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Peritoneal Fibrosarcomatous Mesothelioma In A Cat, Tammy M-J Heerkens, Jodi D. Smith, Leslie Fox, Jesse M. Hostetter 2017 Iowa State University

Peritoneal Fibrosarcomatous Mesothelioma In A Cat, Tammy M-J Heerkens, Jodi D. Smith, Leslie Fox, Jesse M. Hostetter

Jodi Smith

Primary tumors of serosal surfaces are uncommon in veterinary medicine. Mesothelial neoplasms can be benign or malignant, and are classified as predominantly epitheloid, mixed (biphasic), or fibrous (spindle cell, fibrosarcomatous), with fibrous mesotheliomas reported least in domestic species. A 9-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat presented on emergency with a brief history of weakness and lethargy. On presentation, the cat was semicomatose, hypothermic, and hypotensive with a markedly distended abdomen. Approximately 1 liter of serosanguineous fluid was removed via abdominocentesis. Diagnostic imaging and cytologic evaluation of fine-needle aspirates were suggestive of neoplasia, and the cat was subsequently euthanized. At necropsy, the omentum ...


Comparison Of Two Us Sheep Scrapie Isolates Supports Identification As Separate Strains, S. J. Moore, J. D. Smith, M. H. West Greenlee, E. M. Nicholson, J. A. Richt, J. J. Greenlee 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Comparison Of Two Us Sheep Scrapie Isolates Supports Identification As Separate Strains, S. J. Moore, J. D. Smith, M. H. West Greenlee, E. M. Nicholson, J. A. Richt, J. J. Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Scrapie is a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats. There are different strains of sheep scrapie that are associated with unique molecular, transmission, and phenotype characteristics. However, in the United States, very little is known about the potential presence of scrapie strains. Scrapie strain and PRNP genotype could both affect susceptibility, potential for transmission, incubation period (IP), and control measures required for eliminating scrapie from a flock. The investigators evaluated 2 US scrapie isolates, No. 13-7 and x124, after intranasal inoculation to compare clinical signs, IPs, spongiform lesions, and patterns of PrPSc deposition in sheep with ...


A Parapoxviral Virion Protein Inhibits Nf-Κb Signaling Early In Infection, Sushil Khatiwada, Gustavo A. Delhon, Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sabal Chaulagain, Shuhong Luo, Diego G. Diel, Eduardo F. Flores, D. L. Rock 2017 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

A Parapoxviral Virion Protein Inhibits Nf-Κb Signaling Early In Infection, Sushil Khatiwada, Gustavo A. Delhon, Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sabal Chaulagain, Shuhong Luo, Diego G. Diel, Eduardo F. Flores, D. L. Rock

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Poxviruses have evolved unique proteins and mechanisms to counteract the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is an essential regulatory pathway of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe a NF-κB inhibitory virion protein of orf virus (ORFV), ORFV073, which functions very early in infected cells. Infection with ORFV073 gene deletion virus (OV-IA82Δ073) led to increased accumulation of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), marked phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) subunits IKKα and IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65 (NF-κB-p65), and to early nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 in virusinfected cells (30 min post infection). Expression of ORFV073 alone was sufficient to ...


Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl 2017 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl

Steven M. Lonergan

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and fed ...


Identification Of A Novel G2073a Mutation In 23s Rrna In Amphenicol-Selected Mutants Of Campylobacter Jejuni, Licai Ma, Zhangqi Shen, Gaowa Naren, Hui Li, Xi Xia, Congming Wu, Jianzhong Shen, Qijing Zhang, Yang Wang 2017 China Agricultural University

Identification Of A Novel G2073a Mutation In 23s Rrna In Amphenicol-Selected Mutants Of Campylobacter Jejuni, Licai Ma, Zhangqi Shen, Gaowa Naren, Hui Li, Xi Xia, Congming Wu, Jianzhong Shen, Qijing Zhang, Yang Wang

Qijing Zhang

Objectives This study was conducted to examine the development and molecular mechanisms of amphenicol resistance in Campylobacter jejuni by using in vitro selection with chloramphenicol and florfenicol. The impact of the resistance development on growth rates was also determined using in vitro culture. Methods Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were used as selection agents to perform in vitro stepwise selection. Mutants resistant to the selective agents were obtained from the selection process. The mutant strains were compared with the parent strain for changes in MICs and growth rates. The 23S rRNA gene and the L4 and L22 ribosomal protein genes in the ...


