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Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion 2018 Eastern Kentucky University

Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines’ milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers (N = 25), street vendors (N = 21), and three MVMs (N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya. Antibiotic residue surveillance occurred during December 2016 and January 2017 using Idexx SNAP tests for ...


Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences

We report here the first whole-genome sequences for 3 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (112N, 113N, and 114N) isolated in Africa. Samples of this opportunistic pathogen were collected from nasal swabs obtained from healthy carrier dogs in Botswana. The sequence information will facilitate spatial phylogenetic comparisons of staphylococcal species and other bacteria at the genome level.


Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv)-Specific Igm-Iga In Oral Fluid Samples Reveals Prrsv Infection In The Presence Of Maternal Antibody, Marisa L. Rotolo, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Ju Ji, Ronaldo Magtoto, Yuly A. Henao-Díaz, Chong Wang, David H. Baum, Karen M. Harmon, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman 2018 Iowa State University

Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv)-Specific Igm-Iga In Oral Fluid Samples Reveals Prrsv Infection In The Presence Of Maternal Antibody, Marisa L. Rotolo, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Ju Ji, Ronaldo Magtoto, Yuly A. Henao-Díaz, Chong Wang, David H. Baum, Karen M. Harmon, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman

Statistics Publications

The ontogeny of PRRSV antibody in oral fluids has been described using isotype-specific ELISAs. Mirroring the serum response, IgM appears in oral fluid by 7 days post inoculation (DPI), IgA after 7 DPI, and IgG by 9 to 10 DPI. Commercial PRRSV ELISAs target the detection of IgG because the higher concentration of IgG relative to other isotypes provides the best diagnostic discrimination. Oral fluids are increasingly used for PRRSV surveillance in commercial herds, but in younger pigs, a positive ELISA result may be due either to maternal antibody or to antibody produced by the pigs in response to infection ...


Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild 2018 Nelson Mandela Africa Institution of Science and Technology

Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild

Animal Science Publications

The genetic diversity of African pigs, whether domestic or wild has not been widely studied and there is very limited published information available. Available data suggests that African domestic pigs originate from different domestication centers as opposed to international commercial breeds. We evaluated two domestic pig populations in Western Kenya, in order to characterize the genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of the pigs in an area known to be endemic for African swine fever (ASF). One of the reasons for characterizing these specific populations is the fact that a proportion of indigenous pigs have tested ASF virus (ASFv) positive ...


Efficacy Of Oral Administration Of Sodium Iodide To Prevent Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, B. M. Shoemake, B. L. Vander Ley, B. W. Newcomer, M. C. Heller 2018 University of Missouri

Efficacy Of Oral Administration Of Sodium Iodide To Prevent Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, B. M. Shoemake, B. L. Vander Ley, B. W. Newcomer, M. C. Heller

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: The prevention of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) in beef cattle is important to maintaining health and productivity of calves in feeding operations.

Objective: Determine whether BRD bacterial and viral pathogens are susceptible to the lactoperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/ iodide (LPO/H2O2/I-) system in vitro and to determine whether the oral administration of sodium iodide (NaI) could achieve sufficient concentrations of iodine (I) in the respiratory secretions of weaned beef calves to inactivate these pathogens in vivo.

Animals: Sixteen weaned, apparently healthy, commercial beef calves from the University of Missouri, College of Veterinary Medicine teaching herd ...


Development Of Septic Polysynovitis And Uveitis In Foals Experimentally Infected With Rhodococcus Equi, Laura Huber, Steeve Giguère, Londa J. Berghaus, Amanda Hanafi, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, Sarah L. Czerwinski 2018 University of Georgia

Development Of Septic Polysynovitis And Uveitis In Foals Experimentally Infected With Rhodococcus Equi, Laura Huber, Steeve Giguère, Londa J. Berghaus, Amanda Hanafi, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, Sarah L. Czerwinski

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Rhodococcus equi is one of the most important causes of disease in foals. Infection is typically characterized by pyogranulomatous pneumonia although extrapulmonary infections occur occasionally. Uveitis and polysynovitis have been reported in foals naturally infected with R. equi and are thought to be the result of an immune-mediated process. However, the pathogenesis of these conditions is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to document the occurrence of uveitis and polysynovitis after experimental infection with R. equi and to determine if these disorders are the direct result of infection at these sites. Foals between 3 and 4 weeks of ...


