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Veterinary Toxicology and Pharmacology Commons

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Letter To The Editor Regarding “Efficacy Of Adding Ramipril (Vasotop) To The Combination Of Furosemide (Lasix) And Pimobendan (Vetmedin) In Dogs With Mitral Valve Degeneration: The Valve Trial”, Clarke Atkins, Bruce Keene, Teresa C. DeFrancesco, Sandra Tou, Valérie Chetboul, Étienne Côté, Stephen Ettinger, Philip R. Fox, Robert L. Hamlin, Jonathan P. Mochel, Jean‐Louis Pouchelon, Rebecca L. Stepien 2021 North Carolina State University

Letter To The Editor Regarding “Efficacy Of Adding Ramipril (Vasotop) To The Combination Of Furosemide (Lasix) And Pimobendan (Vetmedin) In Dogs With Mitral Valve Degeneration: The Valve Trial”, Clarke Atkins, Bruce Keene, Teresa C. Defrancesco, Sandra Tou, Valérie Chetboul, Étienne Côté, Stephen Ettinger, Philip R. Fox, Robert L. Hamlin, Jonathan P. Mochel, Jean‐Louis Pouchelon, Rebecca L. Stepien

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The manuscript entitled Efficacy of adding ramipril (VAsotop) to the combination of furosemide (Lasix) and pimobendan (VEtmedin) in dogs with mitral valve degeneration: The VALVE trial1 reports a study which sought to answer the question “could pimobendan be all that is needed beyond loop diuretics to manage congestive heart failure (CHF) in myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD)?” This was done by prospectively comparing the efficacy of pimobendan + ramipril + furosemide (triple treatment) to pimobendan + furosemide (double treatment) to treat new‐onset CHF caused by MMVD.


Changes In Circulating Lymphocytes And Lymphoid Tissue Associated With Vaccination Of Colostrum Deprived Calves, Shollie M. Falkenberg, Rohana P. Dassanayake, Mitchell V. Palmer, Simone Silveira, James A. Roth, Eric Gauger, Troy J. Kaiser, Christian Guidarini, John D. Neill, Julia F. Ridpath 2020 United States Department of Agriculture

Changes In Circulating Lymphocytes And Lymphoid Tissue Associated With Vaccination Of Colostrum Deprived Calves, Shollie M. Falkenberg, Rohana P. Dassanayake, Mitchell V. Palmer, Simone Silveira, James A. Roth, Eric Gauger, Troy J. Kaiser, Christian Guidarini, John D. Neill, Julia F. Ridpath

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

The objective of this study was to compare immunological responses and lymphoid depletion in young, colostrum deprived calves following administration of vaccines containing modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). A group of calves exposed to a typical virulence non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV-2 field strain (ncp exposed) was included to compare responses of calves receiving vaccine to responses generated against a field strain (mimicking a natural infection). A negative control group administered a placebo was used in all comparisons. All vaccines used in the study were administered per manufacturer recommendations while ncp BVDV exposed calves received 5 ml intranasally (2.5 ml ...


Afoxolaner As A Treatment For A Novel Sarcoptes Scabiei Infestation In A Juvenile Potbelly Pig, Joe S. Smith, Darren J. Berger, Sarah E. Hoff, Jeba R. J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Katy A. Martin, Matthew T. Brewer 2020 Iowa State University

Afoxolaner As A Treatment For A Novel Sarcoptes Scabiei Infestation In A Juvenile Potbelly Pig, Joe S. Smith, Darren J. Berger, Sarah E. Hoff, Jeba R. J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Katy A. Martin, Matthew T. Brewer

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

A 2 months old female Vietnamese potbellied pig presented to a veterinary teaching hospital with a referring complaint of pruritus. A human caretaker of the pig had recently been diagnosed with a Sarcoptes spp. dermatitis. Microscopic examination of the skin scrape samples and BLAST analysis confirmed the species of the mite as most closely related to Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis (AY493391). The pig was treated with afoxolaner as previous treatment with ivermectin was not efficacious. Recheck examinations and follow up revealed the pig to be non-pruritic and resolving. Afoxolaner may be a therapeutic option when treating Sarcoptes spp. infections in ...