Genetic Basis And Functional Consequences Of Differential Expression Of The Cmeabc Efflux Pump In Campylobacter Jejuni Isolates, Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Genetic Basis And Functional Consequences Of Differential Expression Of The Cmeabc Efflux Pump In Campylobacter Jejuni Isolates, Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

The CmeABC multidrug efflux transporter of Campylobacter jejuni plays a key role in antimicrobial resistance and is suppressed by CmeR, a transcriptional regulator of the TetR family. Overexpression of CmeABC has been observed in laboratory-generated mutants, but it is unknown if this phenotype occurs naturally in C. jejuni isolates and if it has any functional consequences. To answer these questions, expression of cmeABC in natural isolates obtained from broiler chickens, turkeys and humans was examined, and the genetic mechanisms and role of cmeABC differential expression in antimicrobial resistance was determined. Among the 64 C. jejuni isolates examined in this study ...


Antibiotic Resistance Modulation And Modes Of Action Of (-)-Α-Pinene In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jasna Kovač, Katarina Šimunović, Zuowei Wu, Anja Klančnik, Franz Bucar, Qijing Zhang, Sonja Smole Možina 2017 University of Ljubljana

Antibiotic Resistance Modulation And Modes Of Action Of (-)-Α-Pinene In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jasna Kovač, Katarina Šimunović, Zuowei Wu, Anja Klančnik, Franz Bucar, Qijing Zhang, Sonja Smole Možina

Qijing Zhang

The aim of the study was to investigate the mode of action of (-)-α-pinene in terms of its modulation of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni. Broth microdilution and ethidium bromide accumulation assays were used to evaluate the (-)-α-pinene antimicrobial activity, modulation of antimicrobial resistance, and inhibition of antimicrobial efflux. The target antimicrobial efflux systems were identified using an insertion mutagenesis approach, and C.jejuni adaptation to (-)-α-pinene was evaluated using DNA microarrays. Knock-out mutants of the key up-regulated transcriptional regulators hspR and hrcA were constructed to investigate their roles in C. jejuni adaptation to several stress factors, including osmolytes, and ...


H Emagglutinin-Based Polyanhydride Nanovaccines Against H5n1 Influenza Elicit Protective Virus Neutralizing Titers And Cell-Mediated Immunity, Kathleen Alaine Ross, Hyelee Park Loyd, Wuwei Wu, Lucas Mark Huntimer, Shaheen Ahmed, Anthony Sambol, Scott Broderick, Zachary Flickinger, Krishna Rajan, Tatiana Bronich, Surya K. Mallapragada, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Susan Long Carpenter, Balaji Narasimhan 2017 Iowa State University

H Emagglutinin-Based Polyanhydride Nanovaccines Against H5n1 Influenza Elicit Protective Virus Neutralizing Titers And Cell-Mediated Immunity, Kathleen Alaine Ross, Hyelee Park Loyd, Wuwei Wu, Lucas Mark Huntimer, Shaheen Ahmed, Anthony Sambol, Scott Broderick, Zachary Flickinger, Krishna Rajan, Tatiana Bronich, Surya K. Mallapragada, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Susan Long Carpenter, Balaji Narasimhan

Balaji Narasimhan

H5N1 avian influenza is a significant global concern with the potential to become the next pandemic threat. Recombinant subunit vaccines are an attractive alternative for pandemic vaccines compared to traditional vaccine technologies. In particular, polyanhydride nanoparticles encapsulating subunit proteins have been shown to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immunity and provide protection upon lethal challenge. In this work, a recombinant H5 hemagglutinin trimer (H53) was produced and encapsulated into polyanhydride nanoparticles. The studies performed indicated that the recombinant H53 antigen was a robust immunogen. Immunizing mice with H53 encapsulated into polyanhydride nanoparticles induced high neutralizing antibody titers and enhanced CD4+ T ...


Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl 2017 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and fed ...


Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl 2017 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and fed ...


Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth 2017 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

The objective of this study was to determine and compare the humoral and cellular immune responses of calves exposed to a single dose of Bovela® bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) live double deleted vaccine or a field strain virus (FSV) of BVDV type 2 (strain 890). Thirty seronegative, colostrum-deprived 5 month-old Holstein steer calves that tested negative for persistent BVDV by ear notch immunohistochemistry and seronegative to BVDV types 1 and 2 were used. Calves were screened by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) 1 week before vaccination to ensure that they were negative for T cell responses to the BVDV types ...


Evaluation Of Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein Etsc As A Candidate Antigen For Vaccine Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, David Couri 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein Etsc As A Candidate Antigen For Vaccine Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, David Couri

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

With the average American consuming 26 chickens per year, poultry is in high demand. Avian related infectious disease is rising and bacteria pose serious concerns for the health of livestock and possess zoonotic potential. The goal of the study is to evaluate surface protein EtsC highly prevalent among Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC), as a vaccine antigen candidate against these pathogens in chickens. The objective of this study is to determine antibody response in chickens vaccinated with the EtsC recombinant antigen. Eighteen 4 day-old White Leghorns (N=9/group) were subcutaneously vaccinated twice at two-week interval with PBS (control) or ...


Evaluate Broad Protection Of The Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein (Omp) A Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, Caroline Treadwell 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluate Broad Protection Of The Escherichia Coli Outer Membrane Protein (Omp) A Against Avian Pathogenic E. Coli Infections In Chickens, Caroline Treadwell

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC) significantly impacts the poultry industry by causing the disease colibacillosis in chickens. In this research study, a vaccine containing Outer membrane protein A (OmpA), prevalent among APEC, was evaluated for its broad potential protectivity against APEC. The objectives of our study are to 1) evaluate whether an OmpA vaccine would stimulate an antibody response in chickens and 2) show in vitro broad protection against bacteria. At 4 days-old, White Leghorn chickens (9/group) were vaccinated subcutaneously twice at two week-intervals with either PBS (control) or 50 μg OmpA in CpG adjuvant. On day 33 of ...


Analysis Of Humoral Immune Responses In Horses With Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, Catherine-Jane Angwin 2017 University of Kentucky

Analysis Of Humoral Immune Responses In Horses With Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, Catherine-Jane Angwin

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), caused by the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona, is one of the most important neurological diseases of horses in the Americas. While seroprevalence of S. neurona in horses is high, clinical manifestation of EPM occurs in less than 1% of infected horses. Factors governing the occurrence and severity of EPM are largely unknown, although horse immunity might play an important role in clinical outcome. We hypothesize that EPM occurs due to an aberrant immune response, which will be discernable in the equine IgG subisotypes a, b, and (T) that recognize S. neurona in infected diseased horses versus ...


Inflammation And Insulin Dysregulation In The Horse, Sarah E. Elzinga 2017 University of Kentucky

Inflammation And Insulin Dysregulation In The Horse, Sarah E. Elzinga

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Insulin dysregulation (ID) in the horse is receiving increasing attention as a serious health concern, in particular due to its association with the potentially career or life ending condition, laminitis. The role of inflammation and the immune system in ID as well as its associated health concerns has also been raised. However, the involvement of inflammation in and mechanisms behind ID in the horse remain unclear. Therefore, our overall hypothesis was that due in part to changes in their gut microbiota and plasma lipidome, horses with ID have changes in circulating proinflammatory markers, in particular in response to glycemic challenge ...


An Investigation Into Specific Seminal Plasma Proteins And Their Effect On The Innate Immune Response To Breeding In The Mare, Carleigh Elizabeth Fedorka 2017 University of Kentucky

An Investigation Into Specific Seminal Plasma Proteins And Their Effect On The Innate Immune Response To Breeding In The Mare, Carleigh Elizabeth Fedorka

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

The mare experiences a transient innate immune response to breeding, the resolution of which is crucial for optimal fertility. The majority of mares are able to modulate this inflammation in a timely fashion, but a subpopulation exists which fail to do so and are considered susceptible to persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE). Seminal plasma has been shown to modulate aspects of this inflammation. Recently, two seminal plasma proteins have garnered interest for their immune modulating properties: cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3) and lactoferrin. These proteins have been found to alter the binding between sperm and neutrophils based on sperm viability in vitro ...


