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Effects Of Wild Pig Disturbance On Forest Vegetation And Soils, Steven M. Gray, Gary J. Roloff, Daniel B. Kramer, Dwayne R. Etter, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Robert A. Montgomery 2020 Michigan State University

Effects Of Wild Pig Disturbance On Forest Vegetation And Soils, Steven M. Gray, Gary J. Roloff, Daniel B. Kramer, Dwayne R. Etter, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Robert A. Montgomery

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In North America, wild pigs (Sus scrofa; feral pigs, feral swine, wild boars) are a widespread exotic species capable of creating large‐scale biotic and abiotic landscape perturbations. Quantification of wild pig environmental effects has been particularly problematic in northern climates, where they occur only recently as localized populations at low densities. Between 2016 and 2017, we assessed short‐term (within ~2 yrs of disturbance) effects of a low‐density wild pig population on forest features in the central Lower Peninsula of Michigan, USA. We identified 16 8‐ha sites using global positioning system locations from 7 radio‐collared wild ...


Gulls As Sources Of Environmental Contamination By Colistin-Resistant Bacteria, Alan B. Franklin, Andrew M. Ramey, Kevin T. Bentler, Nicole L. Barrett, Loredana M. McCurdy, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Jonas Bonnedahl, Susan A. Shriner, Jeffrey C. Chandler 2020 USDA-APHIS-WS National Wildlife Research Center

Gulls As Sources Of Environmental Contamination By Colistin-Resistant Bacteria, Alan B. Franklin, Andrew M. Ramey, Kevin T. Bentler, Nicole L. Barrett, Loredana M. Mccurdy, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Jonas Bonnedahl, Susan A. Shriner, Jeffrey C. Chandler

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In 2015, the mcr-1 gene was discovered in Escherichia coli in domestic swine in China that conferred resistance to colistin, an antibiotic of last resort used in treating multi-drug resistant bacterial infections in humans. Since then, mcr-1 was found in other human and animal populations, including wild gulls. Because gulls could disseminate the mcr-1 gene, we conducted an experiment to assess whether gulls are readily colonized with mcr-1 positive E. coli, their shedding patterns, transmission among conspecifics, and environmental deposition. Shedding of mcr-1 E. coli by small gull flocks followed a lognormal curve and gulls shed one strain >101 log10 ...


Validation Of A Screening Method For The Detection Of Colistin-Resistant E. Coli Containing Mcr-1 In Feral Swine Feces, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Alan B. Franklin, S. N. Bevins, Kevin T. Bentler, Jonas Bonnedahl, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Bledar Bisha, Susan A. Shriner 2020 NWRC APHIS USDA

Validation Of A Screening Method For The Detection Of Colistin-Resistant E. Coli Containing Mcr-1 In Feral Swine Feces, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Alan B. Franklin, S. N. Bevins, Kevin T. Bentler, Jonas Bonnedahl, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Bledar Bisha, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

A method was developed and validated for the detection of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli containing mcr-1 in the feces of feral swine. Following optimization of an enrichment method using EC broth supplemented with colistin (1 μg/mL) and vancomycin (8 μg/mL), aliquots derived from 100 feral swine fecal samples were spiked with of one of five different mcr-1 positive E. coli strains (between 100 and 104 CFU/g), for a total of 1110 samples tested. Enrichments were then screened using a simple boil-prep and a previously developed real-time PCR assay for mcr-1 detection. The sensitivity of the method ...


Placebo Oral Rabies Vaccine Bait Uptake By Small Indian Mongooses (Herpestes Auropunctatus) In Southwestern Puerto Rico, Are R. Berentsen, Richard B. Chipman, Kathleen M. Nelson, Kenneth S. Gruver, Frank Boyd, Steven F. Volker, Amy J. Davis, Ad Vos, Steffen Ortmann, Amy Gilbert 2020 National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO

Placebo Oral Rabies Vaccine Bait Uptake By Small Indian Mongooses (Herpestes Auropunctatus) In Southwestern Puerto Rico, Are R. Berentsen, Richard B. Chipman, Kathleen M. Nelson, Kenneth S. Gruver, Frank Boyd, Steven F. Volker, Amy J. Davis, Ad Vos, Steffen Ortmann, Amy Gilbert

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) is a rabies reservoir in areas of the Caribbean including Puerto Rico, but no rabies vaccination program targeting this host exists. We used two derivatives of iophenoxic acid (IPA) to evaluate placebo oral rabies vaccine bait uptake by mongooses in southwestern Puerto Rico. We hand-distributed baits at an application rate of 200 baits/km2 at three, 400 ha, sites during autumn 2016 and spring 2017. Each site contained 90–100 cage traps in a 100 ha central trapping area. We used ethyl-IPA as a biological marker during the autumn and methyl-IPA during the ...


