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Veterinary Toxicology and Pharmacology Commons

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Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics Of Intravenously And Subcutaneously Administered Pantoprazole In Sheep (Ovis Aries)., Joe S. Smith, Kailee Bennett, Ryan Flynn, Jessica Gebert, Pierre-Yves Mulon, Jessica D. Garcia, Lainey Harvill, Olivia Escher, Lisa Sams Ebner, Joan Bergman, Sherry Cox 2024 UTKCVM

Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics Of Intravenously And Subcutaneously Administered Pantoprazole In Sheep (Ovis Aries)., Joe S. Smith, Kailee Bennett, Ryan Flynn, Jessica Gebert, Pierre-Yves Mulon, Jessica D. Garcia, Lainey Harvill, Olivia Escher, Lisa Sams Ebner, Joan Bergman, Sherry Cox

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

No abstract provided.


A Potential Of Watercress Nasturtium Officinale Bioactive Compounds In Inhibiting Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (Imnv) By Targeting Rna-Dependent Rna Polymerase (Rdrp) Virus From Several Countries: In Silico Approach, Qurrota A’yunin, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah, Maftuch Maftuch, Feri Eko Hermanto, Muhammad Hermawan Widyananda, Narendra Santika Hartana, Muhaimin Rifa’i, Yoga Dwi Jatmiko 2024 Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

A Potential Of Watercress Nasturtium Officinale Bioactive Compounds In Inhibiting Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (Imnv) By Targeting Rna-Dependent Rna Polymerase (Rdrp) Virus From Several Countries: In Silico Approach, Qurrota A’Yunin, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah, Maftuch Maftuch, Feri Eko Hermanto, Muhammad Hermawan Widyananda, Narendra Santika Hartana, Muhaimin Rifa’I, Yoga Dwi Jatmiko

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) disease causes mass mortality and decreased shrimp production. The RdRp region projects to the interior, where it may function in transcription. The focus of this study was to determine the effect of amino acid polymorphisms from several countries on the structure of RdRp and identify the potential of watercress in inhibiting IMNV by targeting the RdRp protein of IMNV through an in silico approach. The results showed that the structure of the IMNV RdRp protein from Indonesia was similar to Mexico, and the protein structure from India_QDN was identical to India_QIL. Ligand binding affinity values showed …


Toxicological Effects And Treatment Of Accidental Ingestion Of Simparica Trio® In Felis Catus: An Investigative Review, Aussia Stander 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Toxicological Effects And Treatment Of Accidental Ingestion Of Simparica Trio® In Felis Catus: An Investigative Review, Aussia Stander

Honors Theses

Simparica TRIO®, a canine endectocide manufactured by Zoetis, contains sarolaner, moxidectin, and pyrantel pamoate salt in an orally administered chewable tablet. These compounds are all toxic to both cats and dogs in sufficient amounts. As Simparica TRIO® rises in popularity among pet owners, Felis catus (felines, cats) in multi-pet households (households with both cats and dogs) are at increased risk of overdosage and toxicosis from accidental ingestion of Simparica TRIO® due to their smaller weight.

Simparica TRIO® is not for feline use and little literature exists on the symptoms of and treatment for accidental ingestion …


Randomized Comparison Between A Forced Air System And Warm Water Bath For Resuscitation Of Neonatal Hypothermic Calves With Or Without Oral Administration Of Caffeine, Adam T. Copeland, Amanda J. Kreuder, Grant Dewell, Renee Dewell, Caitlin Wiley, Lingnan Yuan, Jonathan P. Mochel, Joseph Smith 2024 ISU

Randomized Comparison Between A Forced Air System And Warm Water Bath For Resuscitation Of Neonatal Hypothermic Calves With Or Without Oral Administration Of Caffeine, Adam T. Copeland, Amanda J. Kreuder, Grant Dewell, Renee Dewell, Caitlin Wiley, Lingnan Yuan, Jonathan P. Mochel, Joseph Smith

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

Background

Hypothermia is a cause of neonatal calf death in cold climates. Practical and effective rewarming methods are important for bovine health within affected regions.

