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Veterinary Toxicology and Pharmacology Commons

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Efflux Pump Overexpression Contributes To Tigecycline Heteroresistance In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Yi Chen, Daxing Hu, Qijing Zhang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun 2017 South China Agricultural University

Efflux Pump Overexpression Contributes To Tigecycline Heteroresistance In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Yi Chen, Daxing Hu, Qijing Zhang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun

Qijing Zhang

Bacterial heteroresistance has been identified in several combinations of bacteria and antibiotics, and it complicated the therapeutic strategies. Tigecycline is being used as one of the optimal options for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Salmonella. This study investigated whether heterorresistance to tigecycline exists in a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain harboring the oqxAB-bearing IncHI2 plasmid pHXY0908. MIC and population analyses were performed to evaluate population-wide susceptibility to tigecycline. The effects of efflux pumps on MIC levels were assessed using the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide, measuring intracellular tigecycline accumulation as well as mRNA levels of regulatory and efflux pump ...


Evaluation Of A Combinatorial Approach To Prion Inactivation Using An Oxidizing Agent, Sds, And Proteinase K, Jodi D. Smith, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of A Combinatorial Approach To Prion Inactivation Using An Oxidizing Agent, Sds, And Proteinase K, Jodi D. Smith, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Background

Prions demonstrate an unusual resistance to methods effective at inactivating conventional microorganisms. This has resulted in a very tangible and difficult infection control challenge to the medical and veterinary communities, as well as animal agriculture and related industries. Currently accepted practices of harsh chemical treatments such as prolonged exposure to sodium hydroxide or sodium hypochlorite, or autoclaving are not suitable in many situations. Less caustic and more readily applicable treatments to contaminated environments are therefore desirable. We recently demonstrated that exposure of the RML scrapie agent to a commercial product containing sodium percarbonate (SPC-P) with or without sodium dodecyl ...


Changes In Retinal Function And Morphology Are Early Clinical Signs Of Disease In Cattle With Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Ekundayo M. Platt, Jessica R. Juarez, Leo L. Timms, Justin J. Greenlee 2017 Iowa State University

Changes In Retinal Function And Morphology Are Early Clinical Signs Of Disease In Cattle With Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Ekundayo M. Platt, Jessica R. Juarez, Leo L. Timms, Justin J. Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) belongs to a group of fatal, transmissible protein misfolding diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). All TSEs are caused by accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) throughout the central nervous system (CNS), which results in neuronal loss and ultimately death. Like other protein misfolding diseases including Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, TSEs are generally not diagnosed until the onset of disease after the appearance of unequivocal clinical signs. As such, identification of the earliest clinical signs of disease may facilitate diagnosis. The retina is the most accessible part of the central nervous system ...


Efflux Pump Overexpression Contributes To Tigecycline Heteroresistance In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Yi Chen, Daxing Hu, Qijing Zhang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun 2017 South China Agricultural University

Efflux Pump Overexpression Contributes To Tigecycline Heteroresistance In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Yi Chen, Daxing Hu, Qijing Zhang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Bacterial heteroresistance has been identified in several combinations of bacteria and antibiotics, and it complicated the therapeutic strategies. Tigecycline is being used as one of the optimal options for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Salmonella. This study investigated whether heterorresistance to tigecycline exists in a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain harboring the oqxAB-bearing IncHI2 plasmid pHXY0908. MIC and population analyses were performed to evaluate population-wide susceptibility to tigecycline. The effects of efflux pumps on MIC levels were assessed using the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide, measuring intracellular tigecycline accumulation as well as mRNA levels of regulatory and efflux ...