Bird-Livestock Interactions Associated With Increased Cattle Fecal Shedding Of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Escherichia Coli Within Feedlots In The United States, James C. Carlson, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Bledar Bisha, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, Thomas E. Wittum 2020 National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins

Bird-Livestock Interactions Associated With Increased Cattle Fecal Shedding Of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Escherichia Coli Within Feedlots In The United States, James C. Carlson, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Bledar Bisha, Jeffrey T. Lejeune, Thomas E. Wittum

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

This research study was conducted to determine if bird depredation in feedlots is associated with the prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli in cattle and to determine if removal of invasive bird species could be an effective management strategy to help reduce ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coliin cattle within the United States. european starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were collected from feedlots within multiple geographic regions within the United States and european starlings within all regions tested positive for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, but prevalence differed by region. Total number of birds on feedlots were positively associated with increased cattle fecal shedding of ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli ...


The Role Of European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris) In The Dissemination Of Multidrug- Resistant Escherichia Coli Among Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Jennifer E. Anders, Nicolas A. Blouin, James C. Carlson, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, Lawrence D. Goodridge, Baolin Wang, Leslie A. Day, Anna M. Mangan, Dustin A. Reid, Shannon M. Coleman, Matthew W. Hopken, Bledar Bisha 2020 National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins

The Role Of European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris) In The Dissemination Of Multidrug- Resistant Escherichia Coli Among Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Jennifer E. Anders, Nicolas A. Blouin, James C. Carlson, Jeffrey T. Lejeune, Lawrence D. Goodridge, Baolin Wang, Leslie A. Day, Anna M. Mangan, Dustin A. Reid, Shannon M. Coleman, Matthew W. Hopken, Bledar Bisha

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Antimicrobial use in livestock production is a driver for the development and proliferation of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Wildlife interactions with livestock, acquiring associated AMR bacteria and genes, and wildlife’s subsequent dispersal across the landscape are hypothesized to play an important role in the ecology of AMR. Here, we examined priority AMR phenotypes and genotypes of Escherichia coli isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of european starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) found on concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). European starlings may be present in high numbers on cAfos (>100,000 birds), interact with urban environments, and can migrate distances exceeding 1,500 km ...


Timing And Extent Of Crop Damage By Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa Linnaeus) To Corn And Peanut Fields, C. M. Boyce, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley 2020 University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

Timing And Extent Of Crop Damage By Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa Linnaeus) To Corn And Peanut Fields, C. M. Boyce, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The global expansion of wild pigs over the last few decades has resulted in an increase in extent and distribution of damages to crops, placing a growing strain on agricultural producers and land managers. Despite the extent of wild pig damage to agriculture, there is little data regarding timing and spatial variability of damage to corn (Zea mays Linnaeus) and we found no data regarding the effect of these factors on peanuts (Arachis hypogaea Linnaeus). Our objective was to determine the timing and extent of wild pig damage to corn and peanut fields, as well as the extent to which ...


Fish-Eating Birds On Catfish Ponds In The Mississippi Delta, Paul Burr, Jimmy Avery, Garrett Street, Bronson Strickland, Brian Dorr 2020 Mississippi State University

Fish-Eating Birds On Catfish Ponds In The Mississippi Delta, Paul Burr, Jimmy Avery, Garrett Street, Bronson Strickland, Brian Dorr

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Catfish acreage in the Mississippi Delta has significantly declined in the past two decades, but cormorant density on catfish ponds has remained the same. One possible explanation is that there are fewer cormorants in the region, and this is supported with decreasing roost counts. Cormorant roost harassment can be even more effective today than in the past, because there is less aquaculture acreage to protect and fewer cormorants to move. Roost harassment is important over the entire winter, but even more so around mid-January when cormorant abundance is greatest and when cormorants are more focused on aquaculture ponds. The addition ...


