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Repurposing The Open Access Malaria Box Reveals Compounds With Activity Against Tritrichomonas Foetus Trophozoites, Katy A. Martin, Jeba R.J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Christopher Bader, Elizabeth Carreiro, Katelyn Long, Kylie Thompson, Matthew T. Brewer 2020 Iowa State University

Repurposing The Open Access Malaria Box Reveals Compounds With Activity Against Tritrichomonas Foetus Trophozoites, Katy A. Martin, Jeba R.J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Christopher Bader, Elizabeth Carreiro, Katelyn Long, Kylie Thompson, Matthew T. Brewer

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

The protozoan parasite Tritrichomonas foetus causes early embryonic death in cattle which results in severe economic loss. In the United States, there are no drugs are approved for treatment of this pathogen. In this study, we evaluated in vitro anti-protozoal effects of compounds from an open access chemical library against T. foetus trophozoites. An initial high-throughput screen identified 16 compounds of interest. Further investigation revealed 12 compounds that inhibited parasite growth and 4 compounds with lethal effects. For lethal compounds, dose-response curves were constructed and the LD50 was calculated for laboratory and field strains of T. foetus. Our experiments revealed ...


Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing For Food Animal Source Attribution Of Human Campylobacter Jejuni Infections, Chih-Hao Hsu, Lucas Harrison, Sampa Mukherjee, Errol Strain, Patrick McDermott, Qijing Zhang, Shaohua Zhao 2020 United States Food and Drug Administration

Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing For Food Animal Source Attribution Of Human Campylobacter Jejuni Infections, Chih-Hao Hsu, Lucas Harrison, Sampa Mukherjee, Errol Strain, Patrick Mcdermott, Qijing Zhang, Shaohua Zhao

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen and common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. A total of 622 C. jejuni isolates recovered from food animals and retail meats in the United States through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System between 2013 and 2017 were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq. Sequences were combined with WGS data of 222 human isolates downloaded from NCBI and analyzed by core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) and traditional MLST. cgMLST allelic difference (AD) thresholds of 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 identified 828, 734, 652, 543, 422, 298 and 197 cgMLST types among ...


The Comparative Cytotoxicity Of Riddelliine In Primary Mouse, Rat And Chick Hepatocytes, Bryan L. Stegelmeier, William S. Resager, Steven M. Colegate 2020 USDA-Agricultural Research Service

The Comparative Cytotoxicity Of Riddelliine In Primary Mouse, Rat And Chick Hepatocytes, Bryan L. Stegelmeier, William S. Resager, Steven M. Colegate

Poisonous Plant Research (PPR)

Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) producing plants commonly poison livestock, wildlife and humans. Poisoning occurs when DHPAs are ingested as feed or food, or when they contaminate medicinal or herbal products. Direct toxicologic comparison of individual DHPAs is essential to estimate their actual health risks. This has been problematic due to varying models and difficulties in DHPA isolation or synthesis. In contrast, the macrocyclic DHPA riddelliine is readily isolated and it has been used as a benchmark to characterize different models of toxicity and carcinogenicity. Following earlier work with immortalized cell lines, the objective of this study was to characterize the effect ...


Analysis Of The Osteopathology In A Captive-Born Spectacled Bear, Savannah Vaz 2020 Georgia College

Analysis Of The Osteopathology In A Captive-Born Spectacled Bear, Savannah Vaz

Georgia College Student Research Events

Osseous tissue contains the preserved record of an organism’s diseases and injuries that can be uncovered by examination of the present skeletal abnormalities. This study provides a thorough inspection of osteopathology and its etiology in a modern ursid with a known medical history. The skeletal remains of a captive-born spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus) were analysed for gross pathologies that manifested during the life of the animal. All observed osteopathologies were correlated with diseases experienced in the life of the individual, most of which were age-related. However, pythiosis, the grounds for his euthanization, may have contributed to some of the ...