Microtransplantation Of Rat Brain Neurolemma Into Xenopus Laevis Oocytes To Study The Effect Of Environmental Toxicants On Endogenous Voltage-Sensitive Ion Channels, Edwin Murenzi 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Microtransplantation Of Rat Brain Neurolemma Into Xenopus Laevis Oocytes To Study The Effect Of Environmental Toxicants On Endogenous Voltage-Sensitive Ion Channels, Edwin Murenzi

Masters Theses

Microtransplantation of mammalian neurolemma into Xenopus laevis oocytes has been used to study ion channels in terms of their structure and function in the central nervous system. Use of microtransplanted neurolemma is advantageous in that tissue can be obtained from various sources, ion channels and receptors are present in their native configuration and they can be used to evaluate numerous channelpathies caused by environmental toxicants. Here we show that Xenopus oocytes injected with fragments of rat brain neurolemma successfully express functional native ion channels that are assembled in their own plasma membrane. Using a high throughput two electrode voltage clamp ...


Emergence Of A Potent Multidrug Efflux Pump Variant That Enhances Campylobacter Resistance To Multiple Antibiotics, Hong Yao, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Fengru Deng, Dejun Liu, Gaowa Naren, Lei Dai, Chih-Chia Su, Bing Wang, Shaolin Wang, Congming Wu, Edward W. Yu, Qijing Zhang, Jianzhong Shen 2016 China Agricultural University

Emergence Of A Potent Multidrug Efflux Pump Variant That Enhances Campylobacter Resistance To Multiple Antibiotics, Hong Yao, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Fengru Deng, Dejun Liu, Gaowa Naren, Lei Dai, Chih-Chia Su, Bing Wang, Shaolin Wang, Congming Wu, Edward W. Yu, Qijing Zhang, Jianzhong Shen

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are key players in antibiotic resistance. Although their role in conferring multidrug resistance is well documented, the emergence of “super” efflux pump variants that enhance bacterial resistance to multiple drugs has not been reported. Here, we describe the emergence of a resistance-enhancing variant (named RE-CmeABC) of the predominant efflux pump CmeABC in Campylobacter, a major zoonotic pathogen whose resistance to antibiotics is considered a serious antibiotic resistance threat in the United States. Compared to the previously characterized CmeABC transporters, RE-CmeABC is much more potent in conferring Campylobacter resistance to antibiotics, which was shown by increased MICs ...


A Comparison Of Classical And H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated With E211k Prion Protein Polymorphism In Wild-Type And Ek211 Cattle Following Intracranial Inoculation, S. Jo Moore, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Catherine E. Vrentas, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee 2016 United States Department of Agriculture

A Comparison Of Classical And H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated With E211k Prion Protein Polymorphism In Wild-Type And Ek211 Cattle Following Intracranial Inoculation, S. Jo Moore, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Catherine E. Vrentas, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee

Biomedical Sciences Publications

In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-H) was diagnosed in a cow that was associated with a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) resulting in a lysine for glutamate amino acid substitution at codon 211 (called E211K) of the prion protein. Although the prevalence of this polymorphism is low, cattle carrying the K211 allele may be predisposed to rapid onset of BSE-H when exposed or to the potential development of a genetic BSE. This study was conducted to better understand the relationship between the K211 polymorphism and its effect on BSE phenotype. BSE-H from ...


The Relationship Between Canine Nasal Length And Second-Hand Smoke Cotinine Levels, Sierra Wilson, Terry Derting 2016 Murray State University

The Relationship Between Canine Nasal Length And Second-Hand Smoke Cotinine Levels, Sierra Wilson, Terry Derting

Scholars Week

Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been associated with respiratory cancers in canines, with the predisposed locations determined by the cephalic ratio (head length / head width). Exposure to SHS is frequently measured by analyzing urine or blood samples for the nicotine by-product cotinine. We investigated the suitability of saliva as an alternative source for cotinine analyses in dogs because obtaining saliva is less invasive and cotinine concentrations from SHS exposure are instantaneously measurable in saliva compared to other collection methods. Specifically, we tested for a quantitative relationship between cephalic ratio and the salivary concentration of cotinine. Our null hypothesis was that there ...


