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A Latent Spatial Piecewise Exponential Model For Interval-Censored Disease Surveillance Data With Time-Varying Covariates And Misclassification, Yaxuan Sun, Chong Wang, William Q. Meeker, Max Morris, Marisa L. Rotolo, Jeffery Zimmerman 2019 Iowa State University

A Latent Spatial Piecewise Exponential Model For Interval-Censored Disease Surveillance Data With Time-Varying Covariates And Misclassification, Yaxuan Sun, Chong Wang, William Q. Meeker, Max Morris, Marisa L. Rotolo, Jeffery Zimmerman

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Understanding the dynamics of disease spread is critical to achieving effective animal disease surveillance. A major challenge in modeling disease spread is the fact that the true disease status cannot be known with certainty due to the imperfect diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the tests used to generate the disease surveillance data. Other challenges in modeling such data include interval censoring, relating disease spread to distance between units, and incorporating time-varying covariates, which are the unobserved disease statuses. We propose a latent spatial piecewise exponential model (PEX) with misclassification of events to address the challenges in modeling such disease surveillance ...


Checklist Of Bloodfeeding Mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) From The Wings Of Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) In The Manú Biosphere Reserve, Peru, Donald D. Gettinger 2018 Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Checklist Of Bloodfeeding Mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) From The Wings Of Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) In The Manú Biosphere Reserve, Peru, Donald D. Gettinger

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

A survey collection of mites of the family Spinturnicidae from Peruvian bats includes 11 species of Periglischrus (acutisternus, gameroi, grandisoma, herrerai, hopkinsi, iheringi, micronycteridis, ojasti, paracutisternus, paravargasi, and ramirezi) and 2 Spinturnix (americanus and bakeri); almost all represent new locality records. This survey collection is available for further study at the following repositories: The Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology, University of Nebraska–Lincoln; the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; and the Laboratório de Espeleobiologia y Acarologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. When spinturnicid mites are collected to avoid cross-contamination by mites among species of bats, parasitic associations are ...


Effect Of Tear Collection On Lacrimal Total Protein Content In Dogs And Cats: A Comparison Between Schirmer Strips And Ophthalmic Sponges, Lionel Sebbag, Emily M. McDowell, Patrick M. Hepner, Jonathan P. Mochel 2018 Iowa State University

Effect Of Tear Collection On Lacrimal Total Protein Content In Dogs And Cats: A Comparison Between Schirmer Strips And Ophthalmic Sponges, Lionel Sebbag, Emily M. Mcdowell, Patrick M. Hepner, Jonathan P. Mochel

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Background Quantification of lacrimal total protein content (TPC) is an important tool for clinical scientists to understand disease pathogenesis, identify potential biomarkers and assess response to therapy, among other applications. However, TPC is not only affected by disease state but also by the method used for tear collection. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the impact on TPC of two methods of tear collection in dogs and cats: Schirmer strips and polyvinyl acetal (PVA) sponges.

Methods (i) In vivo - Ten healthy dogs and 10 healthy cats were examined. Each animal underwent two sessions, separated by 10 min ...


A Polyanhydride-Based Implantable Single Dose Vaccine Platform For Long-Term Immunity, Robert G. Schaut, Matt T. Brewer, Kriscelle Mendoza, John K. Jackman, Balaji Narasimhan, Douglas E. Jones 2018 United States Department of Agriculture

A Polyanhydride-Based Implantable Single Dose Vaccine Platform For Long-Term Immunity, Robert G. Schaut, Matt T. Brewer, Kriscelle Mendoza, John K. Jackman, Balaji Narasimhan, Douglas E. Jones

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Traditionally, immune priming followed by an antigen-boost is utilized for vaccine-induced protective immunity and maintaining long-term immunity often requires repeated exposure to antigen. Here, a novel single dose vaccination platform designed with gonadotropin releasing hormone multiple antigenic peptide as a model antigen is shown.


A Single Dose Polyanhydride-Based Vaccine Platform Promotes And Maintains Anti-Gnrh Antibody Titers, Robert G. Schaut, Matt T. Brewer, Jesse M. Hostetter, Kriscelle Mendoza, Julia E. Vela-Ramirez, Sean M. Kelly, John K. Jackman, Giuseppe Dell’Anna, Joan M. Howard, Balaji Narasimhan, Wen Zhou, Douglas E. Jones 2018 United States Department of Agriculture

A Single Dose Polyanhydride-Based Vaccine Platform Promotes And Maintains Anti-Gnrh Antibody Titers, Robert G. Schaut, Matt T. Brewer, Jesse M. Hostetter, Kriscelle Mendoza, Julia E. Vela-Ramirez, Sean M. Kelly, John K. Jackman, Giuseppe Dell’Anna, Joan M. Howard, Balaji Narasimhan, Wen Zhou, Douglas E. Jones

