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A Synthetic Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Unprecedented Levels Of Heterologous Protection, Hiep Vu, Fangrui Ma, William W. Laegreid, Asit K. Pattnaik, David Steffen, Alan R. Doster, Fernando A. Osorio 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Synthetic Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Unprecedented Levels Of Heterologous Protection, Hiep Vu, Fangrui Ma, William W. Laegreid, Asit K. Pattnaik, David Steffen, Alan R. Doster, Fernando A. Osorio

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Current vaccines do not provide sufficient levels of protection against divergent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains circulating in the field, mainly due to the substantial variation of the viral genome. We describe here a novel approach to generate a PRRSV vaccine candidate that could confer unprecedented levels of heterologous protection against divergent PRRSV isolates. Using a set of 59 non-redundant, full genome sequences of type-2 PRRSV, a consensus genome (designated as PRRSV-CON) was these 59 PRRSV full genome sequences, followed by selecting the most common nucleotide found at each position of the alignment. Next, the synthetic PRRSV-CON ...


From Crystal Structure Of Α-Conotoxin Gic In Complex With Ac-Achbp To Molecular Determinants Of Its High Selectivity For Α3Β2 Nachr, Bo Lin, Manyu Xu, Xiaopeng Zhu, Yong Wu, Xi Liu, Dongting Zhangsun, Yuanyan Hu, Shi-Hua Xiang, Igor E. Kasheverov, Victor I. Tsetlin, Xinquan Wang, Sulan Luo 2016 Key Laboratory of Tropical Biological Resources, Ministry of Education, Key Lab for Marine Drugs of Haikou, Hainan University, Haikou Hainan

From Crystal Structure Of Α-Conotoxin Gic In Complex With Ac-Achbp To Molecular Determinants Of Its High Selectivity For Α3Β2 Nachr, Bo Lin, Manyu Xu, Xiaopeng Zhu, Yong Wu, Xi Liu, Dongting Zhangsun, Yuanyan Hu, Shi-Hua Xiang, Igor E. Kasheverov, Victor I. Tsetlin, Xinquan Wang, Sulan Luo

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Acetylcholine binding proteins (AChBPs) are unique spatial homologs of the ligand-binding domains of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and they reproduce some pharmacological properties of nAChRs. X-ray crystal structures of AСhBP in complex with α-conotoxins provide important insights into the interactions of α-conotoxins with distinct nAChR subtypes. Although considerable efforts have been made to understand why α-conotoxin GIC is strongly selective for α3β2 nAChR, this question has not yet been solved. Here we present the structure of α-conotoxin GIC in complex with Aplysia californica AChBP (Ac-AChBP) at a resolution of 2.1 Å. Based on this co-crystal structure complemented with molecular ...


Resolving Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subtypes From Persistently Infected U.S. Beef Calves With Complete Genome Sequence, Aspen M. Workman, Michael P. Heaton, Gregory P. Harhay, Timothy P.L. Smith, Dale M. Grotelueschen, David Sjeklocha, Bruce Brodersen, Jessica L. Petersen, Carol G. Chitko-McKown 2016 U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Resolving Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subtypes From Persistently Infected U.S. Beef Calves With Complete Genome Sequence, Aspen M. Workman, Michael P. Heaton, Gregory P. Harhay, Timothy P.L. Smith, Dale M. Grotelueschen, David Sjeklocha, Bruce Brodersen, Jessica L. Petersen, Carol G. Chitko-Mckown

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into 2 genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, each of which contains distinct subtypes with genetic and antigenic variation. To effectively control BVDV by vaccination, it is important to know which subtypes of the virus are circulating and how their prevalence is changing over time. Accordingly, the purpose of our study was to estimate the current prevalence and diversity of BVDV subtypes from persistently infected (PI) beef calves in the central United States. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5′-UTR (5′ untranslated region) for 119 virus strains revealed that a majority (82%) belonged to genotype 1b ...