Taylor, Charles Forman, Jr., 1862-1946 (Sc 2975), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives 2016 Western Kentucky University

Taylor, Charles Forman, Jr., 1862-1946 (Sc 2975), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 2975. Letter written by Charles Forman Taylor Jr., Bowling Green, Kentucky to Joe Werthan, Nashville, Tennessee, describing a cough syrup to be used on Mr. Werthan’s horses. The letter includes a list of Taylor’s other equine medications with prices.


The Impact Of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals On Wildlife Conservation, Eda Reed 2016 Colby College

The Impact Of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals On Wildlife Conservation, Eda Reed

Honors Theses

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as those from plastics and pesticides, have been hypothesized to affect wildlife populations. According to the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, EDCs ‘are chemicals that may interfere with the body’s endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune effects in both humans and wildlife.’ A growing number of studies suggest wildlife are being exposed to EDCs, but how EDCs affect wildlife health and wildlife conservation is less well-understood. Through scientific literature analysis and a survey of wildlife conservationists and practitioners, this study aims to determine the current state of knowledge ...


The Efficacy Of Three Types Of Analgesic Drugs In Reducing Pain In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Jessica J. Mettam, Lois J. Oulton, Catherine R. McCrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon 2015 University of Liverpool

The Efficacy Of Three Types Of Analgesic Drugs In Reducing Pain In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Jessica J. Mettam, Lois J. Oulton, Catherine R. Mccrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne U. Sneddon, Ph.D.

Recent research has shown the possibility of pain perception in fish; therefore, the use of analgesia or “painkillers” should be considered for invasive procedures. However, there is relatively little information on the effectiveness of analgesic drugs nor on the appropriate dose for fish. This study assessed the efficacy of three types of drug: an opioid, buprenorphine, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), carprofen and a local anaesthetic, lidocaine. Each drug was tested at three doses on rainbow trout that were noxiously stimulated and the most effective dose was also given to fish experiencing no pain to investigate side-effects. Ventilation rate and ...


Changes In Retinal Function And Morphology Are Early Clinical Signs Of Disease In Cattle With Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Ekundayo M. Platt, Jessica R. Juarez, Leo L. Timms, Justin J. Greenlee 2015 Iowa State University

Changes In Retinal Function And Morphology Are Early Clinical Signs Of Disease In Cattle With Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Ekundayo M. Platt, Jessica R. Juarez, Leo L. Timms, Justin J. Greenlee

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) belongs to a group of fatal, transmissible protein misfolding diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). All TSEs are caused by accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) throughout the central nervous system (CNS), which results in neuronal loss and ultimately death. Like other protein misfolding diseases including Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, TSEs are generally not diagnosed until the onset of disease after the appearance of unequivocal clinical signs. As such, identification of the earliest clinical signs of disease may facilitate diagnosis. The retina is the most accessible part of the central nervous ...


Effects Of Label Dose Permethrin Use In Yearling Angus Beef Bulls On Reproductive Function And Testicular Histopathology, Tyler M. Dohlman, Patrick E. Phillips, Darin M. Madson, Christopher A. Clark, Patrick J. Gunn 2015 Iowa State University

Effects Of Label Dose Permethrin Use In Yearling Angus Beef Bulls On Reproductive Function And Testicular Histopathology, Tyler M. Dohlman, Patrick E. Phillips, Darin M. Madson, Christopher A. Clark, Patrick J. Gunn

Animal Industry Report

To eliminate the potential for insect borne diseases and improve productivity in cow-calf operations, many producers use pour-on pyrethroids. However, popular press literature has identified potential links between use of pyrethroids and reproductive function failures in bulls. While literature in mice and rats have reported potential endocrine disruption of sex steroids resulting from pyrethroid exposure, effects of pyrethroid use on bull fertility is still questionable. The objective of this study was to measure reproductive parameters in peripubertal Angus bulls using a commonly used pyrethroid pour-on. We hypothesized that use of a pyrethroid pour-on at labeled dose would have limited effects ...