Repurposing The Open Access Malaria Box Reveals Compounds With Activity Against Tritrichomonas Foetus Trophozoites, Katy A. Martin, Jeba R.J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Christopher Bader, Elizabeth Carreiro, Katelyn Long, Kylie Thompson, Matthew T. Brewer 2020 Iowa State University

Repurposing The Open Access Malaria Box Reveals Compounds With Activity Against Tritrichomonas Foetus Trophozoites, Katy A. Martin, Jeba R.J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Christopher Bader, Elizabeth Carreiro, Katelyn Long, Kylie Thompson, Matthew T. Brewer

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

The protozoan parasite Tritrichomonas foetus causes early embryonic death in cattle which results in severe economic loss. In the United States, there are no drugs are approved for treatment of this pathogen. In this study, we evaluated in vitro anti-protozoal effects of compounds from an open access chemical library against T. foetus trophozoites. An initial high-throughput screen identified 16 compounds of interest. Further investigation revealed 12 compounds that inhibited parasite growth and 4 compounds with lethal effects. For lethal compounds, dose-response curves were constructed and the LD50 was calculated for laboratory and field strains of T. foetus. Our experiments revealed ...


The Use Of The Heter-Lp Algorithm To Reposition Antibiotics For Managing E. Coli Mastitis In Dairy Cattle, Somayeh Sharifi, Maryam Lotfi Shahreza, Abbas Pakdel, James M. Reecy, Nasser Ghadiri, Hadi Atashi, Mahmoud Motamedi, Esmaeil Ebrahimie 2020 Isfahan University of Technology

The Use Of The Heter-Lp Algorithm To Reposition Antibiotics For Managing E. Coli Mastitis In Dairy Cattle, Somayeh Sharifi, Maryam Lotfi Shahreza, Abbas Pakdel, James M. Reecy, Nasser Ghadiri, Hadi Atashi, Mahmoud Motamedi, Esmaeil Ebrahimie

Animal Science Publications

Mastitis, a disease with high incidence worldwide, is the most prevalent and costly disease in the dairy industry. Environmental mastitis pathogens, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), are major etiological agents of bovine mastitis in well-managed dairy farms. However, there is still a need to develop more efficient, safe, and economical treatments for mastitis. In the current research, Heter-LP, a new system biology-based method of drug repositioning, was applied to potentially identify novel therapeutic avenues for the treatment of E. coli mastitis. On-line data repositories relevant to known diseases, drugs, and gene targets along with other specialized biological information for ...


Transport Of Artificial Virus-Like Nanocarriers (Avn) Through Intestinal Monolayer Via Microfold Cells, Tianjian Tong, Yijun Qi, Luke Bussiere, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Cathy L. Miller, Chenxu Yu, Qun Wang 2020 Iowa State University

Transport Of Artificial Virus-Like Nanocarriers (Avn) Through Intestinal Monolayer Via Microfold Cells, Tianjian Tong, Yijun Qi, Luke Bussiere, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Cathy L. Miller, Chenxu Yu, Qun Wang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Compared with subcutaneous or intramuscular routes for vaccination, vaccine delivery via gastrointestinal mucosa has tremendous potential as it is easy to administer and pain free. Robust immune responses can be triggered successfully once vaccine carried antigen reaches the mucosal associated lymphoid sites (e.g., Peyer’s patches). However, the absence of an efficient delivery method has always been an issue for successful oral vaccine development. In our study, inspired by mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) transport into gut mucosal lymphoid tissue via Microfold cells (M cells), artificial virus-like nanocarriers (AVN), consisting of gold nanocages functionalized with the 1 protein from mammalian reovirus ...