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Traditionally, vaccination strategies require an initial priming vaccination followed by an antigen boost to generate adequate immunity. Here we describe vaccination against a self-peptide for reproductive sterilization utilizing a three-stage vaccine platform consisting of gonadotropin releasing hormone multiple antigenic peptide (GnRH-MAP) as a soluble injection coupled with subcutaneous administration of polyanhydride-immobilized GnRH-MAP and a cyto-exclusive implant containing GnRH-MAP dendrimer-loaded polyanhydride. This strategy generated and maintained cell-mediated and humoral immunity for up to 41 weeks after a single vaccination in mice with enhanced antibody avidity over time. All intact implants had a grossly visible tissue interface with neovascularization and lymphocytic aggregates ...


Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild 2018 Nelson Mandela Africa Institution of Science and Technology

Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild

Animal Science Publications

The genetic diversity of African pigs, whether domestic or wild has not been widely studied and there is very limited published information available. Available data suggests that African domestic pigs originate from different domestication centers as opposed to international commercial breeds. We evaluated two domestic pig populations in Western Kenya, in order to characterize the genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of the pigs in an area known to be endemic for African swine fever (ASF). One of the reasons for characterizing these specific populations is the fact that a proportion of indigenous pigs have tested ASF virus (ASFv) positive ...


A Mutator Phenotype Promoting The Emergence Of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants In Campylobacter Jejuni, Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang 2018 Iowa State University

A Mutator Phenotype Promoting The Emergence Of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants In Campylobacter Jejuni, Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. As a microaerophilic organism, C. jejuni must be able to defend against oxidative stress encountered both in the host and in the environment. How Campylobacter utilizes a mutation-based mechanism for adaptation to oxidative stress is still unknown. Here we present a previously undescribed phenotypic and genetic mechanism that promotes the emergence of oxidative stress resistant mutants. Specifically, we showed that a naturally occurring mutator phenotype, resulting from a loss of function mutation in the DNA repair enzyme MutY, increased oxidative stress resistance (OXR) in C. jejuni. We further demonstrated ...


What Is The Efficacy Of Metaphylaxis Using Antibiotics For The Prevention Of Bovine Respiratory Disease In Beef Cattle?, Annette M. O'Connor, Chong Wang, Jan M. Sargeant, Brad White, Robert Larson, Bing Wang, Cheryl Waldner, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville 2018 Iowa State University

What Is The Efficacy Of Metaphylaxis Using Antibiotics For The Prevention Of Bovine Respiratory Disease In Beef Cattle?, Annette M. O'Connor, Chong Wang, Jan M. Sargeant, Brad White, Robert Larson, Bing Wang, Cheryl Waldner, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Bovine respiratory disease complex is the most economically significant disease of feedlot cattle. Putative causal organisms include Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni and Mycoplasma bovis, bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus. Although vaccination against the putative causal organisms is a frequently used approach to aid in the prevention of BRD, it is also common and legal for antibiotics to be used for metaphylaxis at the arrival of beef cattle at feedlots. With a more significant concern for prudent antibiotic use in the beef industry, it is essential for decision making ...


Efficacy Of Oral Administration Of Sodium Iodide To Prevent Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, B. M. Shoemake, B. L. Vander Ley, B. W. Newcomer, M. C. Heller 2018 University of Missouri

Efficacy Of Oral Administration Of Sodium Iodide To Prevent Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, B. M. Shoemake, B. L. Vander Ley, B. W. Newcomer, M. C. Heller

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: The prevention of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) in beef cattle is important to maintaining health and productivity of calves in feeding operations.

Objective: Determine whether BRD bacterial and viral pathogens are susceptible to the lactoperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/ iodide (LPO/H2O2/I-) system in vitro and to determine whether the oral administration of sodium iodide (NaI) could achieve sufficient concentrations of iodine (I) in the respiratory secretions of weaned beef calves to inactivate these pathogens in vivo.

Animals: Sixteen weaned, apparently healthy, commercial beef calves from the University of Missouri, College of Veterinary Medicine teaching herd ...


The Efficacy Of Antibiotics To Prevent Collibacilosis In Broiler Poultry: A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Network Meta-Analysis., Jan M. Sargeant, Anastasia Novy, Catherine M. Logue, Jenny Nicholds, Charlotte Winder, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 University of Guelph

The Efficacy Of Antibiotics To Prevent Collibacilosis In Broiler Poultry: A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Network Meta-Analysis., Jan M. Sargeant, Anastasia Novy, Catherine M. Logue, Jenny Nicholds, Charlotte Winder, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Antibiotics are used in broiler poultry production both for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. However, antibiotic use is a driver of antibiotic resistance. The World Health Organization has published numerous reports urging all stakeholders concerned with both food-producing animals and humans to establish recommended steps to enhance the prudent use of antimicrobials (WHO, 2015). Similarly, the World Animal Health Organization has also published recommendations and position statements regarding prudent use and risk management related to antimicrobial use in animals (OIE, 2017).

