi 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Long Non-Coding Rna Profiling Of Pediatric Medulloblastoma, Varun Kesherwani, Mamta Shukla, Don W. Coulter, J. Graham Sharp, Shantaram Joshi, Nagendra K. Chaturvedi

Journal Articles: Genetics, Cell Biology & Anatomy

BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma (MB) is one of the most common malignant cancers in children. MB is primarily classified into four subgroups based on molecular and clinical characteristics as (1) WNT (2) Sonic-hedgehog (SHH) (3) Group 3 (4) Group 4. Molecular characteristics used for MB classification are based on genomic and mRNAs profiles. MB subgroups share genomic and mRNA profiles and require multiple molecular markers for differentiation from each other. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are more than 200 nucleotide long RNAs and primarily involve in gene regulation at epigenetic and post-transcriptional levels. LncRNAs have been recognized as diagnostic and prognostic markers in ...


Identifying Factors Underlying The Decision For Genetic Carrier Screening Among Women In Montgomery County, Sowon Kim 2020 Wright State University

Identifying Factors Underlying The Decision For Genetic Carrier Screening Among Women In Montgomery County, Sowon Kim

Scholarship in Medicine - All Papers

As medical scientific technologies evolve, numerous medical tests help not only physicians with their clinical judgment, but also patients by empowering them with more knowledge of their own health. An example is Genetic Carrier Screening (GCS) [1-2]. Genetic Carrier Screening (GCS) is a genetic test that allows patients to find out if they carry genes for certain genetic disorders. The results of the test enable patients to make changes to their family planning decisions and prenatal care when appropriate and allow them the opportunity to seek further medical and social support [3]. The clinical utility of GCS is evident in ...


-Synuclein And Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced Er Stress Leading To Parkinson’S Disease, Sony Hoang 2020 Iowa State University

-Synuclein And Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced Er Stress Leading To Parkinson’S Disease, Sony Hoang

Creative Components

Parkinson’s disease is, at the neuropathological level, characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons. PD pathogenesis is multifactorial, there are several mechanisms that malfunction leading to the death of dopaminergic neurons. The mitochondria are vital for the normal functioning of a cell, they are the primary energy generator for the cell. In addition to their energy metabolism role, mitochondria are involved in many cellular processes, such as the stress response and cell death pathways. As a result, mitochondrial impairment and the genes that are related to its functionality are linked to progressive neurodegeneration. Considering parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, and LRRK2 ...


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