Whole Genomic Sequence Analysis Of Bacillus Infantis: Defining The Genetic Blueprint Of Strain Nrrl B-14911, An Emerging Cardiopathogenic Microbe, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Christy M. Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G. Barletta, Etsuko N. Moriyama, Timothy P.L. Smith, Jay Reddy 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Whole Genomic Sequence Analysis Of Bacillus Infantis: Defining The Genetic Blueprint Of Strain Nrrl B-14911, An Emerging Cardiopathogenic Microbe, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Christy M. Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G. Barletta, Etsuko N. Moriyama, Timothy P.L. Smith, Jay Reddy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: We recently reported the identification of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 that induces heart autoimmunity by generating cardiac-reactive T cells through molecular mimicry. This marine bacterium was originally isolated from the Gulf of Mexico, but no associations with human diseases were reported. Therefore, to characterize its biological and medical significance, we sought to determine and analyze the complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911.

Results: Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacers, phenotypic microarray, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-offlight mass spectrometry, we propose that this ...


Camel Digital Necropsy Guide, Michael Yaeger, John W. Coatney, M. Dioli, Paul Plummer 2016 Iowa State University

Camel Digital Necropsy Guide, Michael Yaeger, John W. Coatney, M. Dioli, Paul Plummer

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Jaundice / Icterus

Jaundice / icterus is yellowing of tissue due to elevated bilirubin levels. The tissue under the skin and on the surfaces of the stomachs and intestines is normally white to cream colored. If it is yellow, the animal is jaundiced/icteric. Three processes can lead to jaundice: 1. Over-production of bilirubin due to increased red blood cell destruction, 2. Liver disease, and 3. Bile duct obstruction. In a jaundiced animal, carefully assess the liver. If the liver appears normal, the jaundice may be due to increased red blood cell (erythrocyte) destruction, which can occur with certain blood parasites, such ...


Overview Of Rhabdo- And Filoviruses, Asit K. Pattnaik, Michael A. Whitt 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Overview Of Rhabdo- And Filoviruses, Asit K. Pattnaik, Michael A. Whitt

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Enveloped viruses with a negative-sense, single-stranded monopartite RNA genome have been classified into the order Mononegavirales. Five families of viruses that constitute the order are: Rhabdoviridae, Filoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Bornaviridae and Nyamiviridae. Members of these families possess a helical nucleocapsid core containing the viral genome and a host-derived lipid envelope containing viral proteins. This introductory chapter provides a brief overview of the Rhabdoviridae and the Filoviridae, the two families of viruses that are the subject of this book. Many members of these two families are highly significant human and animal pathogens. The rationale and goal of the book is to provide ...


On And Off Retinal Ganglion Cells Differentially Regulate Serotonergic And Gabaergic Activity In The Dorsal Raphe Nucleus, Ting Zhang, Lu Huang, Li Zhang, Minjie Tan, Mingliang Pu, Gary E. Pickard, Kwok -Fai So, Chaoran Ren 2016 Jinan University

On And Off Retinal Ganglion Cells Differentially Regulate Serotonergic And Gabaergic Activity In The Dorsal Raphe Nucleus, Ting Zhang, Lu Huang, Li Zhang, Minjie Tan, Mingliang Pu, Gary E. Pickard, Kwok -Fai So, Chaoran Ren

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the major source of serotonergic input to the forebrain, receives excitatory input from the retina that can modulate serotonin levels and depressive-like behavior. In the Mongolian gerbil, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with alpha-like morphological and Y-like physiological properties innervate the DRN with ON DRN-projecting RGCs out numbering OFF DRN-projecting RGCs. The DRN neurons targeted by ON and OFF RGCs are unknown. To explore retino-raphe anatomical organization, retinal afferents labeled with Cholera toxin B were examined for association with the postsynaptic protein PSD-95. Synaptic associations between retinal afferents and DRN serotonergic and GABAergic neurons were observed ...


