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Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild 2018 Nelson Mandela Africa Institution of Science and Technology

Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild

Animal Science Publications

The genetic diversity of African pigs, whether domestic or wild has not been widely studied and there is very limited published information available. Available data suggests that African domestic pigs originate from different domestication centers as opposed to international commercial breeds. We evaluated two domestic pig populations in Western Kenya, in order to characterize the genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of the pigs in an area known to be endemic for African swine fever (ASF). One of the reasons for characterizing these specific populations is the fact that a proportion of indigenous pigs have tested ASF virus (ASFv) positive ...


Efficacy Of Oral Administration Of Sodium Iodide To Prevent Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, B. M. Shoemake, B. L. Vander Ley, B. W. Newcomer, M. C. Heller 2018 University of Missouri

Efficacy Of Oral Administration Of Sodium Iodide To Prevent Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, B. M. Shoemake, B. L. Vander Ley, B. W. Newcomer, M. C. Heller

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: The prevention of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) in beef cattle is important to maintaining health and productivity of calves in feeding operations.

Objective: Determine whether BRD bacterial and viral pathogens are susceptible to the lactoperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/ iodide (LPO/H2O2/I-) system in vitro and to determine whether the oral administration of sodium iodide (NaI) could achieve sufficient concentrations of iodine (I) in the respiratory secretions of weaned beef calves to inactivate these pathogens in vivo.

Animals: Sixteen weaned, apparently healthy, commercial beef calves from the University of Missouri, College of Veterinary Medicine teaching herd ...


Development Of Septic Polysynovitis And Uveitis In Foals Experimentally Infected With Rhodococcus Equi, Laura Huber, Steeve Giguère, Londa J. Berghaus, Amanda Hanafi, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, Sarah L. Czerwinski 2018 University of Georgia

Development Of Septic Polysynovitis And Uveitis In Foals Experimentally Infected With Rhodococcus Equi, Laura Huber, Steeve Giguère, Londa J. Berghaus, Amanda Hanafi, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, Sarah L. Czerwinski

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Rhodococcus equi is one of the most important causes of disease in foals. Infection is typically characterized by pyogranulomatous pneumonia although extrapulmonary infections occur occasionally. Uveitis and polysynovitis have been reported in foals naturally infected with R. equi and are thought to be the result of an immune-mediated process. However, the pathogenesis of these conditions is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to document the occurrence of uveitis and polysynovitis after experimental infection with R. equi and to determine if these disorders are the direct result of infection at these sites. Foals between 3 and 4 weeks of ...


Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Efficacy Of Fostera Prrsv Modified Live Virus Vaccine Studies In Growing Pigs, Gaurav Rawal, Jose Angulo, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Efficacy Of Fostera Prrsv Modified Live Virus Vaccine Studies In Growing Pigs, Gaurav Rawal, Jose Angulo, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important health challenges that currently exists in the global swine industry. PRRSV is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to genus Arterivirus. A PRRSV infection is clinically characterized by reproductive failure in sows and/or respiratory disease in growing pigs, causing significant economic losses (Zimmerman et al., 2012). RNA viruses have relatively high mutation rates compared to DNA viruses, mainly due to the low fidelity of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (Arnold et al., 2005; Vignuzzi et al., 2008). This rapid high mutation rate usually leads to ...


What Is The Efficacy Of Metaphylaxis Using Antibiotics For The Prevention Of Bovine Respiratory Disease In Beef Cattle?, Annette M. O'Connor, Chong Wang, Jan M. Sargeant, Brad White, Robert Larson, Bing Wang, Cheryl Waldner, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville 2018 Iowa State University

What Is The Efficacy Of Metaphylaxis Using Antibiotics For The Prevention Of Bovine Respiratory Disease In Beef Cattle?, Annette M. O'Connor, Chong Wang, Jan M. Sargeant, Brad White, Robert Larson, Bing Wang, Cheryl Waldner, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Bovine respiratory disease complex is the most economically significant disease of feedlot cattle. Putative causal organisms include Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni and Mycoplasma bovis, bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus. Although vaccination against the putative causal organisms is a frequently used approach to aid in the prevention of BRD, it is also common and legal for antibiotics to be used for metaphylaxis at the arrival of beef cattle at feedlots. With a more significant concern for prudent antibiotic use in the beef industry, it is essential for decision making ...