A Study To Assess The Correlation Between Plasma, Oral Fluid And Urine Concentrations Of Flunixin Meglumine With The Tissue Residue Depletion Profile In Finishing-Age Swine, Jessica L. Bates, Locke A. Karriker, Suzanne M. Rajewski, Zhoumeng Lin, Ronette Gehring, Mengjie Li, Jim E. Riviere, Johann F. Coetzee 2020 Iowa State University

A Study To Assess The Correlation Between Plasma, Oral Fluid And Urine Concentrations Of Flunixin Meglumine With The Tissue Residue Depletion Profile In Finishing-Age Swine, Jessica L. Bates, Locke A. Karriker, Suzanne M. Rajewski, Zhoumeng Lin, Ronette Gehring, Mengjie Li, Jim E. Riviere, Johann F. Coetzee

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background

Flunixin meglumine (FM) was investigated for the effectiveness of plasma, oral fluid, and urine concentrations to predict tissue residue depletion profiles in finishing-age swine, along with the potential for untreated pigs to acquire tissue residues following commingled housing with FM-treated pigs. Twenty pigs were housed in groups of three treated and one untreated control. Treated pigs received one 2.2 mg/kg dose of FM intramuscularly. Before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h (h) after treatment, plasma samples were taken. At 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days (d) post-treatment, necropsy and collection ...


Considerations In The Extrapolation Drug Toxicity Between Humans And Dogs, Marilyn N. Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Devendra Pade 2020 United States Food and Drug Administration

Considerations In The Extrapolation Drug Toxicity Between Humans And Dogs, Marilyn N. Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Devendra Pade

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The dog is an important species used in preclinical studies in support of human drug product development. Likewise, because of the many active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with therapeutic relevance to both humans and dogs, extrapolation can also occur in the reverse, from human to dog. In either situation, it is important to appreciate species-specific factors influencing drug pharmacokinetics (absorption, metabolism, disposition, and elimination) and the potential impact of disease on the applicability of these extrapolations. Furthermore, tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models not only enable investigators to extrapolate species-specific data on systemic or organ exposure to the parent ...


Chitosan-Adjuvanted Salmonella Subunit Nanoparticle Vaccine For Poultry Delivered Through Drinking Water And Feed, Sankar Renu, Yi Han, Santosh Dhakal, Yashavanth S. Lakshmanappa, Ninoshkaly Feliciano-Ruiz, Sujata Senapati, Balaji Narasimhan, Ramesh Selvaraj, Gourapura J. Renukaradhya 2020 Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center and The Ohio State University

Chitosan-Adjuvanted Salmonella Subunit Nanoparticle Vaccine For Poultry Delivered Through Drinking Water And Feed, Sankar Renu, Yi Han, Santosh Dhakal, Yashavanth S. Lakshmanappa, Ninoshkaly Feliciano-Ruiz, Sujata Senapati, Balaji Narasimhan, Ramesh Selvaraj, Gourapura J. Renukaradhya

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Poor induction of mucosal immunity in the intestines by current Salmonella vaccines is a challenge to the poultry industry. We prepared and tested an oral deliverable Salmonella subunit vaccine containing immunogenic outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and flagellin (F) protein loaded and F-protein surface coated chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) (OMPs-F-CS NPs). The OMPs-F-CS NPs had mean particle size distribution of 514 nm, high positive charge and spherical in shape. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed the F-protein surface coated CS NPs were specifically targeted to chicken immune cells. The OMPs-F-CS NPs treatment of chicken immune cells upregulated TLRs, and Th1 ...


The Comparative Cytotoxicity Of Riddelliine In Primary Mouse, Rat And Chick Hepatocytes, Bryan L. Stegelmeier, William S. Resager, Steven M. Colegate 2020 USDA-Agricultural Research Service

The Comparative Cytotoxicity Of Riddelliine In Primary Mouse, Rat And Chick Hepatocytes, Bryan L. Stegelmeier, William S. Resager, Steven M. Colegate

Poisonous Plant Research (PPR)

Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) producing plants commonly poison livestock, wildlife and humans. Poisoning occurs when DHPAs are ingested as feed or food, or when they contaminate medicinal or herbal products. Direct toxicologic comparison of individual DHPAs is essential to estimate their actual health risks. This has been problematic due to varying models and difficulties in DHPA isolation or synthesis. In contrast, the macrocyclic DHPA riddelliine is readily isolated and it has been used as a benchmark to characterize different models of toxicity and carcinogenicity. Following earlier work with immortalized cell lines, the objective of this study was to characterize the effect ...


