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Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms Commons

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2011-2012 Unlv Mcnair Journal, Cyndy Anang, Sajar Camara, Pamela Cornejo, Carla Antonieta Farcello, Ilse Anahi Garcia, Natiera Magnuson, William L. McCurdy, Lorena Munoz, Maxym V. Myroshnychenko, Ricardo Rios, Theodore Waldeck, Barbara Wallen, Ana Zuniga, Brenda M. Aguilar, Tiffany Alexandra Alvarez, Daniel N. Erosa, Paige C. Espinosa, Carla Antonieta Farcello, Julienne Jochel Paraiso, Nathaniel Derek Phillipps, Carmen Vallin, Jacent N. Wamala, Ernesto Zamora-Ramos 2011 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

2011-2012 Unlv Mcnair Journal, Cyndy Anang, Sajar Camara, Pamela Cornejo, Carla Antonieta Farcello, Ilse Anahi Garcia, Natiera Magnuson, William L. Mccurdy, Lorena Munoz, Maxym V. Myroshnychenko, Ricardo Rios, Theodore Waldeck, Barbara Wallen, Ana Zuniga, Brenda M. Aguilar, Tiffany Alexandra Alvarez, Daniel N. Erosa, Paige C. Espinosa, Carla Antonieta Farcello, Julienne Jochel Paraiso, Nathaniel Derek Phillipps, Carmen Vallin, Jacent N. Wamala, Ernesto Zamora-Ramos

McNair Journal

Journal articles based on research conducted by undergraduate students in the McNair Scholars Program

Table of Contents

Biography of Dr. Ronald E. McNair

Statements:

Dr. Neal J. Smatresk, UNLV President

Dr. Juanita P. Fain, Vice President of Student Affairs

Dr. William W. Sullivan, Associate Vice President for Retention and Outreach

Mr. Keith Rogers, Deputy Executive Director of the Center for Academic Enrichment and Outreach

McNair Scholars Institute Staff


Host Cell Attachment By Lyme Disease And Relapsing Fever Spirochetes: A Dissertation, Vivian M. Benoit 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

Host Cell Attachment By Lyme Disease And Relapsing Fever Spirochetes: A Dissertation, Vivian M. Benoit

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Host cell attachment by pathogenic bacteria can play very different roles in the course of infection. The pathogenic spirochetes Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato which cause relapsing fever and Lyme disease, respectively, are transmitted by the bite of infected ticks. After transmission, these spirochetes can cause systemic infection. Relapsing fever spirochetes remain largely in the bloodstream causing febrile episodes, while Lyme disease will often colonize a variety of tissues, such as the heart, joint and nervous system, resulting in a chronic multisystemic disorder. Borrelia species have the ability to bind to various cell types, a process which plays ...


Axon Death Prevented: WldS And Other Neuroprotective Molecules: A Dissertation, Michelle A. Avery 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Axon Death Prevented: WldS And Other Neuroprotective Molecules: A Dissertation, Michelle A. Avery

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

A common feature of many neuropathies is axon degeneration. While the reasons for degeneration differ greatly, the process of degeneration itself is similar in most cases. Axon degeneration after axotomy is termed ‘Wallerian degeneration,’ whereby injured axons rapidly fragment and disappear after a short period of latency (Waller, 1850). Wallerian degeneration was thought to be a passive process until the discovery of the Wallerian degeneration slow (Wlds) mouse mutant. In these mice, axons survive and function for weeks after nerve transection. Furthermore, when the full-length protein is inserted into mouse models of disease with an axon degeneration phenotype (such ...


Beyond Toll-Like Receptor 9: Interactions Between Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells And Aspergillus Fumigatus: A Dissertation, Zaida G. Ramirez-Ortiz 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Beyond Toll-Like Receptor 9: Interactions Between Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells And Aspergillus Fumigatus: A Dissertation, Zaida G. Ramirez-Ortiz

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The opportunistic fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the immunocompromised population. Experimental and clinical findings have established that phagocytic defenses are critical in the recognition and clearance of A. fumigatus. Previous studies found that Toll-like receptors (TLRs), specifically TLR2 and TLR4, were essential in the detection of the mold. Furthermore, one study found that mice deficient in TLR9 lived longer than their wild-type counterparts following challenge with A. fumigatus. We sought to determine the role of TLR9 during A. fumigatus infection. Our results show that A. fumigatus contains unmethylated CpG DNA, the natural ligand ...