Hypothesis/Objectives

To compare the rewarming rate and blood analytes (glucose, lactate, and cortisol) of calves resuscitated with forced air with warm water bath, with or without oral administration of caffeine.

Animals

Twenty healthy neonatal Holstein bull calves.

Methods

In this randomized, prospective study, calves born healthy and without history of dystocia were cooled to 32°C rectal temperature then thermally resuscitated using either forced air rewarming or warm water bath (40°C) with or without oral administration …


Tooth Root Abscess And Mandibular Infections In Old World Camelids: 3 Cases, Alyssa Sparnon, Joseph Smith, Pierre-Yves Mulon, Silke Hecht, David Anderson, Sarel Van Amstel 2024 UTKCVM

Tooth Root Abscess And Mandibular Infections In Old World Camelids: 3 Cases, Alyssa Sparnon, Joseph Smith, Pierre-Yves Mulon, Silke Hecht, David Anderson, Sarel Van Amstel

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

There are limited reports of mandibular infections and tooth root abscesses in camels (Old World Camelids). This is in contrast to multiple reports and case series detailing diagnosis, management, and therapy of similar infections in New World Camelids such as llamas and alpacas. The purpose of this case series is to present three cases of camels in North America with these infections and to detail the diagnostics, therapeutic interventions, management, and follow-up of these cases. Radiography was utilized in all three cases, as was sedation and/or anesthesia. Similar to llamas, florfenicol was used for antimicrobial therapy and flunixin meglumine was …


Pharmacokinetics Of Famotidine In Goats After Intravenous Administration, Olivia Escher, Joseph Smith, Kamryn Christopher, Bryan Hogan, Lainey Harvill, Makenna Hopson, Sherry Cox 2024 UTK

Pharmacokinetics Of Famotidine In Goats After Intravenous Administration, Olivia Escher, Joseph Smith, Kamryn Christopher, Bryan Hogan, Lainey Harvill, Makenna Hopson, Sherry Cox

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

No abstract provided.


Embryotoxic Effects Of Three Natural Occurring Veratrum Alkaloids And One Synthetic Analog Using In Vitro Produced Bovine Embryos, Kevin D. Welch, Shiquan Wang, Stephen T. Lee, Dale R. Gardner, Kip E. Panter 2023 USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Logan, UT

Embryotoxic Effects Of Three Natural Occurring Veratrum Alkaloids And One Synthetic Analog Using In Vitro Produced Bovine Embryos, Kevin D. Welch, Shiquan Wang, Stephen T. Lee, Dale R. Gardner, Kip E. Panter

Poisonous Plant Research (PPR)

Three natural occurring plant toxins from Veratrum californicum and one related synthetic analog were screened for embryotoxicity using in vitro bovine embryo production techniques. Bovine oocytes were aspirated from ovaries collected from a local abattoir and embryos were generated through in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) procedures. The three natural steroidal alkaloids, cyclopamine, jervine and veratramine and the synthetic steroidal derivative of cyclopamine, cyclopamine-4-en-3-one, were added to IVM and IVC media at 12 μM. Oocytes were exposed to the toxins during maturation (IVM) and pre-implantation embryo during culture (IVC). Cleavage rates and embryo growth (morula and blastocyst …


Cryptosporidiosis In An Alpaca Cria Secondary To Prolongedantimicrobial Administration, Heidi M. Wyrosdick, Caroline Griffin, John J. Schaefer, Joseph Smith 2023 UTK CVM BDS

Cryptosporidiosis In An Alpaca Cria Secondary To Prolongedantimicrobial Administration, Heidi M. Wyrosdick, Caroline Griffin, John J. Schaefer, Joseph Smith

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

No abstract provided.