Concurrent Renal Amyloidosis And Thymoma Resulting In A Fatal Ventricular Thrombus In A Dog, Jennifer M. Loewen, Rachel E. Cianciolo, Liwen Zhang, Michael Yaeger, Jessica L. Ward, Jodi D. Smith, Dana N. LeVine 2018 Iowa State University

Concurrent Renal Amyloidosis And Thymoma Resulting In A Fatal Ventricular Thrombus In A Dog, Jennifer M. Loewen, Rachel E. Cianciolo, Liwen Zhang, Michael Yaeger, Jessica L. Ward, Jodi D. Smith, Dana N. Levine

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Thymoma‐associated nephropathies have been reported in people but not in dogs. In this report, we describe a dog with thymoma and concurrent renal amyloidosis. A 7‐year‐old castrated male Weimaraner was presented for progressive anorexia, lethargy, and tachypnea. The dog was diagnosed with azotemia, marked proteinuria, and a thymoma that was surgically removed. Postoperatively, the dog developed a large left ventricular thrombus and was euthanized. Necropsy confirmed the presence of a left ventricular thrombus and histopathology revealed renal amyloidosis. We speculate that the renal amyloidosis occurred secondary to the thymoma, with amyloidosis in turn leading to nephrotic syndrome ...


The Pul37 Tegument Protein Guides Alphaherpesvirus Retrograde Axonal Transport To Promote Neuroinvasion, Alexsia L. Richards, Patricia J. Sollars, Jared D. Pitts, Austin M. Stults, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith 2017 The Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research

The Pul37 Tegument Protein Guides Alphaherpesvirus Retrograde Axonal Transport To Promote Neuroinvasion, Alexsia L. Richards, Patricia J. Sollars, Jared D. Pitts, Austin M. Stults, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

A hallmark property of the neurotropic alpha-herpesvirinae is the dissemination of infection to sensory and autonomic ganglia of the peripheral nervous system following an initial exposure at mucosal surfaces. The peripheral ganglia serve as the latent virus reservoir and the source of recurrent infections such as cold sores (herpes simplex virus type I) and shingles (varicella zoster virus). However, the means by which these viruses routinely invade the nervous system is not fully understood. We report that an internal virion component, the pUL37 tegument protein, has a surface region that is an essential neuroinvasion effector. Mutation of this region rendered ...


A Mutator Phenotype Promoting The Emergence Of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants In Campylobacter Jejuni, Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

A Mutator Phenotype Promoting The Emergence Of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants In Campylobacter Jejuni, Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. As a microaerophilic organism, C. jejuni must be able to defend against oxidative stress encountered both in the host and in the environment. How Campylobacter utilizes a mutation-based mechanism for adaptation to oxidative stress is still unknown. Here we present a previously undescribed phenotypic and genetic mechanism that promotes the emergence of oxidative stress resistant mutants. Specifically, we showed that a naturally occurring mutator phenotype, resulting from a loss of function mutation in the DNA repair enzyme MutY, increased oxidative stress resistance (OXR) in C. jejuni. We further demonstrated ...


Effectiveness Of Composting As A Biosecure Disposal Method For Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv)-Infected Pig Carcasses, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effectiveness Of Composting As A Biosecure Disposal Method For Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv)-Infected Pig Carcasses, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric disease of swine that has emerged as a worldwide threat to swine herd health and production. Substantial research has been conducted to assess viability of the virus on surfaces of vehicles and equipment, in feed and water, and on production building surfaces, but little is known about the persistence in PEDV-infected carcasses and effective disposal methods thereof. This study was conducted to quantify the persistence of PEDV RNA via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at various time-temperature combinations and in infected piglet carcasses subjected to composting. Although this method ...


A Multilayered Control Of The Human Survival Motor Neuron Gene Expression By Alu Elements, Eric W. Ottesen, Joonbae Seo, Natalia N. Singh, Ravindra N. Singh 2017 Iowa State University

A Multilayered Control Of The Human Survival Motor Neuron Gene Expression By Alu Elements, Eric W. Ottesen, Joonbae Seo, Natalia N. Singh, Ravindra N. Singh

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Humans carry two nearly identical copies of Survival Motor Neuron gene: SMN1 and SMN2. Mutations or deletions of SMN1, which codes for SMN, cause spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic disease associated with infant mortality. Aberrant expression or localization of SMN has been also implicated in other pathological conditions, including male infertility, inclusion body myositis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and osteoarthritis. SMN2 fails to compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to skipping of exon 7, leading to the production of SMNΔ7, an unstable protein. In addition, SMNΔ7 is less functional due to the lack of a critical C-terminus of ...