Mechanical Flow Restoration In Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Model System Of Cerebrovascular Occlusion: A Dissertation, Juyu Chueh 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mechanical Flow Restoration In Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Model System Of Cerebrovascular Occlusion: A Dissertation, Juyu Chueh

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Stroke is the third most common cause of death and a leading cause of disability in the United States. The existing treatments of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) involve pharmaceutical thrombolytic therapy and/or mechanical thrombectomy. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration for treatment of stroke is efficacious, but has a short treatment time window and is associated with a risk of symptomatic hemorrhage. Other than tPA, the Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia (MERCI) retriever system and the Penumbra Aspiration system are both approved by the FDA for retrieval of thromboemboli in AIS ...


Immune Recognition Of Self Nucleic Acids Driven By Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides: Role In Autoimmunity, Dipyaman Ganguly 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Immune Recognition Of Self Nucleic Acids Driven By Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides: Role In Autoimmunity, Dipyaman Ganguly

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Innate immune recognition of extracellular host-derived self-DNA and self-RNA is prevented by endosomal seclusion of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the dendritic cells (DCs). However, in psoriasis plasmacytoid dendritic cells have been found to be able to sense self-DNA molecules in complex with the endogenous cationic antimicrobial peptide LL37, which are internalized into the endosomal compartments and thus can access TLR9. We investigated whether this endogenous peptide can also interact with extracellular self-RNA and lead to DC activation. We found that LL37 binds self-RNA as well as self-DNA going into an electrostatic interaction; forms micro-aggregates of nano-scale particles protected from ...


Role Of Cpeb In Senescence And Inflammation: A Dissertation, Maria Ivshina 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Role Of Cpeb In Senescence And Inflammation: A Dissertation, Maria Ivshina

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein (CPEB) is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that promotes polyadenylation-induced translation. While a CPEB knockout (KO) mouse is sterile but overtly normal, embryo fibroblasts derived from this mouse (MEFs) do not enter senescence in culture as do wild-type MEFs, but instead are immortal. Exogenous CPEB restores senescence in the KO MEFs and also induces precocious senescence in wild-type MEFs. CPEB cannot stimulate senescence in MEFs lacking the tumor suppressors p53, p19ARF, or p16INK4A; however, the mRNAs encoding these proteins are unlikely targets of CPEB since their expression is the same in wild-type and KO MEFs ...


Novel Complement Blocking Antibodies Against Serogroup B N. Meningitidis: A Dissertation, Tathagat Dutta Ray 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Novel Complement Blocking Antibodies Against Serogroup B N. Meningitidis: A Dissertation, Tathagat Dutta Ray

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

N. meningitidis is a common commensal of the human upper respiratory tract and a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and septicemia worldwide. The classical pathway of complement (C) is essential for both naturally acquired and vaccine induced immunity against N. meningitidis. Qualitative and/or quantitative differences in anti-meningococcal antibodies (Abs) in serum is one reason for variations in C-dependent bactericidal Ab activity among individuals. I showed that IgG isolated from select individuals could block killing of group B meningococci by Abs that were otherwise bactericidal. Ligand overlay immunoblots revealed that these blocking IgG Abs were directed against a meningococcal antigen ...


Pathogenesis Of The Helicobacter Induced Mucosal Disease: A Dissertation, Calin Stoicov 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pathogenesis Of The Helicobacter Induced Mucosal Disease: A Dissertation, Calin Stoicov

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration and gastric cancer. This bacterium is one of the most prevalent in the world, but affects mostly the populations with a lower socioeconomical status. While it causes gastric and duodenal ulcers in only 20% of infected patients, less then 1% will develop gastric adenocarcinoma. In fact, H. pylori is the most important risk factor in developing gastric cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that 80% of gastric cancer patients are H. pylori positive. The outcome of the infection with this bacterium depends on bacterial factors, diet, genetic background of the host, and coinfection with ...


Co– And Post–Translational N–Linked Glycosylation Of Cardiac Potassium Channel Subunits: A Dissertation, Tuba Bas 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Co– And Post–Translational N–Linked Glycosylation Of Cardiac Potassium Channel Subunits: A Dissertation, Tuba Bas

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

KCNE1 (E1) peptide is the founding member of the KCNE family (1-5), which is a class of type I transmembrane ß-subunits. KCNE1 peptides assemble with and modulate the gating, ion conducting properties and pharmacology of a variety of voltage-gated K+ channel a-subunits, including KCNQ1 (Q1). Mutations that interfere with the function of either E1 and/or Q1 and disrupt the assembly and trafficking of KCNE1- KCNQ1 channel complexes give rise to diseases such as Romano-Ward (RW) and Jervell Lange Nielsen Syndrome (JLNS), two different forms of Long QT Syndrome (LQTS).

Using enzymatic deglycosylation assays, immunofluorescence techniques and quantitative cell surface ...