Preliminary Evidence Of Anticoagulant Rodenticide Exposure In American Kestrels (Falco Sparverius) In The Western United States, Evan R. Buechley, Dave Oleyar, Jesse L. Watson, Jennifer Bridgeman, Steven Volker, David A. Goldade, Catherine E. Swift, Barnett A. Rattner 2023 National Zoological Park

Preliminary Evidence Of Anticoagulant Rodenticide Exposure In American Kestrels (Falco Sparverius) In The Western United States, Evan R. Buechley, Dave Oleyar, Jesse L. Watson, Jennifer Bridgeman, Steven Volker, David A. Goldade, Catherine E. Swift, Barnett A. Rattner

United States Geological Survey: Staff Publications

Although there is extensive evidence of declines in the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) population across North America, the cause of such declines remains a mystery. One hypothesized driver of decline is anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) exposure, which could potentially cause mortality or reduced fitness. We investigated AR exposure in wild American Kestrels in Utah, USA. We collected and tested for AR residues in liver samples (n = 8) from kestrels opportunistically encountered dead and in blood samples (n = 71) from live wild kestrels, both nestlings and adults. We found high detection rates in both tissues. Adult …


The Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics Of Esomeprazole In Sheep After Intravenous Dosing, Joseph Smith, Jessica Gebert, Kailee Bennett, Lisa Sams Ebner, Ryan Flynn, Pierre-Yves Mulon, Lainey Harvill, Olivia Escher, Amanda Jo Kreuder, Joan Bergman, Sherry Cox 2023 LMU

The Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics Of Esomeprazole In Sheep After Intravenous Dosing, Joseph Smith, Jessica Gebert, Kailee Bennett, Lisa Sams Ebner, Ryan Flynn, Pierre-Yves Mulon, Lainey Harvill, Olivia Escher, Amanda Jo Kreuder, Joan Bergman, Sherry Cox

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

Abomasal (gastric) ulceration is a morbidity in sheep, and currently, there is a paucity of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data for gastroprotectant drugs reported for this species. The proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole has been used in small animal and human patients for gastroprotection via increasing the gastric pH. The objective of this study was to report the pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic effect of esomeprazole in sheep after single intravenous dosing. Four healthy adult Southdown cross ewes had blood collected over a 24  h time period after single intravenous dosing of esomeprazole at 1.0  mg/kg. Abomasal fluid was sampled over 24  h …


Effect Of Furosemide Administration On Plasma Analytes And Urine Enzyme Excretion In Two Reptilian Species, Kathryn Metcalf 2023 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Effect Of Furosemide Administration On Plasma Analytes And Urine Enzyme Excretion In Two Reptilian Species, Kathryn Metcalf

LSU Master's Theses

Renal disease is a common ailment of captive reptiles that is often closely linked to chronic, subclinical states of dehydration. Currently, the diagnosis of renal disease in reptiles is poorly characterized and often relies on invasive diagnostic techniques (e.g., renal biopsy) for definitive diagnosis. A potential outlet for the further characterization of renal dysfunction in reptiles is the induction of dehydration by furosemide therapy. Furosemide is a loop diuretic that is commonly used in mammalian patients for the treatment of congestive heart failure. The utility of furosemide in reptiles is poorly characterized, however, both experimental and clinical utility of this …


Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette 2023 Murray State University

Pharmacokinetics Of Single Feeding Of Cannabidiol In Cattle: A Pilot Study, Haley Cornette

Honors College Theses

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a substance that has been used in complementary medicine for many years. However, modern medicine has little knowledge of how this substance is utilized and metabolized in ruminant animals. Regulations on quality assurance and use in animals are lacking, and CBD supplementation in livestock is not approved. If CBD supplements can be shown to be safe and effective, detection in the animal will be important for determining regulation of use. A withdrawal period can then be established to allow time for deterioration of product to safe levels before livestock products enter human markets. This study sought to …