Recapitulation Of The Accessible Interface Of Biopsy-Derived Canine Intestinal Organoids To Study Epithelial-Luminal Interactions, Yoko M. Ambrosini, Yejin Park, Albert E. Jergens, Woojung Shin, Soyoun Min, Todd Atherly, Dana C. Borcherding, Jinah Jang, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel, Hyun Jung Kim 2020 University of Texas at Austin and Iowa State University

Recapitulation Of The Accessible Interface Of Biopsy-Derived Canine Intestinal Organoids To Study Epithelial-Luminal Interactions, Yoko M. Ambrosini, Yejin Park, Albert E. Jergens, Woojung Shin, Soyoun Min, Todd Atherly, Dana C. Borcherding, Jinah Jang, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel, Hyun Jung Kim

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Recent advances in canine intestinal organoids have expanded the option for building a better in vitro model to investigate translational science of intestinal physiology and pathology between humans and animals. However, the three-dimensional geometry and the enclosed lumen of canine intestinal organoids considerably hinder the access to the apical side of epithelium for investigating the nutrient and drug absorption, host-microbiome crosstalk, and pharmaceutical toxicity testing. Thus, the creation of a polarized epithelial interface accessible from apical or basolateral side is critical. Here, we demonstrated the generation of an intestinal epithelial monolayer using canine biopsy-derived colonic organoids (colonoids). We optimized the ...


Whole Genome Sequencing For Mutation Discovery In A Single Case Of Lysosomal Storage Disease (Mps Type 1) In The Dog, Tamer A. Mansour, Kevin D. Woolard, Karen L. Vernau, Devin M. Ancona, Sara M. Thomasy, Lionel Sebbag, Bret A. Moore, Marguerite F. Knipe, Haitham A. Seada, Tina M. Cowan, Miriam Aguilar, C. Titus Brown, Danika L. Bannasch 2020 University of California, Davis and Mansoura University

Whole Genome Sequencing For Mutation Discovery In A Single Case Of Lysosomal Storage Disease (Mps Type 1) In The Dog, Tamer A. Mansour, Kevin D. Woolard, Karen L. Vernau, Devin M. Ancona, Sara M. Thomasy, Lionel Sebbag, Bret A. Moore, Marguerite F. Knipe, Haitham A. Seada, Tina M. Cowan, Miriam Aguilar, C. Titus Brown, Danika L. Bannasch

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a metabolic storage disorder caused by the deficiency of any lysosomal enzyme required for the breakdown of glycosaminoglycans. A 15-month-old Boston Terrier presented with clinical signs consistent with lysosomal storage disease including corneal opacities, multifocal central nervous system disease and progressively worsening clinical course. Diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy based on histopathologic evaluation of multiple organs demonstrating accumulation of mucopolysaccharides. Whole genome sequencing was used to uncover a frame-shift insertion affecting the alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) gene (c.19_20insCGGCCCCC), a mutation confirmed in another Boston Terrier presented 2 years later with a similar clinical picture. Both dogs were homozygous ...


Structure, Function And Metabolism Of Hepatic And Adipose Tissue Lipid Droplets: Implications In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Karuna Rasineni, Murali Ganesan, Dan Feng, Benita L. McVicker, Mark A. McNiven, Natalia A. Osna, Justin L. Mott, Carol A. Casey, Kusum K. Kharbanda 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Structure, Function And Metabolism Of Hepatic And Adipose Tissue Lipid Droplets: Implications In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Karuna Rasineni, Murali Ganesan, Dan Feng, Benita L. Mcvicker, Mark A. Mcniven, Natalia A. Osna, Justin L. Mott, Carol A. Casey, Kusum K. Kharbanda

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

For more than 30 years, lipid droplets (LDs) were considered as an inert bag of lipid for storage of energy-rich fat molecules. Following a paradigm shift almost a decade ago, LDs are presently considered an active subcellular organelle especially designed for assembling, storing and subsequently supplying lipids for generating energy and membrane synthesis (and in the case of hepatocytes for VLDL secretion). LDs also play a central role in many other cellular functions such as viral assembly and protein degradation. Here, we have explored the structural and functional changes that occur in hepatic and adipose tissue LDs following chronic ethanol ...