Factors And Costs Associated With Removal Of A Newly Established Population Of Invasive Wild Pigs In Northern U.S., Justin W. Fischer, Nathan P. Snow, Bradley E. Wilson, Scott F. Beckerman, Christopher N. Jacques, Eric H. VanNatta, Shannon L. Kay, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2020 USDA/National Wildlife Research Center

Factors And Costs Associated With Removal Of A Newly Established Population Of Invasive Wild Pigs In Northern U.S., Justin W. Fischer, Nathan P. Snow, Bradley E. Wilson, Scott F. Beckerman, Christopher N. Jacques, Eric H. Vannatta, Shannon L. Kay, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The human-mediated spread of exotic and invasive species often leads to unintentional and harmful consequences. Invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are one such species that have been repeatedly translocated throughout the United States and cause extensive damage to natural ecosystems, threatened and endangered species, agricultural resources, and private lands. In 2005, a newly established population of wild pigs was confirmed in Fulton County, Illinois, U.S. In 2011, a state-wide wild pig damage management program involving federal, state, and local government authorities directed a concerted effort to remove wild pigs from the county until the last wild pig (of 376 ...


Conspecific Chemical Cues Facilitate Mate Trailing By Invasive Argentine Black And White Tegus, Shannon A. Richard, Isabella M. G. Bukovich, E. A. Tillman, Sanjiv Jayamohan, J. S. Humphrey, Paige E. Carrington, William E. Bruce, Bryan M. Kluever, Michael L. Avery, M. Rockwell Parker 2020 James Madison University

Conspecific Chemical Cues Facilitate Mate Trailing By Invasive Argentine Black And White Tegus, Shannon A. Richard, Isabella M. G. Bukovich, E. A. Tillman, Sanjiv Jayamohan, J. S. Humphrey, Paige E. Carrington, William E. Bruce, Bryan M. Kluever, Michael L. Avery, M. Rockwell Parker

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Squamate reptiles (snakes and lizards) rely on chemical cues from conspecifics to search the environment for potential mates. How such cues are used by invasive species to facilitate reproduction, especially seasonally, is a key question that can inform management practices. The Argentine black and white tegu (Salvator merianae) is an invasive reptile species in south Florida threatening native fauna in biodiverse regions such as Everglades National Park. While some information exists on the reproductive ecology of this species in its native range in South America, the chemical ecology of S. merianae is unclear especially in its invasive range. By testing ...


Technical Limitations Associated With Molecular Barcoding Of Arthropod Bloodmeals Taken From North American Deer Species, Erin M. Borland, Daniel A. Hartman, Matthew W. Hopken, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Rebekah C. Kading 2020 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Technical Limitations Associated With Molecular Barcoding Of Arthropod Bloodmeals Taken From North American Deer Species, Erin M. Borland, Daniel A. Hartman, Matthew W. Hopken, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Rebekah C. Kading

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Accurate species-level identification of the source of arthropod bloodmeals is important for deciphering blood feeding patterns of field-collected specimens. Cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene sequencing has been used for this purpose; however, species resolution can be difficult to obtain from certain vertebrate genera, including Odocoileus. Sanger sequencing of mitochondrial genes was employed to identify the bloodmeal source of wild-caught mosquitoes trapped in Greeley, Colorado. Initial sequencing of the COI gene of mitochondrial DNA in bloodmeals was inadequate for species-level resolution of bloodmeals from deer in the genus Odocoileus, with current databases returning low fidelity matches to multiple genera ...


A Comparison Of Cost And Quality Of Three Methods For Estimating Density For Wild Pig (Sus Scrofa), Amy J. Davis, David A. Keiter, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, C. Slootmaker, Antoinette J. Piaggio, James C. Beasley, K. M. Pepin 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

A Comparison Of Cost And Quality Of Three Methods For Estimating Density For Wild Pig (Sus Scrofa), Amy J. Davis, David A. Keiter, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, C. Slootmaker, Antoinette J. Piaggio, James C. Beasley, K. M. Pepin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

A critical element in effective wildlife management is monitoring the status of wildlife populations; however, resources to monitor wildlife populations are typically limited. We compared cost effectiveness of three common population estimation methods (i.e. non-invasive DNA sampling, camera sampling, and sampling from trapping) by applying them to wild pigs (Sus scrofa) across three habitats in South Carolina, U.S.A where they are invasive. We used mark-recapture analyses for fecal DNA sampling data, spatially-explicit capture-recapture analyses for camera sampling data, and a removal analysis for removal sampling from trap data. Density estimates were similar across methods. Camera sampling was ...