Colibacillosis is an important bacterial pathogen of poultry, and a costly disease for the industry resulting in ...


Feline Dry Eye Syndrome Of Presumed Neurogenic Origin: A Case Report, Lionel Sebbag, Patricia A. Pesavento, Sebastian E. Carrasco, Christopher M. Reilly, David J. Maggs 2018 Iowa State University

Feline Dry Eye Syndrome Of Presumed Neurogenic Origin: A Case Report, Lionel Sebbag, Patricia A. Pesavento, Sebastian E. Carrasco, Christopher M. Reilly, David J. Maggs

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Case summary A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU. Noxious olfactory stimulation caused increased lacrimation relative to standard STT-1 values suggesting an intact nasolacrimal reflex. Various lacrimostimulants were ...


Concurrent Renal Amyloidosis And Thymoma Resulting In A Fatal Ventricular Thrombus In A Dog, Jennifer M. Loewen, Rachel E. Cianciolo, Liwen Zhang, Michael Yaeger, Jessica L. Ward, Jodi D. Smith, Dana N. LeVine 2018 Iowa State University

Concurrent Renal Amyloidosis And Thymoma Resulting In A Fatal Ventricular Thrombus In A Dog, Jennifer M. Loewen, Rachel E. Cianciolo, Liwen Zhang, Michael Yaeger, Jessica L. Ward, Jodi D. Smith, Dana N. Levine

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Thymoma‐associated nephropathies have been reported in people but not in dogs. In this report, we describe a dog with thymoma and concurrent renal amyloidosis. A 7‐year‐old castrated male Weimaraner was presented for progressive anorexia, lethargy, and tachypnea. The dog was diagnosed with azotemia, marked proteinuria, and a thymoma that was surgically removed. Postoperatively, the dog developed a large left ventricular thrombus and was euthanized. Necropsy confirmed the presence of a left ventricular thrombus and histopathology revealed renal amyloidosis. We speculate that the renal amyloidosis occurred secondary to the thymoma, with amyloidosis in turn leading to nephrotic syndrome ...


Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Efficacy Of Fostera Prrsv Modified Live Virus Vaccine Studies In Growing Pigs, Gaurav Rawal, Jose Angulo, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Efficacy Of Fostera Prrsv Modified Live Virus Vaccine Studies In Growing Pigs, Gaurav Rawal, Jose Angulo, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important health challenges that currently exists in the global swine industry. PRRSV is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to genus Arterivirus. A PRRSV infection is clinically characterized by reproductive failure in sows and/or respiratory disease in growing pigs, causing significant economic losses (Zimmerman et al., 2012). RNA viruses have relatively high mutation rates compared to DNA viruses, mainly due to the low fidelity of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (Arnold et al., 2005; Vignuzzi et al., 2008). This rapid high mutation rate usually leads to ...


Complete Genome Sequence Of Moraxella Bovis Strain Epp-63 (300), An Etiologic Agent Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, John Dustin Loy, Aaron M. Dickey, Michael L. Clawson 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Complete Genome Sequence Of Moraxella Bovis Strain Epp-63 (300), An Etiologic Agent Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, John Dustin Loy, Aaron M. Dickey, Michael L. Clawson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

We report here the complete closed genome sequence of Moraxella bovis strain Epp-63 (300) (Epp63). This strain was isolated from an infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) case in 1963. Since then, Epp63 has been used extensively for IBK research. Consequently, the genome sequence of Epp63 should help elucidate IBK host-pathogen interactions.


Circadian Behavioral Responses To Light And Optic Chiasm-Evoked Glutamatergic Epscs In The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Of Iprgc Conditional Vglut2 Knock-Out Mice, Michael G. Moldavan, Patricia J. Sollars, Michael R. Lasarev, Charles N. Allen, Gary E. Pickard 2018 Oregon Health and Science University

Circadian Behavioral Responses To Light And Optic Chiasm-Evoked Glutamatergic Epscs In The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Of Iprgc Conditional Vglut2 Knock-Out Mice, Michael G. Moldavan, Patricia J. Sollars, Michael R. Lasarev, Charles N. Allen, Gary E. Pickard

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) innervate the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a circadian oscillator that functions as a biological clock. ipRGCs use vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGlut2) to package glutamate into synaptic vesicles and light-evoked resetting of the SCN circadian clock is widely attributed to ipRGC glutamatergic neurotransmission. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is also packaged into vesicles in ipRGCs and PACAP may be coreleased with glutamate in the SCN. vGlut2 has been conditionally deleted in ipRGCs in mice [conditional knock-outs (cKOs)] and their aberrant photoentrainment and residual attenuated light responses have been ascribed to ipRGC PACAP release. However ...