Role And Regulation Of Fat Specific Protein (Fsp27) In Lipolysis In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes: A Dissertation, Srijana Ranjit 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Role And Regulation Of Fat Specific Protein (Fsp27) In Lipolysis In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes: A Dissertation, Srijana Ranjit

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The alarming rate of increase in incidence and prevalence of the type 2 diabetes mellitus has prompted intense research on understanding the pathogenesis of the type 2 diabetes. It is observed that the development of type 2 diabetes is preceded by a state of insulin resistance and obesity. Previous studies have suggested that the obesity induced insulin resistance may be mediated by elevated levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs). The increase in circulating levels of FFAs may be contributed by the release of FFAs from stored triglycerides (TG) in adipocytes via lipolysis. It is hypothesized that the decrease in ...


Novel Therapeutic Targets For Ph+ Chromosome Leukemia And Its Leukemia Stem Cells: A Dissertation, Cong Peng 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Novel Therapeutic Targets For Ph+ Chromosome Leukemia And Its Leukemia Stem Cells: A Dissertation, Cong Peng

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The human Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) arises from a translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 [t(9;22)(q34;q11)]. The resulting chimeric BCR-ABLoncogene encodes a constitutively activated, oncogenic tyrosine kinase that induces chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), imatinib mesylate, induces a complete hematologic and cytogenetic response in the majority of CML patients, but is unable to completely eradicate BCR-ABL–expressing leukemic cells, suggesting that leukemia stem cells are not eliminated. Over time, patients frequently become drug resistant and develop progressive disease despite continued treatment. Two major reasons cause ...


Description, Classification, And Prediction Of Dengue Illnesses In A Thai Pediatric Cohort: A Dissertation, James A. Potts 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Description, Classification, And Prediction Of Dengue Illnesses In A Thai Pediatric Cohort: A Dissertation, James A. Potts

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are emerging infectious diseases which are endemic in many regions of the globe, many of which are resource-poor areas. DHF and DF impose a severe economic health burden in tropical and subtropical areas. Dengue virus causes an acute febrile illness that can be a self-limited febrile illness, as seen in most cases of DF, or a life-threatening illness with plasma leakage and shock, as seen in cases of DHF. A systematic review of the literature revealed gaps in the knowledge base of clinical laboratory findings of dengue illness with regards to longitudinal ...


Factors Associated With Subjective Improvement Following Midurethral Sling Procedures For Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Masters Thesis, Emily Elise Weber Lebrun 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Factors Associated With Subjective Improvement Following Midurethral Sling Procedures For Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Masters Thesis, Emily Elise Weber Lebrun

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background
Female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) greatly affects quality of life. The midurethal sling (MUS) procedure has been widely accepted as the standard of care treatment for SUI, although there is little information regarding patients' subjective reports of symptom improvement.

Objectives
The objective of this study was to identify clinical and demographic characteristics that predict subjective symptom improvement following MUS procedures in women with SUI.

Materials and Methods
The study design was retrospective cohort. Subjects included women who underwent MUS between 2006 and 2008, returned mailed surveys and met our predefined inclusion criteria. Pre-operative data included demographics, prior surgery, co-morbid ...


Age And Sex Differences In Duration Of Pre-Hospital Delay, Hospital Treatment Practices, And Short-Term Outcomes In Patients Hospitalized With An Acute Coronary Syndrome/Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Dissertation, Hoa L. Nguyen 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Age And Sex Differences In Duration Of Pre-Hospital Delay, Hospital Treatment Practices, And Short-Term Outcomes In Patients Hospitalized With An Acute Coronary Syndrome/Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Dissertation, Hoa L. Nguyen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background
The prompt seeking of medical care after the onset of symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndromes (ACS)/acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with the receipt of coronary reperfusion therapy, and effective cardiac medications in patients with an ACS/AMI and is crucial to reducing mortality and the risk of serious clinical complications in these patients. Despite declines in important hospital complications and short-term death rates in patients hospitalized with an ACS/AMI, several patient groups remain at increased risk for these adverse outcomes, including women and the elderly. However, recent trends in age and sex differences in extent ...


Role Of The Monocyte/Macrophage Cell Lineage In Obesity-Related Insulin Resistance, Olga T. Hardy 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Role Of The Monocyte/Macrophage Cell Lineage In Obesity-Related Insulin Resistance, Olga T. Hardy

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background

Obesity is an important risk factor for resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal, and is a precursor of type 2 diabetes and other disorders.

Objectives

To identify molecular pathways in adipose tissue and inflammatory cells that may result in obesity-associated insulin resistance, we exploited the fact that not all obese individuals are prone to insulin resistance. Thus the degree of obesity as a variable was removed by studying obese subjects of similar body mass index (BMI) who are insulin-sensitive (IS) versus insulin-resistant (IR).

Methods

Combining gene expression profiling with computational approaches, we determined the global gene expression signatures of omental ...


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