Recapitulation Of The Accessible Interface Of Biopsy-Derived Canine Intestinal Organoids To Study Epithelial-Luminal Interactions, Yoko M. Ambrosini, Yejin Park, Albert E. Jergens, Woojung Shin, Soyoun Min, Todd Atherly, Dana C. Borcherding, Jinah Jang, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel, Hyun Jung Kim 2020 University of Texas at Austin and Iowa State University

Recapitulation Of The Accessible Interface Of Biopsy-Derived Canine Intestinal Organoids To Study Epithelial-Luminal Interactions, Yoko M. Ambrosini, Yejin Park, Albert E. Jergens, Woojung Shin, Soyoun Min, Todd Atherly, Dana C. Borcherding, Jinah Jang, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel, Hyun Jung Kim

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Recent advances in canine intestinal organoids have expanded the option for building a better in vitro model to investigate translational science of intestinal physiology and pathology between humans and animals. However, the three-dimensional geometry and the enclosed lumen of canine intestinal organoids considerably hinder the access to the apical side of epithelium for investigating the nutrient and drug absorption, host-microbiome crosstalk, and pharmaceutical toxicity testing. Thus, the creation of a polarized epithelial interface accessible from apical or basolateral side is critical. Here, we demonstrated the generation of an intestinal epithelial monolayer using canine biopsy-derived colonic organoids (colonoids). We optimized the ...


Dynamics Of Larkspur (Delphinium Barbeyi) Pellet Consumption And Tolerance Of The Inhibitory Effects Of Larkspur Alkaloids On Muscle Function In Cattle., Benedict T. Green, Jim Pfister, Dale Gardner, Kevin Welch, Daniel Cook 2020 USDA-ARS

Dynamics Of Larkspur (Delphinium Barbeyi) Pellet Consumption And Tolerance Of The Inhibitory Effects Of Larkspur Alkaloids On Muscle Function In Cattle., Benedict T. Green, Jim Pfister, Dale Gardner, Kevin Welch, Daniel Cook

Poisonous Plant Research (PPR)

Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are toxic native plants on foothill and mountain rangelands in western North America, which poison cattle grazing on those rangelands. The purpose of this study was to examine in a laboratory setting, the subclinical effects of larkspur intake and toxicosis, by allowing larkspur susceptible and resistant cattle to self-select the amount of larkspur consumed in pellet form. We hypothesized that there would be differences in short term (9 – 11 day) pellet consumption between susceptible and resistant animals. Two trials were completed, each with larkspur resistant and susceptible Angus steers, and larkspur-alfalfa pellets at a 12% and 6 ...


Vaginal Microbiota Diverges In Sows With Low And High Reproductive Performance After Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Vaccination, L. P. Sanglard, S. Schmitz-Esser, K. A. Gray, D. C. L. Linhares, C. J. Yeoman, J. C. M. Dekkers, M. C. Niederwerder, N. V. L. Serão 2020 Iowa State University

Vaginal Microbiota Diverges In Sows With Low And High Reproductive Performance After Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Vaccination, L. P. Sanglard, S. Schmitz-Esser, K. A. Gray, D. C. L. Linhares, C. J. Yeoman, J. C. M. Dekkers, M. C. Niederwerder, N. V. L. Serão

Animal Science Publications

Previous studies have demonstrated evidence for a relationship between the vaginal microbiome and reproductive performance, suggesting the vaginal microbiota may serve as a tool to predict farrowing outcomes in commercial pigs. In this study, we compared the vaginal microbiome in sows with low and high farrowing performance and used it to classify animals with contrasting reproductive outcomes in commercial sows following immune challenge with porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS) vaccination. Eighteen microbes were differentially abundant (q-value < 0.05) between the Low and High farrowing performance groups. Among them, Campylobacter, Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Lachnospiraceae unclassified, Prevotella, and Phascolarctobacterium were also selected in the discriminant and linear regression analyses, and could be used ...