Visualizing Herpesvirus Procapsids In Living Cells, Oana Maier, Patricia J. Sollars, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith 2016 Northwestern University

Visualizing Herpesvirus Procapsids In Living Cells, Oana Maier, Patricia J. Sollars, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

A complete understanding of herpesvirus morphogenesis requires studies of capsid assembly dynamics in living cells. Although fluorescent tags fused to the VP26 and pUL25 capsid proteins are available, neither of these components is present on the initial capsid assembly, the procapsid. To make procapsids accessible to live-cell imaging, we made a series of recombinant pseudorabies viruses that encoded green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused in frame to the internal capsid scaffold and maturation protease. One recombinant, a GFP-VP24 fusion, maintained wild-type propagation kinetics in vitro and approximated wild-type virulence in vivo. The fusion also proved to be well tolerated in herpes ...


Note On Ehrlichia Chaffeensis, Ehrlichia Ewingii, And “Borrelia Lonestari” Infection In Lone Star Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), Nebraska, Usa, Amanda Maegli, J. Dustin Loy, Roberto Cortinas 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Note On Ehrlichia Chaffeensis, Ehrlichia Ewingii, And “Borrelia Lonestari” Infection In Lone Star Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), Nebraska, Usa, Amanda Maegli, J. Dustin Loy, Roberto Cortinas

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae), is established in southeastern Nebraska, yet the prevalence of tick-associated microorganisms is not known. An initial PCR-based analysis for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Borrelia infection in host-seeking adult ticks collected in southeast Nebraska was conducted. A total of 251 adult ticks collected in six sites in southeast Nebraska were tested. E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia spp. were present, and the prevalence of each was approximately 1.6%. This study demonstrates that Ehrlichia spp. are present in Nebraska lone star tick populations.


Prevalence And Level Of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli In Culled Dairy Cows At Harvest, Zachary R. Stromberg, Gentry L. Lewis, Sharif S. Aly, Terry W. Lehenbauer, Joseph M. Bosilevac, Natalia Cernicchiaro, Rodney A. Moxley 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Prevalence And Level Of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli In Culled Dairy Cows At Harvest, Zachary R. Stromberg, Gentry L. Lewis, Sharif S. Aly, Terry W. Lehenbauer, Joseph M. Bosilevac, Natalia Cernicchiaro, Rodney A. Moxley

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and level of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 (collectively EHEC-6) plus EHEC O157 in fecal, hide, and preintervention carcass surface samples from culled dairy cows. Matched samples (n=300) were collected from 100 cows at harvest and tested by a culture-based method and two molecular methods: NeoSEEK STEC (NS) and Atlas STEC EG2 Combo. Both the culture and NS methods can be used to discriminate among the seven EHEC types (EHEC-7), from which the cumulative prevalence was inferred, whereas the Atlas method can ...


Large Genomic Differences Between Moraxella Bovoculi Isolates Acquired From The Eyes Of Cattle With Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Versus The Deep Nasopharynx Of Asymptomatic Cattle, Aaron M. Dickey, John D. Loy, James L. Bono, Timonthy P. L. Smith, Mike D. Apley, Brian V. Lubbers, Keith D. DeDonder, Sarah F. Capik, Robert L. Larson, Brad J. White, Jochen Blom, Carol G. Chitko-McKown, Michael L. Clawson 2016 USDA-ARS

Large Genomic Differences Between Moraxella Bovoculi Isolates Acquired From The Eyes Of Cattle With Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Versus The Deep Nasopharynx Of Asymptomatic Cattle, Aaron M. Dickey, John D. Loy, James L. Bono, Timonthy P. L. Smith, Mike D. Apley, Brian V. Lubbers, Keith D. Dedonder, Sarah F. Capik, Robert L. Larson, Brad J. White, Jochen Blom, Carol G. Chitko-Mckown, Michael L. Clawson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Moraxella bovoculi is a recently described bacterium that is associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or “pinkeye” in cattle. In this study, closed circularized genomes were generated for seven M. bovoculi isolates: three that originated from the eyes of clinical IBK bovine cases and four from the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle. Isolates that originated from the eyes of IBK cases profoundly differed from those that originated from the nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle in genome structure, gene content and polymorphism diversity and consequently placed into two distinct phylogenetic groups. These results suggest that there are genetically distinct strains of M ...