Competing Reproductive And Physiological Investments In An All‑Female Lizard, The Colorado Checkered Whiptail, Lise M. Aubry, Spencer B. Hudson, Bryan M. Kluever, Alison C. Webb, Susannah S. French 2020 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Competing Reproductive And Physiological Investments In An All‑Female Lizard, The Colorado Checkered Whiptail, Lise M. Aubry, Spencer B. Hudson, Bryan M. Kluever, Alison C. Webb, Susannah S. French

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Organisms in the wild have to allocate limited resources towards competing functions such as reproduction, growth, and self-maintenance. These competing investments create significant changes in physiological activity, and we still know little about the relationship between physiological activity and reproductive investment in natura. We investigated trade-offs between physiological activity and reproductive investment in the parthenogenetic Colorado checkered whiptail, Aspidoscelis neotesselata, across three different sites at the US Army Fort Carson Military Installation near Colorado Springs, CO, through-out the reproductive season in 2018 and 2019. We measured clutch size and reproductive activity and quantified plasma corticosterone (CORT), reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs ...


Cormorant Predation Of Commercial Catfish Aquaculture In The Mississippi Delta, Terrel Christie, Brian Dorr, Luke Roy, Anita M. Kelly, Carole Engle, Paul Burr, Brian Davis, Jonathan van Senten 2020 Mississippi State University

Cormorant Predation Of Commercial Catfish Aquaculture In The Mississippi Delta, Terrel Christie, Brian Dorr, Luke Roy, Anita M. Kelly, Carole Engle, Paul Burr, Brian Davis, Jonathan Van Senten

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Catfish aquaculture is an important agricultural commodity in Mississippi with most of the production. occurring in the Delta region of the state. A vital factor in managing these farms is reducing fish loss from bird depredation. The most notable bird species that consume catfish are Double-crested Cormorants. These migratory waterbirds arrive in fall and remain in the region throughout winter. Cormorant interactions with catfish aquaculture have previously been studied, but recent changes in the industry warrant collection of new data to understand the dynamic between catfish aquaculture and cormorants. The Southern Regional Aquaculture Center recently funded a study to estimate ...


Rnai: Applications In Vertebrate Pest Management, Katherine Horak 2020 USDA APHIS National Wildlife Research Center

Rnai: Applications In Vertebrate Pest Management, Katherine Horak

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Sequence-directed inhibition of protein synthesis by RNAi has potential as a means to control pest wildlife. Species specific by design, RNAi reduces impacts on nontarget species and the environment. Additional research advancing the field of RNAi-based management of vertebrate pest wildlife is timely.

Despite the potential diverse applications of RNAi technology in vertebrates (fertility control, invasive species eradication, and pest species control to protect human health and agriculture), little progress has been made in applying RNAi to these classes of animals. A single proof-of-concept study using RNAi to control sea lampreys combined with recent advances in RNAi delivery have opened ...


Psychological Drivers Of Risk-Reducing Behaviors To Limit Human–Wildlife Conflict, Stacy A. Lischka, Tara L. Teel, Heather E. Johnson, Courtney Larson, Stewart Breck, Kevin R. Crooks 2020 Colorado Parks and Wildlife

Psychological Drivers Of Risk-Reducing Behaviors To Limit Human–Wildlife Conflict, Stacy A. Lischka, Tara L. Teel, Heather E. Johnson, Courtney Larson, Stewart Breck, Kevin R. Crooks

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Conflicts between people and wild animals are increasing globally, often with serious consequences

for both. Local regulations or ordinances are frequently used to promote human behaviors that minimize these conflicts (risk-reducing behaviors), but compliance with ordinances can be highly variable. While efforts to increase compliance could be improved through applications of conservation psychology, little is known about the relative influence of different factors motivating compliance. Using concepts from psychology and risk theory, we conducted a longitudinal study pairing data from mail surveys with direct observations of compliance with a wildlife ordinance requiring residents to secure residential garbage from black bears ...