Pharmacokinetics Of Intramuscular Maropitant In Pigs (Sus Scrofa Domesticus), Joseph Smith, Jessica E. Gebert, Lisa S. Ebner, Kailee O. Bennett, Rebecca J. Collins, Chiara E. Hampton, Stephanie A. Kleine, Pierre-Yves Mulon, Christopher K. Smith, Reza Seddighi, Genevieve Bussieres, Jonathan P. Mochel, Healther K. Knych 2023 LMU

Pharmacokinetics Of Intramuscular Maropitant In Pigs (Sus Scrofa Domesticus), Joseph Smith, Jessica E. Gebert, Lisa S. Ebner, Kailee O. Bennett, Rebecca J. Collins, Chiara E. Hampton, Stephanie A. Kleine, Pierre-Yves Mulon, Christopher K. Smith, Reza Seddighi, Genevieve Bussieres, Jonathan P. Mochel, Healther K. Knych

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

Pigs are at risk of vomiting from medical conditions as well as the emetic side effects of drugs administered for peri-operative manipulations, but there is a lack of pharmacokinetic data for potential anti-emetic therapies, such as maropitant, in this species. The main objective of this study was to estimate plasma pharmacokinetic parameters for maropitant in pigs after a single intramuscular (IM) administration dosed at 1.0 mg/ kg. A secondary objective was to estimate pilot pharmacokinetic parameters in pigs after oral (PO) administration at 2.0 mg/kg. Maropitant was administered to six commercial pigs at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg IM. Plasma …


Pharmacokinetics Of Esomeprazole In Goats (Capra Aegagrus Hircus) After Intravenous And Subcutaneous Administration, Rachel L. Fladung, Joseph Smith, Melissa Hines, Windy Soto-Gonzalez, Bryanna Fayne, Rebecca Rahn, Olivia Escher, Lainey Harvill, Joan Bergman, Jessica Garcia, Amanda Kreuder 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Pharmacokinetics Of Esomeprazole In Goats (Capra Aegagrus Hircus) After Intravenous And Subcutaneous Administration, Rachel L. Fladung, Joseph Smith, Melissa Hines, Windy Soto-Gonzalez, Bryanna Fayne, Rebecca Rahn, Olivia Escher, Lainey Harvill, Joan Bergman, Jessica Garcia, Amanda Kreuder

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

Background: Stressed and hospitalized goats are at risk of developing abomasal (gastric) ulceration, but there is a paucity of pharmacokinetic studies for proton pump inhibiting drugs, such as, esomeprazole in goats.

Objectives: The objectives for this study were to estimate plasma pharmacokinetic parameters for esomeprazole in adult goats after intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SQ) administration. A secondary objective was to describe the plasma kinetics of the metabolite esomeprazole sulfone after IV and SC administration in goats.

Materials and methods: Esomeprazole was administered to 5 adult goats in a crossover study at doses of 1 mg/kg IV or 2 mg/kg SC. …


Validation Of A Method For Pantoprazole And Its Sulfone Metabolite In Goat Plasma Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Sherry Cox, Lainey Harvill, Sarah Bullock, Joseph Smith, Joan Bergman 2022 UTK

Validation Of A Method For Pantoprazole And Its Sulfone Metabolite In Goat Plasma Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Sherry Cox, Lainey Harvill, Sarah Bullock, Joseph Smith, Joan Bergman

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

No abstract provided.


Gabapentin, A Human Therapeutic Medication And An Environmental Substance Transferring At Trace Levels To Horses: A Case Report., Kimberly Brewer, Jacob Machin, George Maylin, Clara Fenger, Abelardo Morales-Briceño, Thomas Tobin 2022 Wellington, Florida

Gabapentin, A Human Therapeutic Medication And An Environmental Substance Transferring At Trace Levels To Horses: A Case Report., Kimberly Brewer, Jacob Machin, George Maylin, Clara Fenger, Abelardo Morales-Briceño, Thomas Tobin

