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Pharmacokinetics Of Tulathromycin In Pregnant Ewes (Ovis Aries) Challenged With Campylobacter Jejuni, Michael Yaeger, Jonathan P. Mochel, Zuowei Wu, Paul Plummer, Orhan Sahin, Joseph Smith, Melda Ocal, Ashenafi Beyi, Changyun Xu, Qijing Zhang, Ronald W. Griffith 2021 Iowa State University

Pharmacokinetics Of Tulathromycin In Pregnant Ewes (Ovis Aries) Challenged With Campylobacter Jejuni, Michael Yaeger, Jonathan P. Mochel, Zuowei Wu, Paul Plummer, Orhan Sahin, Joseph Smith, Melda Ocal, Ashenafi Beyi, Changyun Xu, Qijing Zhang, Ronald W. Griffith

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in the plasma and maternal and fetal tissues of pregnant ewes when administered within 24 hours of a single, IV Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) challenge. Twelve, pregnant ewes between 72–92 days of gestation were challenged IV with C. jejuni IA3902 and then treated with 1.1 ml/45.36 kg of tulathromycin subcutaneously 18 hours post-challenge. Ewes were bled at predetermined time points and euthanized either at a predetermined time point or following the observation of vaginal bleeding or abortion. Following euthanasia, tissues were collected for bacterial ...


Component Causes Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis—Non-Moraxella Organisms In The Epidemiology Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, John Dustin Loy, Kristin A. Clothier, Gabriele Maier 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Component Causes Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis—Non-Moraxella Organisms In The Epidemiology Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, John Dustin Loy, Kristin A. Clothier, Gabriele Maier

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

• Non-Moraxella organisms are associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK).

Mycoplasma bovoculi can cause conjunctivitis and has a potential role in IBK pathogenesis.

• Other Non-Mycoplasma agents can cause disease that resembles IBK but is clinically different.

• Genomics and molecular technology are advancing research in this area.

• Classification and determination of pathogenesis potential of these organisms may be better understood through metagenomics and whole genome sequencing.


Comparison Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Response To Infection By Route Of Exposure, Ana Paula S. Poeta Silva, Thaire P. Marostica, Aric McDaniel, Bailey L. Arruda, Carmen Alonso, Rachel J. Derscheid, Paul Yeske, Daniel C.L. Linhares, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Locke A. Karriker, Eduardo Fano, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Maria J. Clavijo 2021 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Response To Infection By Route Of Exposure, Ana Paula S. Poeta Silva, Thaire P. Marostica, Aric Mcdaniel, Bailey L. Arruda, Carmen Alonso, Rachel J. Derscheid, Paul Yeske, Daniel C.L. Linhares, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Locke A. Karriker, Eduardo Fano, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Maria J. Clavijo

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHP) is a concern both for pig well-being and producer economic viability. In the absence of fully protective health interventions, producers rely on controlled exposure to induce an immune response in pigs and minimize the clinical outcomes of MHP infection in pig populations. This study compared the effect of route of exposure on MHP infection, antibody response, clinical signs, and pathology. Six-week-old MHP-negative pigs (n = 78) were allocated to negative control (n = 6) or one of three MHP exposure routes: intratracheal (n = 24, feeding catheter), intranasal (n = 24, atomization device), and aerosol (n = 24, fogger). Body weight ...


Production Of Monoclonal And Polyclonal Antibodies Against Prrsv Mlvd23-S Tag Peptide Sequence, Katelyn Bettin 2021 South Dakota State University

Production Of Monoclonal And Polyclonal Antibodies Against Prrsv Mlvd23-S Tag Peptide Sequence, Katelyn Bettin

Schultz-Werth Award Papers

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus which belongs to the family Arteriviridae. Since its emergence in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s, PRRSV has had a major economic effect on the swine industry. The most notable effects of this disease are respiratory distress in piglets and late-term pregnancy failures in sows. To track and control spread of this disease, the industry must be able determine which animals have been naturally infected with PRRSV as this contributes to major disease outbreaks and localized pandemics. While vaccines help control the spread of a disease, they ...


Component Causes Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis - The Role Of Moraxella Species In The Epidemiology Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, John Dustin Loy, Matthew Hille, Gabriele Maier, Michael L. Clawson 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Component Causes Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis - The Role Of Moraxella Species In The Epidemiology Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, John Dustin Loy, Matthew Hille, Gabriele Maier, Michael L. Clawson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Moraxella bovis can cause infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK).

The role of M bovoculi in IBK is not fully understood.

M bovis and M bovoculi appear to undergo genetic recombination with each other or other members of the Moraxellaceae.

Recombination complicates their classification and potential role(s) in IBK pathogenesis.

MALDI-TOF MS is used to identify M bovis, 2 major strains or genotypes of M bovoculi, M ovis, and other members of the Moraxellaceae.