Detoxification Of Mitochondrial Oxidants And Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated By Thioredoxin-2 And Peroxiredoxin-3 During Hyperoxic Injury, Benjamin J. Forred, Darwin R. Daugaard, Brianna K. Titus, Ryan R. Wood, Miranda J. Floen, Michelle L. Booze, Peter F. Vitiello 2017 Children's Health Research Center, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

Detoxification Of Mitochondrial Oxidants And Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated By Thioredoxin-2 And Peroxiredoxin-3 During Hyperoxic Injury, Benjamin J. Forred, Darwin R. Daugaard, Brianna K. Titus, Ryan R. Wood, Miranda J. Floen, Michelle L. Booze, Peter F. Vitiello

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the regulation of cell death during accumulation of oxidants. High concentrations of atmospheric oxygen (hyperoxia), used clinically to treat tissue hypoxia in premature newborns, is known to elicit oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury to pulmonary epithelial cells. A consequence of oxidative stress in mitochondria is the accumulation of peroxides which are detoxified by the dedicated mitochondrial thioredoxin system. This system is comprised of the oxidoreductase activities of peroxiredoxin-3 (Prx3), thioredoxin-2 (Trx2), and thioredoxin reductase-2 (TrxR2). The goal of this study was to understand the role of the mitochondrial thioredoxin system and mitochondrial injuries during ...


Understanding The Effect Of Bvdv On Innate Immune Response Of Neutrophils, Neelu Singh Thakur 2017 South Dakota State University

Understanding The Effect Of Bvdv On Innate Immune Response Of Neutrophils, Neelu Singh Thakur

Theses and Dissertations

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the highly prevalent and economically important diseases of cattle industry worldwide. The two major consequences of this disease are persistent infection and immunosuppression. Several studies have been done to determine the underline mechanisms of BVDV-induced immunosuppression targeting antigen presenting cells, adaptive immune system cells and cytokine gene expression. However, very little research has been done to determine the effect of BVDV on neutrophils. Neutrophils are one of the most abundant while blood cells (WBC) in the peripheral blood, which play a critical role in the innate as well as adaptive immune response ...


The Indirect Effect Of Bvdv On Immune Suppression: The Role Of Infected Macrophages In Lymphocyte Apoptosis, Karim Abdelsalam 2017 South Dakota State University

The Indirect Effect Of Bvdv On Immune Suppression: The Role Of Infected Macrophages In Lymphocyte Apoptosis, Karim Abdelsalam

Theses and Dissertations

BVDV is an important pathogen of cattle that affects both the dairy and beef industry causing severe economic losses. The main problem of BVDV is the immune suppression that is associated with lymphoid depletion shortly post infection. The mechanism of this immune suppression is not well understood. In this in vitro study, we sought to determine the indirect effect of BVDV infection in macrophages as a key player in the pathogenesis of BVD especially, the apoptotic effect induced on lymphocytes. We infected bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) with either high or low virulent strains of cytopathogenic or non-cytopathogenic strains of BVDV ...


Senecavirus A: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis And Infection Dynamics, Lok Raj Joshi 2017 South Dakota State University

Senecavirus A: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis And Infection Dynamics, Lok Raj Joshi

Theses and Dissertations

Senecavirus A (SVA) is a positive sense single-stranded virus that belongs to the genus Senecavirus within the family Picornaviridae. Senecavirus has been present in US swine population since 1988. However, there have been only a few reports of SVA associated with disease in last two decades. In late 2014 early 2015, a sudden increase in the number of cases of Senecavirus A associated with vesicular disease was observed in Brazil, the US and China. Affected pigs presented vesicles on snout, coronary band, and dewclaw. Additionaly, increased neonatal mortality has been reported in the field. Many aspects of SVA epidemiology, infection ...


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