Albumin Levels In Tear Film Modulate The Bioavailability Of Medically-Relevant Topical Drugs, Lionel Sebbag, Leah M. Moody, Jonathan P. Mochel 2020 Iowa State University

Albumin Levels In Tear Film Modulate The Bioavailability Of Medically-Relevant Topical Drugs, Lionel Sebbag, Leah M. Moody, Jonathan P. Mochel

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

The breakdown of blood-tear barrier that occurs with ocular pathology allows for large amounts of albumin to leak into the tear fluid. This process likely represents an important restriction to drug absorption in ophthalmology, as only the unbound drug is transported across the ocular tissue barriers to exert its pharmacologic effect. We aimed to investigate the effects of albumin levels in tears on the bioavailability of two commonly used ophthalmic drugs: tropicamide, an antimuscarinic that produces mydriasis and cycloplegia, and latanoprost, a PGF2α analog used for the treatment of glaucoma. Eight female beagle dogs underwent a randomized, vehicle-controlled crossover trial ...


Pain In The Bud: Comparing Lidocaine, Bupivacaine, And Liposomal Bupivacaine For Onset And Duration In Calves, John Danks 2020 Iowa State University

Pain In The Bud: Comparing Lidocaine, Bupivacaine, And Liposomal Bupivacaine For Onset And Duration In Calves, John Danks

Creative Components

This paper aims to describe the use of anesthetics for pain mitigation for disbudding in dairy calves by comparing onset and duration of three drugs. Disbudding removes the innervated tissue surrounding the bud to prevent horn growth. Currently it is not common practice to use any form of anesthetic for this procedure even though disbudding is a painful procedure. This pilot study’s aim was to compare onset and duration for lidocaine, bupivacaine, and liposomal bupivacaine. Calves administered liposomal bupivacaine will have a longer period of nociception desensitization around the horn bud. Liposomal bupivacaine has been shown to provide extended ...


Onset And Duration Of Liposomal Bupivacaine In Holstein Calves Using A Cornual Nerve Block, Selena Gomez 2020 Iowa State University

Onset And Duration Of Liposomal Bupivacaine In Holstein Calves Using A Cornual Nerve Block, Selena Gomez

Creative Components

Dairy calves are routinely disbudded during their first few weeks of life in order to prevent injuries and provide safety for their handlers. Disbudding is a procedure that removes the calves’ horn buds and activates nociceptors and causes acute pain and sometimes chronic pain. In order to mitigate pain, typically lidocaine or bupivacaine are used; however, their duration of analgesia lasts less than six hours. In order to alleviate chronic pain, a long-term local anesthetic must be used. Liposomal bupivacaine has shown in animals and humans to have a duration of analgesia ranging from 26 to 72 hours. To determine ...


Kinetics Of Fluorescein In Tear Film After Eye Drop Instillation In Beagle Dogs: Does Size Really Matter?, Lionel Sebbag, Nicolette S. Kirner, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Alysha Reis, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

Kinetics Of Fluorescein In Tear Film After Eye Drop Instillation In Beagle Dogs: Does Size Really Matter?, Lionel Sebbag, Nicolette S. Kirner, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Alysha Reis, Jonathan P. Mochel

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

The study aimed to determine the impact of drop size on tear film pharmacokinetics and assess important physiological parameters associated with ocular drug delivery in dogs. Two separate experiments were conducted in eight healthy Beagle dogs: (i) Instillation of one drop (35 μl) or two drops (70 μl) of 1% fluorescein solution in each eye followed by tear collections with capillary tubes from 0 to 180 min; (ii) Instillation of 10 to 100 μl of 0.1% fluorescein in each eye followed by external photography with blue excitation filter (to capture periocular spillage of fluorescein) and tear collections from 1 ...