Safety, Immunogenicity, And Efficacy Of Intramuscular And Oral Delivery Of Era-G333 Recombinant Rabies Virus Vaccine To Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus Fuscus), Amy T. Gilbert, Xianfu Wu, Felix R. Jackson, Richard Franka, Gary F. McCracken, Charles E. Rupprecht 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Safety, Immunogenicity, And Efficacy Of Intramuscular And Oral Delivery Of Era-G333 Recombinant Rabies Virus Vaccine To Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus Fuscus), Amy T. Gilbert, Xianfu Wu, Felix R. Jackson, Richard Franka, Gary F. Mccracken, Charles E. Rupprecht

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Attenuated strains of rabies virus (RABV) have been used for oral vaccination of wild carnivores in Europe and North America. However, some RABV vaccines caused clinical rabies in target animals. To improve the safety of attenuated RABV as an oral vaccine for field use, strategies using selection of escape mutants under monoclonal antibody neutralization pressure and reverse genetics–defined mutations have been used. We tested the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of one RABV construct, ERA-g333, developed with reverse genetics by intramuscular (IM) or oral (PO) routes in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Twenty-five bats received 5×106 mouse intracerebral ...


Reporting The Limits Of Detection And Quantification For Environmental Dna Assays, Katy E. Klymus, Christopher M. Merkes, Michael J. Allison, Caren S. Goldberg, Caren C. Helbing, Margaret E. Hunter, Craig A. Jackson, Richard F. Lance, Anna M. Mangan, Emy M. Monroe, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Joel P. Stokdyk, Chris C. Wilson, Catherine A. Richter 2020 U.S. Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center

Reporting The Limits Of Detection And Quantification For Environmental Dna Assays, Katy E. Klymus, Christopher M. Merkes, Michael J. Allison, Caren S. Goldberg, Caren C. Helbing, Margaret E. Hunter, Craig A. Jackson, Richard F. Lance, Anna M. Mangan, Emy M. Monroe, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Joel P. Stokdyk, Chris C. Wilson, Catherine A. Richter

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Background: Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is increasingly being used to detect the presence and relative abundance of rare species, especially invasive or imperiled aquatic species. The rapid progress in the eDNA field has resulted in numerous studies impacting conservation and management actions. However, standardization of eDNA methods and reporting across the field is yet to be fully established, with one area being the calculation and interpretation of assay limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ).

Aims: Here, we propose establishing consistent methods for determining and reporting of LOD and LOQ for single‐species quantitative PCR (qPCR) eDNA studies ...


Using Bioenergetics And Radar-Derived Bird Abundance To Assess The Impact Of A Blackbird Roost On Seasonal Sunflower Damage, Bonnie A. Clark, Page E. Klug, Phillip M. Stepanian, Jeffrey F. Kelly 2020 University of Oklahoma

Using Bioenergetics And Radar-Derived Bird Abundance To Assess The Impact Of A Blackbird Roost On Seasonal Sunflower Damage, Bonnie A. Clark, Page E. Klug, Phillip M. Stepanian, Jeffrey F. Kelly

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Methods aimed at reducing avian damage to agricultural crops are routinely implemented in situations where efficacy can be assessed by quantifying blackbird (Icteridae) abundance relative to environmental variables and extrapolating to ensuing crop damage. Concomitantly, Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR) data may have potential to enhance crop damage mitigation through improved monitoring of nuisance wildlife populations. We used WSR to derive daily abundance estimates of blackbirds at a fall roost in North Dakota, USA from 2012 to 2019. We integrated these estimates with previously developed bioenergeticseconomic models to estimate local sunflower (Helianthus annuus) damage. The greatest losses usually occurred during a ...


Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta Monarchus Boddaert, 1783), Michael L. Avery 2020 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta Monarchus Boddaert, 1783), Michael L. Avery

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Common Names: Monk Parakeet, Quaker Parakeet, Quaker Parrot, Quaker Conure, Grey-headed Parakeet

The natural distribution of the Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus Boddaert, 1783) extends from southern Bolivia, through Paraguay, southern Brazil and Uruguay to southern Argentina (Fig. 10.1 ). It is documented as invasive in a range of countries, and of these, there are at least 17 countries where they are breeding in the wild, as detailed below. ...

The Monk Parakeet is among the most successful invasive bird species in the world. Unlike many other invasive birds, such as the Ring-necked Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and the Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis ...


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