Classification and determination of pathogenesis potential within Moraxella species may be better understood through whole genome sequencing.


Differentiation Of The Can F 1 Allergen In Hypoallergenic Dog Saliva Compared To Shedding Dog Saliva, Rose Miller 2021 Murray State University

Differentiation Of The Can F 1 Allergen In Hypoallergenic Dog Saliva Compared To Shedding Dog Saliva, Rose Miller

Honors College Theses

Dog saliva contains a large variety of proteins, each with specific functions throughout the body. While some aid in digestion, others provide immune support for the body. In the case of human dog allergies, dog skin dander has been proven to cause allergic reactions to those who are sensitive to the allergens in the dogs. However, past studies have shown a difference in allergic reaction to specific breeds, breaking dog breeds into two main categories: hypoallergenic and non-hypoallergenic. Within these groups, there are different hypoallergenicity levels, but overall, the hypoallergenic dog group does not cause an allergic reaction, whereas non-hypoallergenic ...


Using Enclosed Y-Mazes To Assess Chemosensory Behavior In Reptiles, M. Rockwell Parker, Andrea F. Currylow, Eric A. Tillman, Charlotte J. Robinson, Jilian M. Josimovich, Isabella M.G. Bukovich, Lauren A. Nazarian, Melia G. Nafus, Bryan M. Kluever, Amy A. Yackel Adams 2021 James Madison University

Using Enclosed Y-Mazes To Assess Chemosensory Behavior In Reptiles, M. Rockwell Parker, Andrea F. Currylow, Eric A. Tillman, Charlotte J. Robinson, Jilian M. Josimovich, Isabella M.G. Bukovich, Lauren A. Nazarian, Melia G. Nafus, Bryan M. Kluever, Amy A. Yackel Adams

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Reptiles utilize a variety of environmental cues to inform and drive animal behavior such as chemical scent trails produced by food or conspecifics. Decrypting the scent-trailing behavior of vertebrates, particularly invasive species, enables the discovery of cues that induce exploratory behavior and can aid in the development of valuable basic and applied biological tools. However, pinpointing behaviors dominantly driven by chemical cues versus other competing environmental cues can be challenging. Y-mazes are common tools used in animal behavior research that allow quantification of vertebrate chemosensory behavior across a range of taxa. By reducing external stimuli, Y-mazes remove confounding factors and ...


Vaginal Microbiome And Serum Metabolite Differences In Late Gestation Commercial Sows At Risk For Pelvic Organ Prolapse, Zoë E. Kiefer, Lucas R. Koester, Lucas Showman, Jamie M. Studer, Amanda L. Chipman, Aileen F. Keating, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Jason W. Ross 2021 Iowa State University

Vaginal Microbiome And Serum Metabolite Differences In Late Gestation Commercial Sows At Risk For Pelvic Organ Prolapse, Zoë E. Kiefer, Lucas R. Koester, Lucas Showman, Jamie M. Studer, Amanda L. Chipman, Aileen F. Keating, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Jason W. Ross

Animal Science Publications

Sow mortality attributable to pelvic organ prolapse (POP) has increased in the U.S. swine industry and continues to worsen. Two main objectives of this study were, (1) to develop a perineal scoring system that can be correlated with POP risk, and (2) identify POP risk-associated biological factors. To assess POP risk during late gestation, sows (n = 213) were scored using a newly developed perineal scoring (PS) system. Sows scored as PS1 (low), PS2 (moderate), or PS3 (high) based on POP risk. Subsequently, 1.5, 0.8, and 23.1% of sows scored PS1, PS2, or PS3, respectively, experienced POP ...


Sars-Cov-2 Exposure In Escaped Mink, Utah, Usa, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. DeLiberto 2021 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Sars-Cov-2 Exposure In Escaped Mink, Utah, Usa, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. Deliberto

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

In August 2020, outbreaks of coronavirus disease were confirmed on mink farms in Utah, USA. We surveyed mammals captured on and around farms for evidence of infection or exposure. Free-ranging mink, presumed domestic escapees, exhibited high antibody titers, suggesting a potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission pathway to native wildlife.

We report a wildlife epidemiologic investigation of mammals captured on or near properties in Utah, USA, where outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection occurred in farmed mink. Mink farms are relatively common in the United States, and most are small family farms. The US ...


Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrite-Based Vertebrate Pesticides For European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Hailey E. McLean, Katherine E. Horak, Kirt C. VerCauteren 2021 USDA APHIS NWRC

Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrite-Based Vertebrate Pesticides For European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Hailey E. Mclean, Katherine E. Horak, Kirt C. Vercauteren

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

In the 21st century, invasive animals rank second only to habitat destruction as the greatest threat to global biodiversity. Socially-acceptable and cost-effective strategies are needed to reduce the negative economic and environmental impacts of invasive animals. We investigated the potential for sodium nitrite (SN; CAS 7632-00-0) to serve as an avian toxicant for European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris L.). We also assessed the non-target hazard of an experimental formulation of SN that is being developed as a toxicant for invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa L.). In gavage experiments with European starlings, we identified a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for ...


