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Soybean Crop Coefficients Under Different Seeding Rates And Full And Limited Irrigation And Rainfed Management, Suat Irmak, Rupinder Sandhu 2023 The Penn State University

Soybean Crop Coefficients Under Different Seeding Rates And Full And Limited Irrigation And Rainfed Management, Suat Irmak, Rupinder Sandhu

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

The effects of soybean seeding rates on evapotranspiration (ETc) and grassand alfalfa-reference crop coefficients (Kco and Kcr) were investigated under five seeding rates (185,250, 247,000, 308,750, 370,500 and 432,250 seeds ha-1) (62, 82, 103, 124 and 144% of the recommended seeding rate of 300,000 seeds ha-1 in the experimental region) and different irrigation strategies (i.e. full irrigation treatment [FIT], limited irrigation of 75% FIT and 50% FIT and rainfed treatment). Kco and Kcr values were developed for each soybean growth stage. The seasonal ETc ranged from 460 mm for …


Toward Automated Irrigation Management With Integrated Crop Water Stress Index And Spatial Soil Water Balance, Sandeep Bhatti, Derek M. Heeren, Susan A. O’Shaughnessy, Christopher M. U. Neale, Jacob LaRue, Steve Melvin, Eric Wilkening, Geng Bai 2023 University of Massachusetts Cranberry Station

Toward Automated Irrigation Management With Integrated Crop Water Stress Index And Spatial Soil Water Balance, Sandeep Bhatti, Derek M. Heeren, Susan A. O’Shaughnessy, Christopher M. U. Neale, Jacob Larue, Steve Melvin, Eric Wilkening, Geng Bai

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Decision support systems intended for precision irrigation aim at reducing irrigation applications while optimizing crop yield to achieve maximum crop water productivity (CWP). These systems incorporate on-site sensor data, remote sensing inputs, and advanced algorithms with spatial and temporal characteristics to compute precise crop water needs. The availability of variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems enables irrigation applications at a sub-field scale. The combination of an appropriate VRI system along with a precise decision support system would be ideal for improved CWP. The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate two decision support systems in terms of seasonal applied …


Toward Automated Irrigation Management With Integrated Crop Water Stress Index And Spatial Soil Water Balance, Sandeep Bhatti, Derek M. Heeren, Susan A. O’Shaughnessy, Christopher M. U. Neale, Jacob LaRue, Steve Melvin, Eric Wilkening, Geng Bai 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Toward Automated Irrigation Management With Integrated Crop Water Stress Index And Spatial Soil Water Balance, Sandeep Bhatti, Derek M. Heeren, Susan A. O’Shaughnessy, Christopher M. U. Neale, Jacob Larue, Steve Melvin, Eric Wilkening, Geng Bai

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Decision support systems intended for precision irrigation aim at reducing irrigation applications while optimizing crop yield to achieve maximum crop water productivity (CWP). These systems incorporate on-site sensor data, remote sensing inputs, and advanced algorithms with spatial and temporal characteristics to compute precise crop water needs. The availability of variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems enables irrigation applications at a sub-field scale. The combination of an appropriate VRI system along with a precise decision support system would be ideal for improved CWP. The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate two decision support systems in terms of seasonal applied …


High-Throughput Phenotyping Of Plant Leaf Morphological, Physiological, And Biochemical Traits On Multiple Scales Using Optical Sensing, Huichun Zhang, Lu Wang, Xiuliang Jin, Liming Bian, Yufeng Ge 2023 Nanjing Forestry University

High-Throughput Phenotyping Of Plant Leaf Morphological, Physiological, And Biochemical Traits On Multiple Scales Using Optical Sensing, Huichun Zhang, Lu Wang, Xiuliang Jin, Liming Bian, Yufeng Ge

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Acquisition of plant phenotypic information facilitates plant breeding, sheds light on gene action, and can be applied to optimize the quality of agricultural and forestry products. Because leaves often show the fastest responses to external environmental stimuli, leaf phenotypic traits are indicators of plant growth, health, and stress levels. Combination of new imaging sensors, image processing, and data analytics permits measurement over the full life span of plants at high temporal resolution and at several organizational levels from organs to individual plants to field populations of plants. We review the optical sensors and associated data analytics used for measuring morphological, …


Design Of University Small-Scale Dairy Processing Facility, Philip J. Hildebrand, Joshua Arejola, Alicia Andersen, Terry Howell Jr, Tami M. Brown-Brandl 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Design Of University Small-Scale Dairy Processing Facility, Philip J. Hildebrand, Joshua Arejola, Alicia Andersen, Terry Howell Jr, Tami M. Brown-Brandl

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

This project was assigned to research the feasibility and value of implementing a dairy processing facility on the campus of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The facility would process milk produced from cows under the same roof and will serve as an educational experience for Nebraska dairy farmers, UNL students, and K-12 students in the Lincoln-Lancaster County area. If the project is successful and replicated across the state, this facility could have a significant impact on the reduction of milk transportation costs in the Nebraska dairy industry.