Reversible Downregulation Of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis In The Stallion With A Third-Generation Gnrh Antagonist, Gabriel Monteiro Davolli 2015 University of Kentucky

Reversible Downregulation Of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis In The Stallion With A Third-Generation Gnrh Antagonist, Gabriel Monteiro Davolli

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

The objectives of this thesis were: (1) to evaluate the downregulation of the stallion hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis by a GnRH antagonist (acyline) based upon endocrine, seminal, testicular and behavioral effects, and (2) to assess recovery after treatment. Stallions were treated for 50 days (n=4; 330µg/kg acyline q 5d) and controls (n=4) received vehicle alone. Stallions were assessed pre-treatment and for 72 days after last treatment. Treatment induced declines (p<0.05) in FSH, LH, testosterone (to castrate levels) and estrone sulfate. Gonadotropins and testosterone returned to control values within nine days and estrone sulfate by 14 days after treatment discontinuation. Acyline-treated stallions failed to respond with FSH, LH and testosterone increase after exogenous GnRH stimulation (25µg gonadorelin, IV) compared to pre-treatment and control stimulation. Total sperm numbers and motility were reduced in acyline-treated stallions, as well as total seminal plasma protein and testicular volume (p<0.05). Time to ejaculation was increased in acyline group (p<0.5). Testicular, sexual behavior and most seminal parameters regained normal levels within 72 days after treatment ceased. Sperm output of acyline-treated stallions was regained within seven months after ending treatment. Acyline reversibly suppressed the stallion HPG axis, thus has potential for treating the androgen-dependent Equine-Arteritis-Virus carrier state and as behavior modulator.


Glucocorticoid-Induced Chondrocyte Cytotoxicity At Doses Recommended For Intra-Articular Therapy In Horses, Wenying Zhu 2015 University of Kentucky

Glucocorticoid-Induced Chondrocyte Cytotoxicity At Doses Recommended For Intra-Articular Therapy In Horses, Wenying Zhu

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Intra-articular glucocorticoid injections are commonly used to treat synovitis and osteoarthritis in horses. These agents are highly effective at relieving pain, swelling, and other symptoms of joint inflammation. The drugs also have therapeutic benefits by down regulating the expression of cytokines and protease enzymes that participate in the degradation of articular cartilage. However, detrimental effects on chondrocyte function and cell viability that is independent of osteoarthritis pathogenesis have been described and linked to glucocorticoid use. These side effects are both drug- and dose-dependent. This study tested the hypothesis that manufacture recommended dosage levels of methylprednisolone, betamethasone, and triamcinolone that are ...


Synovial Fluid Pharmacokinetics Of Tulathromycin, Gamithromycin And Florfenicol After A Single Subcutaneous Dose In Cattle, Meredyth L. Jones, Kevin E. Washburn, Virginia R. Fajt, Somchai Rice 2015 Texas A&M University

Synovial Fluid Pharmacokinetics Of Tulathromycin, Gamithromycin And Florfenicol After A Single Subcutaneous Dose In Cattle, Meredyth L. Jones, Kevin E. Washburn, Virginia R. Fajt, Somchai Rice

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background
Deep digital septic conditions represent some of the most refractory causes of severe lameness in cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of tulathromycin, gamithromycin and florfenicol into the synovial fluid of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint of cattle after single subcutaneous administration of drug to evaluate the potential usefulness of these single-dose, long-acting antimicrobials for treating bacterial infections of the joints in cattle.

Results
Twelve cross-bred beef cows were randomly assigned to one of the drugs. Following subcutaneous administration, arthrocentesis of the left metatarsophalangeal joint was performed at various time points up to 240 hours ...