Great Expectations: Deconstructing The Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, Jimmy Taylor 2021 Boise State University

Great Expectations: Deconstructing The Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, Jimmy Taylor

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Beaver-related restoration is a process-based strategy that seeks to address wide-ranging ecological objectives by reestablishing dam building in degraded stream systems. Although the beaver-related restoration has broad appeal, especially in water-limited systems, its effectiveness is not yet well documented. In this article, we present a process-expectation framework that links beaver-related restoration tactics to commonly expected outcomes by identifying the set of process pathways that must occur to achieve those expected outcomes. We explore the contingency implicit within this framework using social and biophysical data from project and research sites. This analysis reveals that outcomes are often predicated on complex process ...


Complete Genome Sequence Of Campylobacter Hepaticus Usa52, Associated With Chicken Spotty Liver Disease, Zuowei Wu, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang 2021 Iowa State University

Complete Genome Sequence Of Campylobacter Hepaticus Usa52, Associated With Chicken Spotty Liver Disease, Zuowei Wu, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter hepaticus was recently identified as the etiological agent of chicken spotty liver disease. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of C. hepaticus strain USA52 from the United States. The genome comprises a chromosome of 1,509,100 bp with an average GC content of 28.02%.


Xylanase Modulates The Microbiota Of Ileal Mucosa And Digesta Of Pigs Fed Corn-Based Arabinoxylans Likely Through Both A Stimbiotic And Prebiotic Mechanism, Amy L. Petry, John F. Patience, Lucas R. Koester, Nichole F. Huntley, Michael R. Bedford, Stephan Schmitz-Esser 2021 Iowa State University

Xylanase Modulates The Microbiota Of Ileal Mucosa And Digesta Of Pigs Fed Corn-Based Arabinoxylans Likely Through Both A Stimbiotic And Prebiotic Mechanism, Amy L. Petry, John F. Patience, Lucas R. Koester, Nichole F. Huntley, Michael R. Bedford, Stephan Schmitz-Esser

Animal Science Publications

The experimental objective was to characterize the impact of insoluble corn-based fiber, xylanase, and an arabinoxylan-oligosaccharide on ileal digesta and mucosa microbiome of pigs. Three replicates of 20 gilts were blocked by initial body weight, individually-housed, and assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: a low-fiber control (LF), a 30% corn bran high-fiber control (HF), HF+100 mg/kg xylanase (HF+XY), and HF+50 mg/kg arabinoxylan oligosaccharide (HF+AX). Gilts were fed their respective treatments for 46 days. On day 46, pigs were euthanized and ileal digesta and mucosa were collected. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA ...


Impact Of The Histidine‐Containing Phosphocarrier Protein Hpr On Carbon Metabolism And Virulence In Staphylococcus Aureus, Linda Pätzold, Anne-Christine Brausch, Evelyn-Laura Bielefeld, Lisa Zimmer, Greg A. Somerville, Markus Bischoff, Rosmarie Gaupp 2021 Saarland University

Impact Of The Histidine‐Containing Phosphocarrier Protein Hpr On Carbon Metabolism And Virulence In Staphylococcus Aureus, Linda Pätzold, Anne-Christine Brausch, Evelyn-Laura Bielefeld, Lisa Zimmer, Greg A. Somerville, Markus Bischoff, Rosmarie Gaupp

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a common mechanism pathogenic bacteria use to link central metabolism with virulence factor synthesis. In gram‐positive bacteria, catabolite control protein A (CcpA) and the histidine‐containing phosphocarrier protein HPr (encoded by ptsH) are the predominant mediators of CCR. In addition to modulating CcpA activity, HPr is essential for glucose import via the phosphotransferase system. While the regulatory functions of CcpA in Staphylococcus aureus are largely known, little is known about the function of HPr in CCR and infectivity. To address this knowledge gap, ptsH mutants were created in S. aureus that either lack the ...


Of Pigs And Men: The Best-Laid Plans For Prevention And Control Of Swine Fevers, Jishu Shi, Lihua Wang, David Scott McVey 2021 Kansas State University

Of Pigs And Men: The Best-Laid Plans For Prevention And Control Of Swine Fevers, Jishu Shi, Lihua Wang, David Scott Mcvey

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

John Steinbeck drew the title of his novel “Of Mice and Men” from a line in a Robert Burns poem “To a mouse”: “The best-laid plans of mice and men/Go often awry.” Unlike John Steinbeck who used the title to mirror the characters who were struggling during the Great Depression to the mouse whose nest was accidentally destroyed by the poet (Burns 1785), we chose this line to emphasize that the best-laid plan can go wrong in infectious disease control and prevention. Here, we will discuss the contributing factors behind the global successes and failures in the prevention and ...