Guidelines For The Use And Interpretation Of Assays For Monitoring Autophagy (3rd Edition), Daniel J. Klionsky, Rodrigo Franco, More than 2,000 co-authors 2016 University of Michigan

Guidelines For The Use And Interpretation Of Assays For Monitoring Autophagy (3rd Edition), Daniel J. Klionsky, Rodrigo Franco, More Than 2,000 Co-Authors

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes.

For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that ...


From Crystal Structure Of Α-Conotoxin Gic In Complex With Ac-Achbp To Molecular Determinants Of Its High Selectivity For Α3Β2 Nachr, Bo Lin, Manyu Xu, Xiaopeng Zhu, Yong Wu, Xi Liu, Dongting Zhangsun, Yuanyan Hu, Shi-Hua Xiang, Igor E. Kasheverov, Victor I. Tsetlin, Xianquan Wang, Sulan Luo 2016 Hainan University

From Crystal Structure Of Α-Conotoxin Gic In Complex With Ac-Achbp To Molecular Determinants Of Its High Selectivity For Α3Β2 Nachr, Bo Lin, Manyu Xu, Xiaopeng Zhu, Yong Wu, Xi Liu, Dongting Zhangsun, Yuanyan Hu, Shi-Hua Xiang, Igor E. Kasheverov, Victor I. Tsetlin, Xianquan Wang, Sulan Luo

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Acetylcholine binding proteins (AChBPs) are unique spatial homologs of the ligand-binding domains of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and they reproduce some pharmacological properties of nAChRs. X-ray crystal structures of AСhBP in complex with α-conotoxins provide important insights into the interactions of α-conotoxins with distinct nAChR subtypes. Although considerable efforts have been made to understand why α-conotoxin GIC is strongly selective for α3β2 nAChR, this question has not yet been solved. Here we present the structure of α-conotoxin GIC in complex with Aplysia californica AChBP (Ac-AChBP) at a resolution of 2.1 Å. Based on this co-crystal structure complemented with molecular ...


New Tools To Convert Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes To A Self-Excising Design And Their Application To A Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infectious Clone, Alexsia L. Richards, Patricia J. Sollars, Gregory A. Smith 2016 Northwestern University

New Tools To Convert Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes To A Self-Excising Design And Their Application To A Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infectious Clone, Alexsia L. Richards, Patricia J. Sollars, Gregory A. Smith

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: Infectious clones are fundamental tools for the study of many viruses, allowing for efficient mutagenesis and reproducible production of genetically-defined strains. For the large dsDNA genomes of the herpesviridae, bacterial artificial chromosomes have become the cloning vector of choice due to their capacity to house full-length herpesvirus genomes as single contiguous inserts. Furthermore, while maintained as plasmids in Escherichia coli, the clones can be mutated using robust prokaryotic recombination systems. An important consideration in the design of these clones is the means by which the vector backbone is removed from the virus genome upon delivery into mammalian cells. A ...


Genomic Insights Into Campylobacter Jejuni Virulence And Population Genetics, Zuowei Wu, Kathy Mou, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang 2016 Iowa State University

Genomic Insights Into Campylobacter Jejuni Virulence And Population Genetics, Zuowei Wu, Kathy Mou, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter jejuni has long been recognized as a main food-borne pathogen in many parts of the world. Natural reservoirs include a wide variety of domestic and wild birds and mammals, whose intestines offer a suitable biological niche for the survival and dissemination of the organism. Understanding the genetic basis of the biology and pathogenicity of C. jejuni is vital to prevent and control Campylobacter-associated infections. The recent progress in sequencing techniques has allowed for a rapid increase in our knowledge of the molecular biology and the genetic structures of Campylobacter. Single-molecule realtime (SMRT) sequencing, which goes beyond four-base sequencing ...


Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson 2016 Iowa State University

Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The objective of this study was to investigate an interaction between nematodes and gut Enterobacteriaceae that use benzimidazoles as a carbon source. By addressing this objective, we identified an anthelmintic resistance-like mechanism for gastrointestinal nematodes. We isolated 30 gut bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) that subsist on and putatively catabolize benzimidazole-class anthelmintics. C. elegans was protected from the effects of benzimidazoles when co-incubated with these Enterobacteriaceae that also protect adult ascarids from the effects of albendazole. This bacterial phenotype represents a novel mechanism by which gastrointestinal nematodes are potentially spared from the effects of benzimidazoles, without any apparent fitness cost to the ...


Comparison Of Two Us Sheep Scrapie Isolates Supports Identification As Separate Strains, S. J. Moore, J. D. Smith, M. H. West Greenlee, E. M. Nicholson, J. A. Richt, J. J. Greenlee 2016 United States Department of Agriculture

Comparison Of Two Us Sheep Scrapie Isolates Supports Identification As Separate Strains, S. J. Moore, J. D. Smith, M. H. West Greenlee, E. M. Nicholson, J. A. Richt, J. J. Greenlee

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Scrapie is a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats. There are different strains of sheep scrapie that are associated with unique molecular, transmission, and phenotype characteristics. However, in the United States, very little is known about the potential presence of scrapie strains. Scrapie strain and PRNP genotype could both affect susceptibility, potential for transmission, incubation period (IP), and control measures required for eliminating scrapie from a flock. The investigators evaluated 2 US scrapie isolates, No. 13-7 and x124, after intranasal inoculation to compare clinical signs, IPs, spongiform lesions, and patterns of PrPSc deposition in sheep with ...


Development And Characterization Of A Recombinant Orf Virus Vector Expressing The Spike Protein Of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Kyle Hain 2016 South Dakota State University

Development And Characterization Of A Recombinant Orf Virus Vector Expressing The Spike Protein Of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Kyle Hain

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Orf virus (ORFV), the type member of the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae, causes orf or cutaneous pustular dermatitis in sheep and goats. ORFV is a ubiquitous virus capable of re-infecting its hosts multiple times over time. ORFV causes a non-systemic, self-limiting disease which is usually restricted to the skin surrounding the virus entry sites. ORFV has evolved several immunomodulatory proteins (IMPs) that evade and/or modulate host immune responses to infection and contribute to virus virulence and disease pathogenesis. Given biological properties and unique immunomodula tor y properties, ORFV has gained significant attention in recent years for its ...


Host Cell Functions In Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Replication, Phat X. Dinh, Anshuman Das, Asit K. Pattnaik 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Host Cell Functions In Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Replication, Phat X. Dinh, Anshuman Das, Asit K. Pattnaik

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), the prototypic rhabdovirus, has been used as an excellent paradigm for understanding the mechanisms of virus replication, pathogenesis, host response to virus infection and also for myriads of studies on cellular and molecular biology. Biochemical studies as well as high-throughput genomics, proteomics, and chemical approaches have revealed a plethora of cellular factors and pathways that regulate replication of VSV. These factors include those that support virus replication and also those that restrict its replication. This chapter discusses the role(s) of many of these host cell factors and pathways involved in VSV replication. Although mechanistic understanding ...


Erratum To: Association Of Autophagy In The Cell Death Mediated By Dihydrotestosterone In Autoreactive T Cells Independent Of Antigenic Stimulation, Ting Jia, Anandhan Annadurai, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Rajkumar A. Rajasekaran, Rodrigo Franco, Jay Reddy 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Erratum To: Association Of Autophagy In The Cell Death Mediated By Dihydrotestosterone In Autoreactive T Cells Independent Of Antigenic Stimulation, Ting Jia, Anandhan Annadurai, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Rajkumar A. Rajasekaran, Rodrigo Franco, Jay Reddy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

No abstract provided.


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