The project began with researching milk processing methods and steps from production to consumption. …


Soil Respiration Measurements Reveal High Retention Of Organic Carbon From Corn Residue Derived High-Lignin Fermentation Byproduct Enabling Sustainable Lignocellulosic Biofuel Production, Michelle Sun Wang 2023 Dartmouth College

Soil Respiration Measurements Reveal High Retention Of Organic Carbon From Corn Residue Derived High-Lignin Fermentation Byproduct Enabling Sustainable Lignocellulosic Biofuel Production, Michelle Sun Wang

Dartmouth College Master’s Theses

While 2G biofuel production can utilize non-edible, lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural residues to produce liquid fuel, harvesting crop residues is unsustainable without careful management of the soil underneath. By harvesting a fraction of the crop residues left in the field after harvest, soil health can diminish and critically, the soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in agricultural fields can decrease. Currently, in the most popular 2G process models published, the issue of soil degradation remains unresolved with residue harvest strategies receiving considerable attention in the literature and other SOC management strategies receiving far less. Specifically, the strategy of returning the …


Development Of Food Packaging Films Based On Cellulose Nanocrystals (Cncs), Cong Chen 2023 University of Maine

Development Of Food Packaging Films Based On Cellulose Nanocrystals (Cncs), Cong Chen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Food packaging provides means to mitigate food spoilage caused by microbes and environmental exposure, as well as prolonging the shelf life of food products in a cost-effective manner that industry and consumers desire while minimizing environmental impact. However, conventional plastics are unsustainable, nonrenewable, as well as nondegradable, and coupled with single-use culture can cause serious environmental pollution and the loss of resources. Taking the above issues into consideration, bio-based materials with the required properties are desirable to address the end-of-life issues for packaging.

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), as a major type of cellulose nanomaterials are directly extracted from renewable biomass resources …


Producer Long-Term Marketing Opportunities With Ethanol Plants, Austin Harthoorn, Logan Lloyd, Cory Walters, Kate Brooks 2023 Nebraska Farm Bureau

Producer Long-Term Marketing Opportunities With Ethanol Plants, Austin Harthoorn, Logan Lloyd, Cory Walters, Kate Brooks

Cornhusker Economics

Commodity marketing operates in a complex decision environment with constant information flow, which can conceal long-run financially profitable marketing opportunities for producers. In the corn marketing space, the competitive role of ethanol plants throughout the state may provide producers with long-run financial gains by strategically approaching marketing decisions. In this article, we characterize whether producers can gain financially from strategically marketing corn to ethanol plants. For example, do ethanol plants provide a better long-run return from pre-harvest hedging, spring sale, or harvest sale?

We investigate three important contracting times--forward contract for harvest delivery (called pre-harvest hereafter), harvest delivery, and spring …


A Deep-Learning Framework For Spray Pattern Segmentation And Estimation In Agricultural Spraying Systems, Praneel Acharya, Travis Burgers, Kim-Doang Nguyen 2023 South Dakota State University

A Deep-Learning Framework For Spray Pattern Segmentation And Estimation In Agricultural Spraying Systems, Praneel Acharya, Travis Burgers, Kim-Doang Nguyen

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

This work focuses on leveraging deep learning for agricultural applications, especially for spray pattern segmentation and spray cone angle estimation. These two characteristics are important to understanding the sprayer system such as nozzles used in agriculture. The core of this work includes three deep-learning convolution-based models. These models are trained and their performances are compared. After the best model is selected based on its performance, it is used for spray region segmentation and spray cone angle estimation. The output from the selected model provides a binary image representing the spray region. This binary image is further processed using image processing …


Engineering Of Microparticle Encapsulated Antioxidant To Mitigate Oxidative Stress In Vitro And In Vivo, Kayla Ney 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Engineering Of Microparticle Encapsulated Antioxidant To Mitigate Oxidative Stress In Vitro And In Vivo, Kayla Ney