Special Issue: Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli, Rodney A. Moxley 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Special Issue: Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli, Rodney A. Moxley

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Globally, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of diarrheal disease, most notably hemorrhagic colitis, and post-diarrheal sequela, such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) [1]. Cattle are a major reservoir of STEC, with approx- imately half of the cases in humans attributable to foodborne exposure [2]. Prevention of human illness has mainly been through food safety measures [2]. Despite extensive research, no other generally accepted and effective preventive measures or therapies for STEC infections in human patients are available [3]. Many questions remain about STEC virulence factors, pathogenesis, detection, and other aspects that necessitate a continua- tion of basic ...


An Evaluation Of The Anti-Carcinogenic Response Of Major Isothiocyanates In Non-Metastatic And Metastatic Melanoma Cells, Melina Mitsiogianni, Sotiris Kyriakou, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Maria V. Deligiorgi, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidi 2021 Northumbria University

An Evaluation Of The Anti-Carcinogenic Response Of Major Isothiocyanates In Non-Metastatic And Metastatic Melanoma Cells, Melina Mitsiogianni, Sotiris Kyriakou, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Maria V. Deligiorgi, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidi

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Malignant melanoma is one of the most deadly types of solid cancers, a property mainly attributed to its highly aggressive metastatic form. On the other hand, different classes of isothiocy- anates, a class of phytochemicals, present in cruciferous vegetables have been characterized by considerable anti-cancer activity in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. In the current study, we investigated the anti-cancer response of five isothiocyanates in an in vitro model of melanoma consisting of non-metastatic (A375, B16F-10) and metastatic (VMM1, Hs294T) malignant melanoma as well as non-melanoma epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and non-tumorigenic melanocyte-neighboring keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Our aim ...


Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Prativa Majee, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak 2021 Indian Institute of Technology Indore

Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Prativa Majee, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus, emerged in the last decade causing serious diseases and affecting human health globally. Currently, no licensed vaccines or antivirals are available to combat ZIKV, although several vaccine candidates are in the pipeline. In recent years, the presence of non-canon- ical G-quadruplex (GQ) secondary structures in viral genomes has ignited significant attention as potential targets for anti- viral strategy. In this study, we identified several novel conserved potential GQ structures by analyzing published ZIKV genome sequences using an in-house algorithm. Bio- physical and biochemical analysis of the RNA sequences con- taining these potential GQ sequences ...


Female And Male-Controlled Livestock Holdings Impact Pastoralist Food Security And Women’S Dietary Diversity, Henriette Gitungwa, Christopher Gustafson, E.Y. Jimenez, E. Wesley F. Peterson, M. Mwanzalila, Asha Makweta, E. Komba, R.R. Kazwala, J.A.K. Mazet, Elizabeth VanWormer 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Female And Male-Controlled Livestock Holdings Impact Pastoralist Food Security And Women’S Dietary Diversity, Henriette Gitungwa, Christopher Gustafson, E.Y. Jimenez, E. Wesley F. Peterson, M. Mwanzalila, Asha Makweta, E. Komba, R.R. Kazwala, J.A.K. Mazet, Elizabeth Vanwormer

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: Food insecurity is a global problem that requires a One Health approach. As many households in low- and middle-income nations rely on crops and livestock that they produce to meet their household’s needs, food security and nutrition are closely linked to the health of animals and the environment. Resources controlled by women are more often allocated to uses that benefit the entire household, such as food, health, and educating children, than men’s resources. However, studies of gender control of resources among pastoralist societies are scant. We examined the effect of female and male control of livestock resources ...


Environmental Correlates Of Genetic Variation In The Invasive European Starling In North America, Natalie R. Hofmeister, Scott J. Werner, Irby J. Lovette 2021 Cornell University

Environmental Correlates Of Genetic Variation In The Invasive European Starling In North America, Natalie R. Hofmeister, Scott J. Werner, Irby J. Lovette

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Populations of invasive species that colonize and spread in novel environments may differentiate both through demographic processes and local selection. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were introduced to New York in 1890 and subsequently spread throughout North America, becoming one of the most widespread and numerous bird species on the continent. Genome-wide comparisons across starling individuals and populations can identify demographic and/or selective factors that facilitated this rapid and successful expansion. We investigated patterns of genomic diversity and differentiation using reduced-representation genome sequencing of 17 winter-season sampling sites. Consistent with this species' high dispersal rate and rapid expansion history, we ...


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