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Gabapentin, 1-(Aminomethyl)cyclohexaneacetic acid, MW 171.240, is a frequently prescribed high dose human medication that is also used recreationally. Gabapentin is orally absorbed; the dose can be 3,000 mg/day and it is excreted essentially unchanged in urine. Gabapentin is stable in the environment and routinely detected in urban wastewater. Gabapentin randomly transfers from humans to racing horses and is at times detected at pharmacologically ineffective / trace level concentrations in equine plasma and urine. In Ohio racing between January 2019 and July 2020,18 Gabapentin identifications, all less than 2 ng/ml in plasma, were reported. These identifications were ongoing because the horsemen …


Pharmacokinetics Of Butorphanol Following Intravenous And Intramuscular Administration In Donkeys: A Preliminary Study, Lisa S. Ebner, Odette O, Bradley Simon, Ignacio Lizarraga, Joseph Smith, Sherry Cox 2022 Lincoln Memorial University

Pharmacokinetics Of Butorphanol Following Intravenous And Intramuscular Administration In Donkeys: A Preliminary Study, Lisa S. Ebner, Odette O, Bradley Simon, Ignacio Lizarraga, Joseph Smith, Sherry Cox

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

The pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous (IVB) and intramuscular (IMB) administration in donkeys were determined in this preliminary study. Healthy male gelded donkeys (n = 5), aged 6–12 years old, were administered 0.1 mg/kg butorphanol IV or IM in a randomized, crossover design. Blood samples were obtained at predetermined intervals for 24 h (IVB) and 48 h (IMB) after administration. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Following IVB administration, mean (± SE) apparent volume of distribution, elimination half-life, total body clearance, and area under the plasma concentration time curve from …


Evaluation Of Residual Antibacterial Effects On Canine Skin Surface And Hairs Following Treatment With Five Commercial Mousse Products Against Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius In Vitro, Chi-Yen Wu 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Evaluation Of Residual Antibacterial Effects On Canine Skin Surface And Hairs Following Treatment With Five Commercial Mousse Products Against Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius In Vitro, Chi-Yen Wu

LSU Master's Theses

Topical products are essential treatments for canine superficial bacterial folliculitis. However, studies for commercial products typically evaluate antibacterial effects on hairs rather than the skin surface. In addition, the interference from the hair length has not been evaluated in these studies. Therefore, the study objective for this study was to evaluate the residual antibacterial effects of five mousse products, (1) 2% chlorhexidine and 2% miconazole, (2) 0.05% phytosphingosine, (3) 2% salicylic acid and 10% ethyl lactate, (4) 3% chlorhexidine and 0.5% climbazole, and (5) 2% chlorhexidine and 1% ketoconazole on both the skin surface and hairs in both short- and …


Intra-Articular Buprenorphine In Horses, Gabriel Castro-Cuellar Dr 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Intra-Articular Buprenorphine In Horses, Gabriel Castro-Cuellar Dr

LSU Master's Theses

Opioid drugs have the potential of provide local analgesia in inflamed joints. To date, morphine is the only opioid that has been tested for intra-articular (IA) administration in horses. Having an alternative drug, other than morphine, could widen the therapeutic options, particularly in cases of drug shortages or inaccessibility to specific drugs. The work presented in this dissertation reports the cytotoxic effects of buprenorphine on cultured equine chondrocytes, and the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and analgesic effects, of IA administered buprenorphine in horses with experimentally induced synovitis.

To evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects on equine cartilage, chondrocytes were obtained from normal equine …


Miniature Companion Pig Sedation And Anesthesia, Joseph Smith, Reza Seddighi 2022 UTK CVM

Miniature Companion Pig Sedation And Anesthesia, Joseph Smith, Reza Seddighi

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

  • Miniature companion pigs (MCP) are increasing in popularity, and as such, there is an increased need for veterinarians trained in sedation and anesthesia for the species.
  • MCPs have several species-specific qualities that can complicate injectable drug administration and create challenges for inhalational anesthesia (eg, with endotracheal intubation).
  • General anesthetic complications, such as hypothermia and hypotension, are commonly described in miniature companion pigs, so monitoring of vital parameters during anesthetic procedures and recovery is crucial.


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