Department of Agricultural and Biological Systems Engineering: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Chronic low back pain (cLBP) is one of the leading causes of years lived with disability in the United States. Current treatments for cLBP have variable results across the patient population, and many patients struggle to find consistent relief. Most current treatments focus on the symptom of pain, not the root cause. In painful degenerated discs, oxidative stress and inflammation function in a vicious cycle and perpetuate degeneration, damage, and pain. Therefore, oxidative stress and inflammation are important targets in addressing the source of pain. This work characterizes an antioxidant, BuOE, encapsulated in a chondroitin sulfate microparticle as a novel …


Analyzing Energy Use From Arkansas Public School Buildings, Oscar Morton 2023 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Analyzing Energy Use From Arkansas Public School Buildings, Oscar Morton

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Energy is a key global resource in society and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the consumption of energy have detrimental effects on the planet. With energy consumption increasing, exponential population growth, and diminishing natural resources necessary for energy production, the relevance of energy efficiency is dramatically increasing. In this project, I analyzed energy usage data from a set of public school buildings from one school district in northwest Arkansas from 2018, before targeted energy efficiency practices were implemented, through 2022 to see if energy usage changed over this short period. The objectives of analyzing energy data were to determine …


The Influence Of Pesticides On Us Corn Production Environmental Impact: A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Of Dominant Production Practices, Kyle Marinoni Lawrence 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

The Influence Of Pesticides On Us Corn Production Environmental Impact: A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment Of Dominant Production Practices, Kyle Marinoni Lawrence

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In recent years there has been increasing interest in reducing agricultural environmental footprints in the United States, particularly for commodity crops like corn grain. Pest management is one aspect of agricultural production that is often identified as having potential for improvement with regard to environmental impact, but there is not a robust body of literature to identify the wide-scale influence of pesticides on yield and environmental impact. In this study, we hypothesized that the use of different classifications of pesticides has a significant impact on the overall environmental impact. To test this, agricultural models were created to represent the dominant …


Tomato Flower Detection And Three-Dimensional Mapping For Precision Pollination, Kaitlyn McKensie Nelms 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Tomato Flower Detection And Three-Dimensional Mapping For Precision Pollination, Kaitlyn Mckensie Nelms

Masters Theses

It is estimated that nearly 75% of major crops have some level of reliance on pollination. Humans are reliant on fruit and vegetable crops for many vital nutrients. With the intensification of agricultural production in response to human demand, native pollinator species are not able to provide sufficient pollination services, and managed bee colonies are in decline due to colony collapse disorder, among other issues. Previous work addresses a few of these issues by designing pollination systems for greenhouse operations or other controlled production systems but fails to address the larger need for development in other agricultural settings with less …


Characterization Of Lignin And Cellulose Biopolymers Structure – Function Relationships, Zachariah Pittman 2023 Clemson University

Characterization Of Lignin And Cellulose Biopolymers Structure – Function Relationships, Zachariah Pittman

All Dissertations

Biomass is vital to ongoing efforts to secure a sustainable future. While many of our efforts focus on finding alternative forms of energy, biomass among them, only biomass has the potential to serve as a sustainable materials feedstock. However, biomass is heterogenous, complicating the upgrading processes needed to manufacture commodity and performance products. For example, plant biomass consists largely of cellulose, a crystalline polysaccharide, and lignin, a highly stable polyaromatic. The specific properties of cellulose and lignin depend greatly on the plant, harvesting conditions, and isolation procedures. Thus, accurate and reliable determination of the fundamental properties of biomass is crucial …


Case Study: Modeling A Grain Bin For Safe Entry Retrofit, Michael Dyer, Serap Gorucu, Randall Bock, Roderick Thomas, Jude Liu, Linda Fetzer 2023 Utah State University

Case Study: Modeling A Grain Bin For Safe Entry Retrofit, Michael Dyer, Serap Gorucu, Randall Bock, Roderick Thomas, Jude Liu, Linda Fetzer

Office of Research Faculty and Staff Publications

All new grain bins produced after 2018 are recommended to have anchor points capable of handling a 2000 lb loading for attachment of bin entry lifeline systems. This study aims to assess the feasibility of a safe entry anchor point retrofit by using finite element analysis (FEA). We used a grain bin owned by Penn State for 3D FEA modeling in SolidWorks. To validate the model results from the FEA model, first strain and then deflection measurements were conducted on the grain. Strain gauges were applied to the grain bin in five locations and strain values were obtained after applying …