Rhodococcus Equi In The Foal – Improving Diagnostic And Prevention Measures, Fernanda Bicudo Cesar 2018 University of Kentucky

Rhodococcus Equi In The Foal – Improving Diagnostic And Prevention Measures, Fernanda Bicudo Cesar

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Although Rhodococcus equi (R. equi), previously known as Corynebacterium equi, was first isolated from pneumonic foals almost a century ago, it remains the most common cause of subacute or chronic granulomatous bronchopneumonia in foals. While the majority of foals exposed to R. equi develop a protective immune response (regressors), others exhibit a unique susceptibility to infection (progressors). The determinants for either outcome are not completely understood. Therefore, current diagnostic and preventive measures are suboptimal and require betterment. In light of this current need, we hypothesized that immunoglobulin G subisotype T [IgG(T)] against the virulence-associated protein A (VapA) of R ...


Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach 2018 Iowa State University

Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at ...


Universal Swine Influenza Antigen And Vaccine, Zhao Wang 2018 South Dakota State University

Universal Swine Influenza Antigen And Vaccine, Zhao Wang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Swine influenza A viruses pose a serious concern for global health and worldwide swine industry considering their evasion from vaccine-induced immune responses. Formulation of effective influenza vaccines can be complicated by both antigenic shift to a different subtype of hemagglutinin (HAs) and antigenic drift within a particular HA subtype. To address these concerns, we employed a systematic approach to determine the antigenic determinants of swine influenza A viruses by focusing on H1 and H3 subtypes. In parallel, we used a cross-disciplinary approach including structural biology and modeling, virology, and immunology to identify swine influenza A virus-derived HA fusion intermediates broadly ...


The Effects Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus And Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 On Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells, Jacob Sobraske 2018 South Dakota State University

The Effects Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus And Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 On Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells, Jacob Sobraske

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) are important pathogens that affect cattle. In this in vitro study, the main goal was determining the direct effects of BVDV and BHV-1 infections of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) on cytokine mRNA expression. For the BVDV infected MDDC experiments, Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss calves were included with a breed comparison with cytokine expression. Surface marker expression was also measured in BHV-1-infected MDDCs. For both viruses, a high virulent strain (1373 for BVDV and Cooper for BHV-1) and lower virulent strains (20508 for BVDV and Los Angeles for BHV-1 ...


Development And Implementation Of A Novel Immune Thrombocytopenia Bleeding Score For Dogs, Kelly M. Makielski, Marjory B. Brooks, Chong Wang, Jonah N. Cullen, Annette M. O'Connor, Dana N. Levine 2018 Iowa State University

Development And Implementation Of A Novel Immune Thrombocytopenia Bleeding Score For Dogs, Kelly M. Makielski, Marjory B. Brooks, Chong Wang, Jonah N. Cullen, Annette M. O'Connor, Dana N. Levine

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background

A method of quantifying clinical bleeding in dogs with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is needed because ITP patients have variable bleeding tendencies that inconsistently correlate with platelet count. A scoring system will facilitate patient comparisons and allow stratification based on bleeding severity in clinical trials.

Hypothesis/Objectives

To develop and evaluate a bleeding assessment tool for dogs, and a training course for improving its consistent implementation.

Animals

Client‐owned dogs (n = 61) with platelet counts <50,000/μL; 34 classified as primary ITP, 17 as secondary ITP, and 10 as non‐ITP.

Methods

A novel bleeding assessment tool, DOGiBAT, comprising bleeding grades from 0 (none) to 2 (severe) at 9 anatomic sites, was developed. Clinicians and technicians ...