Development Of A Multiplex Real-Time Pcr Assay Using Two Thermocycling Platforms For Detection Of Major Bacterial Pathogens Associated With Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex From Clinical Samples, John Dustin Loy, Laura Leger, Aspen M. Workman, Michael L. Clawson, Ece Bulut, Bing Wang 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Development Of A Multiplex Real-Time Pcr Assay Using Two Thermocycling Platforms For Detection Of Major Bacterial Pathogens Associated With Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex From Clinical Samples, John Dustin Loy, Laura Leger, Aspen M. Workman, Michael L. Clawson, Ece Bulut, Bing Wang

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is one of the most significant diseases of cattle. Bacterial pathogens involved in BRDC include Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni, and Pasteurella multocida. We developed and evaluated a multiplexed real-time hydrolysis probe (rtPCR) assay using block-based Peltier and rotary-based thermocycling on lung tissue, nasal swabs, and deep nasopharyngeal swabs. The rtPCR results were compared to culture or a gel-based M. bovis PCR using statistical analysis to determine optimum quantification cycle (Cq) cutoffs to maximize agreement. The limits of detection were 1.2–12 CFU/reaction for each pathogen. M. haemolytica was the most prevalent ...


Development Of Septic Polysynovitis And Uveitis In Foals Experimentally Infected With Rhodococcus Equi, Laura Huber, Steeve Giguère, Londa J. Berghaus, Amanda Hanafi, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, Sarah L. Czerwinski 2018 University of Georgia

Development Of Septic Polysynovitis And Uveitis In Foals Experimentally Infected With Rhodococcus Equi, Laura Huber, Steeve Giguère, Londa J. Berghaus, Amanda Hanafi, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, Sarah L. Czerwinski

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Rhodococcus equi is one of the most important causes of disease in foals. Infection is typically characterized by pyogranulomatous pneumonia although extrapulmonary infections occur occasionally. Uveitis and polysynovitis have been reported in foals naturally infected with R. equi and are thought to be the result of an immune-mediated process. However, the pathogenesis of these conditions is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to document the occurrence of uveitis and polysynovitis after experimental infection with R. equi and to determine if these disorders are the direct result of infection at these sites. Foals between 3 and 4 weeks of ...


Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Identification Of Moraxella Bovoculi And Moraxella Bovis Isolates From Cattle, Kara Robbins, Aaron M. Dickey, Michael L. Clawson, John Dustin Loy 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Identification Of Moraxella Bovoculi And Moraxella Bovis Isolates From Cattle, Kara Robbins, Aaron M. Dickey, Michael L. Clawson, John Dustin Loy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is an economically significant disease caused by Moraxella bovis. Moraxella bovoculi, although not reported to cause IBK, has been isolated from the eyes of cattle diagnosed with IBK. Identification of M. bovis and M. bovoculi can be performed using biochemical or DNA-based approaches, both of which may be time consuming and inconsistent between laboratories. We conducted a comparative evaluation of M. bovoculi and M. bovis identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with a database provided by Bruker Daltonics (termed the BDAL database), the BDAL database supplemented with spectra generated in our ...


Alkaline Stabilization Of Manure Slurry Inactivates Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Erin E. Stevens, Daniel N. Miller, Bethany A. Brittenham, Sarah J. Vitosh-Sillman, Bruce W. Brodersen, Virginia L. Jin, John D. Loy, Amy M. Schmidt 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Alkaline Stabilization Of Manure Slurry Inactivates Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Erin E. Stevens, Daniel N. Miller, Bethany A. Brittenham, Sarah J. Vitosh-Sillman, Bruce W. Brodersen, Virginia L. Jin, John D. Loy, Amy M. Schmidt

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Hydrated lime manure treatment was evaluated to determine porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) susceptibility to alkaline stabilization. At pH 10, PEDV decreased (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and lost infectivity (swine bioassay). Although ammonium decreased above pH 9 (up to 25%), alkaline stabilization managed to control potential infection from manure sources.


Diseases Affecting Pigs: An Overview Of Common Bacterial, Viral And Parasitic Pathogens Of Pigs, Alejandro Ramirez 2018 Iowa State University

Diseases Affecting Pigs: An Overview Of Common Bacterial, Viral And Parasitic Pathogens Of Pigs, Alejandro Ramirez

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Recent events such as the 2009 pandemic influenza outbreak, the continuous spread of African swine fever virus in Eastern Europe and the introduction of several new pathogens into the United States and their spread to Canada, Mexico, Central and South America have emphasized the ability of pig diseases to cross borders rapidly and the importance of global cooperation to improve the health and welfare of pigs. This chapter summarizes recent research on the causes and epidemiology of major bacteria, viruses and parasites found in pig production, focusing on those with a particular impact on safety and global production.


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