Survey Of Serum Vitamin D Status Across Stages Of Swine Production And Evaluation Of Supplemental Bulk Vitamin D Premixes Used In Swine Diets, Jessica Arnold, Darin M. Madson, Steve Ensley, Jesse P. Goff, Chris Sparks, Gregory W. Stevenson, Thomas Crenshaw, Chong Wang, Ronald L. Horst 2015 Iowa State University

Survey Of Serum Vitamin D Status Across Stages Of Swine Production And Evaluation Of Supplemental Bulk Vitamin D Premixes Used In Swine Diets, Jessica Arnold, Darin M. Madson, Steve Ensley, Jesse P. Goff, Chris Sparks, Gregory W. Stevenson, Thomas Crenshaw, Chong Wang, Ronald L. Horst

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in pigs of different age groups, to determine if 25(OH)D concentrations varied with season, and to assess the quality of vitamin D supplements used in swine diets from multiple commercial suppliers. Serum samples (n = 1200) submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for routine surveillance were assayed for serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Vitamin D premix samples were obtained from suppliers and analyzed at two laboratories over a 9-month period. In all age categories, 25(OH)D concentrations in numerous serum samples were lower ...


Pharmacokinetics Of Intravenous And Subcutaneous Cefovecin In Alpacas, S Cox, C Sommardahl, Reza Seddighi 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Pharmacokinetics Of Intravenous And Subcutaneous Cefovecin In Alpacas, S Cox, C Sommardahl, Reza Seddighi

Reza Seddighi

The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin after intravenous and subcutaneous dose of 8 mg/kg to alpacas. Bacterial infections requiring long-term antibiotic therapy such as neonatal bacteremia, pneumonia, peritonitis, dental, and uterine infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in this species. However, few antimicrobials have been evaluated and proven to have favorable pharmacokinetics for therapeutic use. Most antimicrobials that are currently used require daily injections for many days. Cefovecin is a long-acting cephalosporin that is formulated for subcutaneous administration, and its long-elimination half-life allows for 14-day dosing intervals in dogs and ...


An Integrated Program Using Taktic To Control Mange In Swine, S. M. Gaafar, J. J. Arends, A. Hogg, Kenneth H. Holscher, R. E. Williams 2014 Purdue University

An Integrated Program Using Taktic To Control Mange In Swine, S. M. Gaafar, J. J. Arends, A. Hogg, Kenneth H. Holscher, R. E. Williams

Ken H. Holscher

An integrated treatment program for sarcoptic mange control using TAKTIC@ (omitral.) 12.5% EC was evaluated at eight., privately owned, farrow to finish swine facilities in a four-state area. At all locations the treatment program consisted of an initial whole-herd treatment. phase followed by scheduled treatments applied in conjunction with routine ffionagement practices. Evaluations of mite scrapings taken at scheduled pretreatment and posttreatment intervals showed a 50· 100% reduction in sacroptic mange infestation levels following implementation of the TAKTIC@ treatment program which consisted of an initial treatment and a maintenllnce schedule. Comparison of pretreatment and posttreatment production records showed 10 ...


Target Optimization For Peptide Nucleic Acid (Pna)-Mediated Antisense Inhibition Of The Cmeabc Multidrug Efflux Pump In Campylobacter Jejuni, Euna Oh, Qijing Zhang, Byeonghwa Jeon 2014 University of Alberta

Target Optimization For Peptide Nucleic Acid (Pna)-Mediated Antisense Inhibition Of The Cmeabc Multidrug Efflux Pump In Campylobacter Jejuni, Euna Oh, Qijing Zhang, Byeonghwa Jeon

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Objectives

CmeABC is a resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux pump conferring resistance to clinically important antibiotics in Campylobacter. This study aimed to identify the optimal target sites for the inhibition of CmeABC with antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA).

Methods

Eighteen PNAs were designed to bind to the translational initiation regions of cmeABC, spanning the ribosome-binding site (RBS) and the start codon of the cmeABC genes. Campylobacter jejuni was treated with CmeABC-specific PNAs (CmeABC-PNAs) at various concentrations and subjected to western blotting to measure changes in the level of CmeABC expression. The MICs of ciprofloxacin and erythromycin were measured to ...


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