Differentiation Of Mannheimia Haemolytica Genotype 1 And 2 Strains By Visible Phenotypic Characteristics On Solid Media, Emily L. Wynn, Gennie Schuller, John D. Loy, Aspen M. Workman, T. G. McDaneld, Michael L. Clawson 2020 USDA ARS. MARC

Differentiation Of Mannheimia Haemolytica Genotype 1 And 2 Strains By Visible Phenotypic Characteristics On Solid Media, Emily L. Wynn, Gennie Schuller, John D. Loy, Aspen M. Workman, T. G. Mcdaneld, Michael L. Clawson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Genotype 2 Mannheimia haemolytica associate with the lungs of cattle with bovine respiratory disease more frequently than genotype 1 strains. Different colony colors and morphologies were identified between genotype 1 and 2 solid media cultures. Genotype of strains, and frequency differences between them in mixed cultures are discernable by visual inspection.

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Small Non-Coding Rna Cjnc110 Influences Motility, Autoagglutination, Ai-2 Localization, And Chicken Colonization In Campylobacter Jejuni, Amanda J. Kreuder, Brandon Ruddell, Kathy Mou, Alan Hassall, Qijing Zhang, Paul J. Plummer 2020 Iowa State University

Small Non-Coding Rna Cjnc110 Influences Motility, Autoagglutination, Ai-2 Localization, And Chicken Colonization In Campylobacter Jejuni, Amanda J. Kreuder, Brandon Ruddell, Kathy Mou, Alan Hassall, Qijing Zhang, Paul J. Plummer

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Small non-coding RNAs are involved in many important physiological functions in pathogenic microorganisms. Previous studies have identified the presence of non-coding RNAs in the major zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, however, few have been functionally characterized to date. CjNC110 is a conserved ncRNA in C. jejuni, located downstream of the luxS gene which is responsible for the production of the quorum-sensing molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2). In this study, we utilized strand specific high-throughput RNAseq to identify potential targets or interactive partners of CjNC110 in a sheep abortion clone of C. jejuni. This data was utilized to focus further phenotypic evaluation of the ...


Host-Parasite Interaction In Horses: Mucosal Responses To Naturally Acquired Cyathostomin Infections And Anthelmintic Treatment, Ashley Elaine Steuer 2020 University of Kentucky

Host-Parasite Interaction In Horses: Mucosal Responses To Naturally Acquired Cyathostomin Infections And Anthelmintic Treatment, Ashley Elaine Steuer

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Cyathostomins are ubiquitous parasites in equids. In rare cases, cyathostomins lead to a generalized typhlocolitis and death. In healthy horses, local reactions are noted to the mucosal larvae; however, the mechanisms and importance of these reactions have not been elucidated. It has been hypothesized that anthelmintics can alter these reactions. Currently, three drug classes are approved for use in horses against cyathostomins; while all products target the adults, only two products are labeled as larvicidal. Adulticidal therapy is implicated in triggering the typhlocolitis, however, current evidence is contradictory. There is also conjecture that the larvicidal drugs can increase the risk ...


Experimental Study Using Multiple Strains Of Prion Disease In Cattle Reveals An Inverse Relationship Between Incubation Time And Misfolded Prion Accumulation, Neuroinflammation And Autophagy, Najiba Mammadova, M. Heather West Greenlee, S. Jo Moore, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Justin J. Greenlee 2020 Iowa State University

Experimental Study Using Multiple Strains Of Prion Disease In Cattle Reveals An Inverse Relationship Between Incubation Time And Misfolded Prion Accumulation, Neuroinflammation And Autophagy, Najiba Mammadova, M. Heather West Greenlee, S. Jo Moore, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Justin J. Greenlee

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Proteinopathies result from aberrant folding and accumulation of specific proteins. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge about the factors that influence disease progression making this a key challenge for the development of therapies for proteinopathies. Due to the similarities between transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and other protein misfolding diseases, TSEs can be used to understand other proteinopathies. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a TSE that occurs in cattle and can be subdivided into three strains: classical BSE, and atypical BSEs (H-type and L-type) that have shorter incubation periods. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical component of the innate immune ...