Evaluation Of The Effect Of Serum Antibody Abundance Against Bovine Coronavirus On Bovine Coronavirus Shedding And Risk Of Respiratory Tract Disease In Beef Calves From Birth Through The First Five Weeks In A Feedlot, Aspen M. Workman, Larry A. Kuehn, Tara G. McDaneld, Michael L. Clawson, Carol G. Chitko-McKown, John Dustin Loy 2017 USDA-ARS U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Evaluation Of The Effect Of Serum Antibody Abundance Against Bovine Coronavirus On Bovine Coronavirus Shedding And Risk Of Respiratory Tract Disease In Beef Calves From Birth Through The First Five Weeks In A Feedlot, Aspen M. Workman, Larry A. Kuehn, Tara G. Mcdaneld, Michael L. Clawson, Carol G. Chitko-Mckown, John Dustin Loy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Objective: To evaluate the effect of serum antibody abundance against bovine coronavirus (BCV) on BCV shedding and risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef calves from birth through the first 5 weeks in a feedlot.

Animals: 890 natural-service crossbred beef calves from 4 research herds.

Procedures: Serial blood samples for measurement of serum anti-BCV antibody abundance by an ELISA and nasal swab specimens for detection of BCV and other viral and bacterial BRD pathogens by real-time PCR methods were collected from all calves or subsets of calves at predetermined times from birth through the first 5 weeks after feedlot ...


Dnmt3a Haploinsufficiency Provokes Hematologic Malignancy Of B-Lymphoid, T-Lymphoid, And Myeloid Lineage In Mice, Garland Michael Upchurch 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Dnmt3a Haploinsufficiency Provokes Hematologic Malignancy Of B-Lymphoid, T-Lymphoid, And Myeloid Lineage In Mice, Garland Michael Upchurch

Theses & Dissertations

DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) is a master epigenetic regulator of benign and malignant hematopoiesis. To dissect the biological consequences of homozygous and heterozygous Dnmt3a inactivation in malignant hematopoiesis, we generated Dnmt3a homozygous null (Dnmt3aΔ/Δ) and Dnmt3a heterozygous (Dnmt3a+/) mice and compared the presentations of hematologic malignancies between cohorts. Bi-allelic inactivation of Dnmt3a results in the presentation of mature lymphoid neoplasms resembling chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; B220+CD19+CD5+; 88% penetrance (37/42)) and CD8+ peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; TCRβ+CD3+CD8+CD4; 40% penetrance (17/42)). In contrast, mono-allelic inactivation of Dnmt3a results in the presentation of CLL ...


A Parapoxviral Virion Protein Inhibits Nf-Κb Signaling Early In Infection, Sushil Khatiwada, Gustavo A. Delhon, Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sabal Chaulagain, Shuhong Luo, Diego G. Diel, Eduardo F. Flores, D. L. Rock 2017 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

A Parapoxviral Virion Protein Inhibits Nf-Κb Signaling Early In Infection, Sushil Khatiwada, Gustavo A. Delhon, Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sabal Chaulagain, Shuhong Luo, Diego G. Diel, Eduardo F. Flores, D. L. Rock

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Poxviruses have evolved unique proteins and mechanisms to counteract the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is an essential regulatory pathway of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe a NF-κB inhibitory virion protein of orf virus (ORFV), ORFV073, which functions very early in infected cells. Infection with ORFV073 gene deletion virus (OV-IA82Δ073) led to increased accumulation of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), marked phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) subunits IKKα and IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65 (NF-κB-p65), and to early nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 in virusinfected cells (30 min post infection). Expression of ORFV073 alone was sufficient to ...


Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth 2017 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth

Chong Wang

The objective of this study was to determine and compare the humoral and cellular immune responses of calves exposed to a single dose of Bovela® bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) live double deleted vaccine or a field strain virus (FSV) of BVDV type 2 (strain 890). Thirty seronegative, colostrum-deprived 5 month-old Holstein steer calves that tested negative for persistent BVDV by ear notch immunohistochemistry and seronegative to BVDV types 1 and 2 were used. Calves were screened by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) 1 week before vaccination to ensure that they were negative for T cell responses to the BVDV types ...


Key Role Of Capsular Polysaccharide In The Induction Of Systemic Infection And Abortion By Hypervirulent Campylobacter Jejuni, Orhan Sahin, Samantha A. Terhorst, Eric R. Burrough, Zhangqi Shen, Zuowei Wu, Lei Dai, Yizhi Tang, Paul J. Plummer, Ju Ji, Michael J. Yaeger, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Key Role Of Capsular Polysaccharide In The Induction Of Systemic Infection And Abortion By Hypervirulent Campylobacter Jejuni, Orhan Sahin, Samantha A. Terhorst, Eric R. Burrough, Zhangqi Shen, Zuowei Wu, Lei Dai, Yizhi Tang, Paul J. Plummer, Ju Ji, Michael J. Yaeger, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and a hypervirulent clone, named clone SA, has recently emerged as the predominant cause of ovine abortion in the United States. To induce abortion, orally ingested Campylobacter must translocate across the intestinal epithelium, spread systemically in the circulation, and reach the fetoplacental tissue. Bacterial factors involved in these steps are not well understood. C. jejuni is known to produce capsular polysaccharide (CPS), but the specific role that CPS plays in systemic infection and particularly abortion in animals remains to be determined. In this study, we evaluated the role of CPS in bacteremia using a ...