The Pul37 Tegument Protein Guides Alphaherpesvirus Retrograde Axonal Transport To Promote Neuroinvasion, Alexsia L. Richards, Patricia J. Sollars, Jared D. Pitts, Austin M. Stults, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith 2017 The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research

The Pul37 Tegument Protein Guides Alphaherpesvirus Retrograde Axonal Transport To Promote Neuroinvasion, Alexsia L. Richards, Patricia J. Sollars, Jared D. Pitts, Austin M. Stults, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

A hallmark property of the neurotropic alpha-herpesvirinae is the dissemination of infection to sensory and autonomic ganglia of the peripheral nervous system following an initial exposure at mucosal surfaces. The peripheral ganglia serve as the latent virus reservoir and the source of recurrent infections such as cold sores (herpes simplex virus type I) and shingles (varicella zoster virus). However, the means by which these viruses routinely invade the nervous system is not fully understood. We report that an internal virion component, the pUL37 tegument protein, has a surface region that is an essential neuroinvasion effector. Mutation of this region rendered ...


Effect Of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Toxins On Growth Performance And The Microbial Community In The Rumen And Feces In Pregnant Ewes, Saleh Alrashedi 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Toxins On Growth Performance And The Microbial Community In The Rumen And Feces In Pregnant Ewes, Saleh Alrashedi

Theses and Dissertations

Fifty pregnant Katahdin ewes grazed pastures with high (HE) and moderate (MI) levels of Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue between February 1 and May 24 to determine the impacts of tall fescue toxins on body weight (BW), body condition scores, FAMACHA scores, fecal egg counts (FEC), and serum Cu, Zn, prolactin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Within those 50 ewes, 15 were selected randomly for fecal and rumen sampling to assess the impacts of HE and MI on the microbiome community. Total bacterial DNA was extracted from rumen and fecal samples, and alpha and beta diversities were used to relate microbiome ...


A Mutator Phenotype Promoting The Emergence Of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants In Campylobacter Jejuni, Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

A Mutator Phenotype Promoting The Emergence Of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants In Campylobacter Jejuni, Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. As a microaerophilic organism, C. jejuni must be able to defend against oxidative stress encountered both in the host and in the environment. How Campylobacter utilizes a mutation-based mechanism for adaptation to oxidative stress is still unknown. Here we present a previously undescribed phenotypic and genetic mechanism that promotes the emergence of oxidative stress resistant mutants. Specifically, we showed that a naturally occurring mutator phenotype, resulting from a loss of function mutation in the DNA repair enzyme MutY, increased oxidative stress resistance (OXR) in C. jejuni. We further demonstrated ...


Effectiveness Of Composting As A Biosecure Disposal Method For Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv)-Infected Pig Carcasses, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effectiveness Of Composting As A Biosecure Disposal Method For Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv)-Infected Pig Carcasses, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric disease of swine that has emerged as a worldwide threat to swine herd health and production. Substantial research has been conducted to assess viability of the virus on surfaces of vehicles and equipment, in feed and water, and on production building surfaces, but little is known about the persistence in PEDV-infected carcasses and effective disposal methods thereof. This study was conducted to quantify the persistence of PEDV RNA via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at various time-temperature combinations and in infected piglet carcasses subjected to composting. Although this method ...


A Multilayered Control Of The Human Survival Motor Neuron Gene Expression By Alu Elements, Eric W. Ottesen, Joonbae Seo, Natalia N. Singh, Ravindra N. Singh 2017 Iowa State University

A Multilayered Control Of The Human Survival Motor Neuron Gene Expression By Alu Elements, Eric W. Ottesen, Joonbae Seo, Natalia N. Singh, Ravindra N. Singh

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Humans carry two nearly identical copies of Survival Motor Neuron gene: SMN1 and SMN2. Mutations or deletions of SMN1, which codes for SMN, cause spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic disease associated with infant mortality. Aberrant expression or localization of SMN has been also implicated in other pathological conditions, including male infertility, inclusion body myositis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and osteoarthritis. SMN2 fails to compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to skipping of exon 7, leading to the production of SMNΔ7, an unstable protein. In addition, SMNΔ7 is less functional due to the lack of a critical C-terminus of ...