Rapid Differentiation Of Moraxella Bovoculi Genotypes 1 And 2 Using Maldi-Tof Mass Spectrometry Profiles, Matthew M. Hille, Aaron M. Dickey, Kara Robbins, Michael L. Clawson, John Dustin Loy 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Rapid Differentiation Of Moraxella Bovoculi Genotypes 1 And 2 Using Maldi-Tof Mass Spectrometry Profiles, Matthew M. Hille, Aaron M. Dickey, Kara Robbins, Michael L. Clawson, John Dustin Loy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Moraxella bovoculi is the most frequently isolated bacteria from the eyes of cattle with Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), also known as bovine pinkeye. Two distinct genotypes of M. bovoculi, genotype 1 and genotype 2, were characterized after whole genome sequencing showed a large degree of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity within the species. To date, both genotypes have been isolated from the eyes of cattle without clinical signs of IBK while only genotype 1 strains have been isolated from the eyes of cattle with clinical signs of IBK. We used 38 known genotype 1 strains and 26 known genotype 2 ...


Genomic-Based Identification Of Environmental And Clinical Listeria Monocytogenes Strains Associated With An Abortion Outbreak In Beef Heifers, Katherine J. Whitman, James L. Bono, Michael L. Clawson, John D. Loy, Joseph M. Bosilevac, Terrance M. Arthur, Jeff D. Ondrak 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Genomic-Based Identification Of Environmental And Clinical Listeria Monocytogenes Strains Associated With An Abortion Outbreak In Beef Heifers, Katherine J. Whitman, James L. Bono, Michael L. Clawson, John D. Loy, Joseph M. Bosilevac, Terrance M. Arthur, Jeff D. Ondrak

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: In a beef cattle facility an outbreak of abortions occurred over a 36-day period and included samples from two aborted (non-viable) fetuses and 21 post-abortion clinical cases. There are numerous etiologies, including clinical listeriosis. At the species level, Listeria monocytogenes is ubiquitous in cattle production environments, including soil, feed, and occasionally water sources, and is a common enteric resident of cattle and other mammals. There are four genetically distinct lineages of L. monocytogenes (I-IV), with most lineage III and IV isolates obtained from ruminants. Definitive diagnosis of L. monocytogenes as a causative agent in disease outbreaks relies upon case ...


Intimate Attachment Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 To Urinary Bladder Epithelium In The Gnotobiotic Piglet Model, Rodney A. Moxley, Tom W. Bargar, Stephen D. Kachman, Diane R. Baker, David H. Francis 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Intimate Attachment Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 To Urinary Bladder Epithelium In The Gnotobiotic Piglet Model, Rodney A. Moxley, Tom W. Bargar, Stephen D. Kachman, Diane R. Baker, David H. Francis

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is an important cause of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic–uremic syndrome (HUS), and a rare cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) with associated HUS. EHEC strains attach intimately to intestinal epithelium with formation of actin pedestals (attaching-effacing (A/E) lesions); however, the mechanism of EHEC attachment to the uroepithelium is unknown. We conducted a retrospective study on archived urinary bladder specimens from gnotobiotic piglets that naturally developed cystitis associated with EHEC O157:H7 infection following oral inoculation and fecal shedding. Paraffin-embedded bladder tissues from three piglets with ...


Uterine Torsion Dystocia Complicated By Perosomus Elumbis In An Angus Calf Associated With A Consanguineous Mating, Alyssa B. Helms, Riley E. Thompson, Sam Lawton, Jessica L. Petersen, Allison Watson, Mee-Ja Sula, David J. Steffen, Brian K. Whitlock 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Uterine Torsion Dystocia Complicated By Perosomus Elumbis In An Angus Calf Associated With A Consanguineous Mating, Alyssa B. Helms, Riley E. Thompson, Sam Lawton, Jessica L. Petersen, Allison Watson, Mee-Ja Sula, David J. Steffen, Brian K. Whitlock

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

A six-year-old multiparous Angus cow was presented for dystocia. Vaginal and rectal examinations revealed an approximately 360° counterclockwise uterine torsion. The torsion was corrected by rolling the cow counterclockwise (three episodes) with the aid of a plank coupled with manual detorsion via the vagina. The placement of obstetric chains followed by manual traction ultimately delivered a stillborn male calf with evidence of vertebral aplasia, arthrogryposis, and abdominal organ herniation. Patient history and subsequent parentage verification revealed that the calf was the result of a consanguineous (mother to son) mating. Tissue samples from the affected calf and blood samples from the ...