Deficit Irrigation Management For Irrigated Corn In Nebraska: Economically Viable?, Lia Nogueira, Cory Walters, Emily O'Donnell, Wesley Peterson, Suat Irmak 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Deficit Irrigation Management For Irrigated Corn In Nebraska: Economically Viable?, Lia Nogueira, Cory Walters, Emily O'Donnell, Wesley Peterson, Suat Irmak

Cornhusker Economics

In this study we determine the economic value of deficit irrigation management using both technological and methodological advancements. The use of soil moisture probes represents the technological improvement. We provide improvements in the methodology as follows. Regarding data, we employ a field-size study, instead of plots, where the irrigation decision is determined by the moisture level in the soil measured through a soil moisture probe. Regarding the understanding of the yield response to water, although we examine the commonly used quadratic function, we improve upon this specification by also examining an alternative response function, the linear response stochastic plateau. Our …


Spectroscopic Sensor Data Fusion To Improve The Prediction Of Soil Nutrient Contents, Bidhan Ghimire 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Spectroscopic Sensor Data Fusion To Improve The Prediction Of Soil Nutrient Contents, Bidhan Ghimire

Department of Agricultural and Biological Systems Engineering: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

This study aims to advance the understanding and application of spectroscopic sensor data fusion for improving soil nutrient content predictions. In addition to presenting an extensive review of studies on the spectroscopic sensor data fusion, a research investigation was conducted to assess the effectiveness of five fusion algorithms in predicting three primary nutrients (Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potassium) and two secondary nutrients (Calcium and Magnesium) in soil using Visible and Near-Infrared, Mid-Infrared, and X-ray Fluorescence data. Among the five fusion algorithms, one was a low-level fusion involving data concatenation. Two were mid-level fusions, incorporating feature extraction by applying (i) Principal Component …


Characterization Of Physical And Biochemical Traits In Wheat And Corn Plants Using High Throughput Image Analysis, Kantilata Thapa 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of Physical And Biochemical Traits In Wheat And Corn Plants Using High Throughput Image Analysis, Kantilata Thapa

Department of Agricultural and Biological Systems Engineering: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Plant phenotyping has been recognized as a rapidly growing field of research due to the labor-intensive, destructive, and time-consuming nature of traditional phenotyping methods. These phenotyping bottlenecks can be addressed by advancements in image-based phenotyping like RGB and hyperspectral imaging for the assessment of plant traits important for breeding purposes. This study aims (1) to characterize the physical and biochemical traits of wheat and corn plants using RGB and hyperspectral imaging in the greenhouse, and (2) to estimate leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) content using hyperspectral imaging and an analytical spectral device (ASD spectrometer) and compare the …


Estimating Crop Stomatal Conductance Through High-Throughput Plant Phenotyping, Junxiao Zhang 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Estimating Crop Stomatal Conductance Through High-Throughput Plant Phenotyping, Junxiao Zhang

Department of Agricultural and Biological Systems Engineering: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

During photosynthesis and transpiration, crops exchange carbon dioxide and water with the atmosphere through stomata. When a crop experiences water stress, stomata are closed to reducing water loss. However, the closing of stomata also negatively affects the photosynthetic efficiency of the crop and leads to lower yields. Stomatal conductance (gs) quantifies the degree of stomatal opening and closing by using the rate of gas exchange between the crop and the atmosphere, which helps to understand the water status of the crop for better irrigation management. Unfortunately, gs measurement typically requires contact measuring instruments and manual collection in the field, which …


Agen/Bsen 112 Final Project: Moving And Temperament Of Cattle, Elly Vo, Taetum Baxa, Ved Patel, Brady Giles, Tami M. Brown-Brandl, Rossana Villa-Rojas 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Agen/Bsen 112 Final Project: Moving And Temperament Of Cattle, Elly Vo, Taetum Baxa, Ved Patel, Brady Giles, Tami M. Brown-Brandl, Rossana Villa-Rojas

Department of Agricultural and Biological Systems Engineering: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Cattle movement and weather may affect the body temperature of cows which in turn affects their natural behavior and can influence their metabolism. Cattle take several days to resume their normal eating patterns after being overheated, and that can affect dairy production. This project was assigned to study the effect of temperament (calm vs excitable) and evaporative cooling on the body temperature of moving animals to optimize the environmental conditions around the cattle and consequently, dairy production.

The project began with processing of a data set from Dr. Tami Brown-Brandl who was the client/adviser for the group. The data contained …


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