Equine Arteritis Virus Elicits A Mucosal Antibody Response In The Reproductive Tract Of Persistently Infected Stallions, Mariano Carossino, Bettina Wagner, Alan T. Loynachan, R. Frank Cook, Igor F. Canisso, Lakshman Chelvarajan, Casey L. Edwards, Bora Nam, John F. Timoney, Peter J. Timoney, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya 2017 University of Kentucky

Equine Arteritis Virus Elicits A Mucosal Antibody Response In The Reproductive Tract Of Persistently Infected Stallions, Mariano Carossino, Bettina Wagner, Alan T. Loynachan, R. Frank Cook, Igor F. Canisso, Lakshman Chelvarajan, Casey L. Edwards, Bora Nam, John F. Timoney, Peter J. Timoney, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya

Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the ability to establish persistent infection in the reproductive tract of the stallion (carrier) and is continuously shed in its semen. We have recently demonstrated that EAV persists within stromal cells and a subset of lymphocytes in the stallion accessory sex glands in the presence of a significant local inflammatory response. In the present study, we demonstrated that EAV elicits a mucosal antibody response in the reproductive tract during persistent infection with homing of plasma cells into accessory sex glands. The EAV-specific immunoglobulin isotypes in seminal plasma included IgA, IgG1, IgG3/5, and IgG4/7 ...


Evaluation Of The Effect Of Serum Antibody Abundance Against Bovine Coronavirus On Bovine Coronavirus Shedding And Risk Of Respiratory Tract Disease In Beef Calves From Birth Through The First Five Weeks In A Feedlot, Aspen M. Workman, Larry A. Kuehn, Tara G. McDaneld, Michael L. Clawson, Carol G. Chitko-McKown, John Dustin Loy 2017 USDA-ARS U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Evaluation Of The Effect Of Serum Antibody Abundance Against Bovine Coronavirus On Bovine Coronavirus Shedding And Risk Of Respiratory Tract Disease In Beef Calves From Birth Through The First Five Weeks In A Feedlot, Aspen M. Workman, Larry A. Kuehn, Tara G. Mcdaneld, Michael L. Clawson, Carol G. Chitko-Mckown, John Dustin Loy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Objective: To evaluate the effect of serum antibody abundance against bovine coronavirus (BCV) on BCV shedding and risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef calves from birth through the first 5 weeks in a feedlot.

Animals: 890 natural-service crossbred beef calves from 4 research herds.

Procedures: Serial blood samples for measurement of serum anti-BCV antibody abundance by an ELISA and nasal swab specimens for detection of BCV and other viral and bacterial BRD pathogens by real-time PCR methods were collected from all calves or subsets of calves at predetermined times from birth through the first 5 weeks after feedlot ...


Cross-Reactive Immunity To Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus And Its Contribution To Protection, Ignacio Correas 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Cross-Reactive Immunity To Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus And Its Contribution To Protection, Ignacio Correas

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Due to the vast geographical distribution and significant economic losses generated, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be considered the most important swine pathogen of contemporary times. Current control and eradication strategies against PRRSV have difficulty succeeding because of their complex nature and the absence of an effective vaccine. A major obstacle for PRRSV vaccine development is the broad heterogeneity of the virus, both at the genetic and antigenic level, its rapid evolution, and an incomplete knowledge of the immune responses responsible for clearing the virus from the host. Specifically, how known correlates of protection against PRRSV—neutralizing ...


Sampling Guidelines For Oral Fluid-Based Surveys Of Group-Housed Animals, Marisa L. Rotolo, Yaxuan Sun, Chong Wang, Luis Gimenez-Lirola, David H. Baum, Phillip C. Gauger, Karen M. Harmon, Marlin Hoogland, Rodger Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman 2017 Iowa State University

Sampling Guidelines For Oral Fluid-Based Surveys Of Group-Housed Animals, Marisa L. Rotolo, Yaxuan Sun, Chong Wang, Luis Gimenez-Lirola, David H. Baum, Phillip C. Gauger, Karen M. Harmon, Marlin Hoogland, Rodger Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Formulas and software for calculating sample size for surveys based on individual animal samples are readily available. However, sample size formulas are not available for oral fluids and other aggregate samples that are increasingly used in production settings. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop sampling guidelines for oral fluid-based porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) surveys in commercial swine farms. Oral fluid samples were collected in 9 weekly samplings from all pens in 3 barns on one production site beginning shortly after placement of weaned pigs. Samples (n = 972) were tested by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-rtPCR ...


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