Investigation Of The Impact Of Increased Dietary Insoluble Fiber Through The Feeding Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) On The Incidence And Severity Of Brachyspira-Associated Colitis In Pigs, Bailey Lauren Wilberts, Paulo Elias Arruda, Joann M. Kinyon, Timothy S. Frana, Chong Wang, Drew Robert Magstadt, Darin M. Madson, John F. Patience, Eric Ryan Burrough 2017 Iowa State University

Investigation Of The Impact Of Increased Dietary Insoluble Fiber Through The Feeding Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) On The Incidence And Severity Of Brachyspira-Associated Colitis In Pigs, Bailey Lauren Wilberts, Paulo Elias Arruda, Joann M. Kinyon, Timothy S. Frana, Chong Wang, Drew Robert Magstadt, Darin M. Madson, John F. Patience, Eric Ryan Burrough

Bailey (Wilberts) Arruda

Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including “B. hampsonii” has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups ...


Detection Of Salmonella Enteritidis In Pooled Poultry Environmental Samples Using A Serotype-Specific Real-Time–Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay, Derek R. Adams, Wendy R. Stensland, Chong Wang, Annette O'Connor, Darrell W. Trampel, Karen M. Harmon, Erin L. Strait, Timothy S. Frana 2017 Iowa State University

Detection Of Salmonella Enteritidis In Pooled Poultry Environmental Samples Using A Serotype-Specific Real-Time–Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay, Derek R. Adams, Wendy R. Stensland, Chong Wang, Annette O'Connor, Darrell W. Trampel, Karen M. Harmon, Erin L. Strait, Timothy S. Frana

Annette O'Connor

While real-time–polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) has been used as a rapid test for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in recent years, little research has been done to assess the feasibility of pooling poultry environmental samples with aSalmonella Enteritidis–specific RT PCR assay. Therefore the objective of this study was to compare RT PCR SalmonellaEnteritidis detection in individual and pooled (in groups of two, three, and four) poultry environmental drag swab samples to traditional cultural methods. The drag swabs were collected from poultry facilities previously confirmed positive forSalmonella Enteritidis and were cultured according to National Poultry Improvement Plan guidelines. Initial ...


Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman 2017 Iowa State University

Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Objectives: To assess effects of swine respiratory disease (SRD) on nursery pig responses during gas euthanasia and to compare responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) and argon (Ar) gas euthanasia in terms of efficacy and welfare. Materials and methods: Fifty-four pigs identified for euthanasia were classified as having SRD or euthanized for other reasons (OT). These pigs were distributed among three treatments: prefill CO2 (P-CO2), gradual fill CO2(G-CO2), and prefill Ar (P-Ar). Behavioral and physiological indicators of efficacy and welfare were assessed directly and from video. Modified atmosphere CO2 and O2concentrations (%) were collected throughout the process. Results: Respiratory disease status ...


Rnaseq Reveals Complex Response Of Campylobacter Jejuni To Ovine Bile And In Vivo Gallbladder Environment, Amanda J. Kreuder, Jennifer A. Schleining, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang, Paul J. Plummer 2017 Iowa State University

Rnaseq Reveals Complex Response Of Campylobacter Jejuni To Ovine Bile And In Vivo Gallbladder Environment, Amanda J. Kreuder, Jennifer A. Schleining, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang, Paul J. Plummer

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Colonization of the gallbladder by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni is thought to play a key role in transmission and persistence of these important zoonotic agents; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that allow for bacterial survival within this harsh environment. Recently, a highly virulent C. jejuni sheep abortion (SA) clone represented by the clinical isolate IA3902 has emerged as the dominant cause for sheep abortion in the United States. Previous studies have indicated that the C. jejuni clone SA can frequently be isolated from the gallbladders of otherwise healthy sheep, suggesting ...


Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth 2017 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

The objective of this study was to determine and compare the humoral and cellular immune responses of calves exposed to a single dose of Bovela® bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) live double deleted vaccine or a field strain virus (FSV) of BVDV type 2 (strain 890). Thirty seronegative, colostrum-deprived 5 month-old Holstein steer calves that tested negative for persistent BVDV by ear notch immunohistochemistry and seronegative to BVDV types 1 and 2 were used. Calves were screened by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) 1 week before vaccination to ensure that they were negative for T cell responses to the BVDV types ...


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