Association Between Antimicrobial Drug Class For Treatment And Retreatment Of Bovine Respiratory Disease (Brd) And Frequency Of Resistant Brd Pathogen Isolation From Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Samples, Johann F. Coetzee, Drew R. Magstadt, Pritam K. Sidhu, Lendie Follett, Adlai M. Schuler, Adam C. Krull, Vickie L. Cooper, Terry J. Engelken, Michael D. Kleinhenz, Annette M. O'Connor 2019 Iowa State University and Kansas State University

Association Between Antimicrobial Drug Class For Treatment And Retreatment Of Bovine Respiratory Disease (Brd) And Frequency Of Resistant Brd Pathogen Isolation From Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Samples, Johann F. Coetzee, Drew R. Magstadt, Pritam K. Sidhu, Lendie Follett, Adlai M. Schuler, Adam C. Krull, Vickie L. Cooper, Terry J. Engelken, Michael D. Kleinhenz, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Although 90% of BRD relapses are reported to receive retreatment with a different class of antimicrobial, studies examining the impact of antimicrobial selection (i.e. bactericidal or bacteriostatic) on retreatment outcomes and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are deficient in the published literature. This survey was conducted to determine the association between antimicrobial class selection for treatment and retreatment of BRD relapses on antimicrobial susceptibility of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Pathogens were isolated from samples submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from January 2013 to December 2015. A total of 781 isolates with ...


The Anti-Campylobacter Activity And Mechanisms Of Pinocembrin Action, Anja Klančnik, Katarina Šimunović, Jasna Kovac, Orhan Sahin, Zuowei Wu, Darinka Vučković, Maja Abram, Qijing Zhang, Sonja Smole Možina 2019 University of Ljubljana

The Anti-Campylobacter Activity And Mechanisms Of Pinocembrin Action, Anja Klančnik, Katarina Šimunović, Jasna Kovac, Orhan Sahin, Zuowei Wu, Darinka Vučković, Maja Abram, Qijing Zhang, Sonja Smole Možina

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

We investigated the anti-Campylobacter activity of pinocembrin and its mechanism of action, as well as Campylobacter responses to pinocembrin treatment at the genetic and phenotypic levels, using C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and a multidrug efflux system repressor mutant (11168ΔcmeR). At its minimal inhibitory concentration, pinocembrin significantly increased cell membrane permeability of Campylobacter. Interestingly, at sub-inhibitory concentrations, pinocembrin did not significantly alter membrane functionality and it increased bacterial fitness. Treatment with pinocembrin evoked decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and down-regulation of several NADH dehydrogenase I chain subunits and proteins involved in iron uptake. This suggests altered protein production and redox cycle ...


Nerve Growth Factor In Dogs: Assessment Of Two Immunoassays And Selected Ocular Parameters Following A Nicergoline Challenge Per Os, Lionel Sebbag, Leah M. Moody, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

Nerve Growth Factor In Dogs: Assessment Of Two Immunoassays And Selected Ocular Parameters Following A Nicergoline Challenge Per Os, Lionel Sebbag, Leah M. Moody, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Jonathan P. Mochel

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Impairment of corneal nerves can result in the development of ocular surface diseases such as aqueous tear deficiency and neurotrophic keratopathy. This study investigates oral nicergoline, an α‐adrenoceptor antagonist shown to enhance endogenous secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) by the lacrimal gland, as a potential therapy for these conditions. Five female spayed Beagle dogs received a 2‐week course of oral nicergoline (10 mg twice daily). Drug safety was evaluated with ophthalmic and physical examinations, blood pressure monitoring, bloodwork, and urinalysis. The effect of nicergoline on the ocular surface was assessed with corneal esthesiometry, Schirmer tear test‐1 ...


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