Triggers Of Inflammatory Heart Disease, Ninaad Lasrado, Bharathi Yalaka, Jay Reddy 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Triggers Of Inflammatory Heart Disease, Ninaad Lasrado, Bharathi Yalaka, Jay Reddy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Inflammatory heart disease (IHD) is a group of diseases that includes pericarditis, myocarditis, and endocarditis. Although males appear to be more commonly affected than females, IHD can be seen in any age group. While the disease can be self-limiting leading to full recovery, affected individuals can develop chronic disease, suggesting that identification of primary triggers is critical for successful therapies. Adding to this complexity, however, is the fact that IHD can be triggered by a variety of infectious and non-infectious causes that can also occur as secondary events to primary insults. In this review, we discuss the immunological insights into ...


Identification Of Immunogenic Epitopes That Permit The Detection Of Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses In Multiple Serotypes Of Group B Coxsackievirus Infections, Ninaad Lasrado, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Rajkumar Arumugam, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Sayli Pokal, Yuzhen Zhou, Shi-Hua Xiang, David Steffen, Jay Reddy 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Identification Of Immunogenic Epitopes That Permit The Detection Of Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses In Multiple Serotypes Of Group B Coxsackievirus Infections, Ninaad Lasrado, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Rajkumar Arumugam, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Sayli Pokal, Yuzhen Zhou, Shi-Hua Xiang, David Steffen, Jay Reddy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Coxsackievirus group B (CVB) contains six serotypes that can aect various organs. Some of these organ-specific diseases such as myocarditis and pancreatitis can be caused by more than one serotype. Thus, development of immunological tools common to multiple serotypes is desired. This is especially critical for analyzing antigen-specific T cell responses at a single cell level. To this end, we made eorts to identify the immunogenic epitopes of CVB3 leading us to localize three T cell epitopes within the viral protein 1 (VP1) namely, VP1 681–700, VP1 721–740 and VP1 771–790. First, we confirmed their immunogenicity in ...


Current Status Of Zika Virus Vaccines: Successes And Challenges, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Asit K. Pattnaik 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Current Status Of Zika Virus Vaccines: Successes And Challenges, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Asit K. Pattnaik

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The recently emerged Zika virus (ZIKV) spread to the Americas, causing a spectrum of congenital diseases including microcephaly in newborn and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults. The unprecedented nature of the epidemic and serious diseases associated with the viral infections prompted the global research community to understand the immunopathogenic mechanisms of the virus and rapidly develop safe and efficacious vaccines. This has led to a number of ZIKV vaccine candidates that have shown significant promise in human clinical trials. These candidates include nucleic acid vaccines, inactivated vaccines, viral-vectored vaccines, and attenuated vaccines. Additionally, a number of vaccine candidates have been ...


First Records Of Established Populations Of Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected From Three Nebraska Counties, Lindsey E. Nielsen, Roberto Cortinas, Paul D. Fey, Peter C. Iwen, David H. Nielsen 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

First Records Of Established Populations Of Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected From Three Nebraska Counties, Lindsey E. Nielsen, Roberto Cortinas, Paul D. Fey, Peter C. Iwen, David H. Nielsen

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Reported cases of Lyme disease in Nebraska have been assumed to be imported from other endemic areas. Previous surveillance efforts provided no evidence of established populations as only individual specimens of Ixodes scapularis (Say) had been collected. In the winter of 2018, adult I. scapularis were found on a dog at Two Rivers State Recreation Area, Douglas County, prompting tick collection at the site and nearby natural areas. In May 2019, all life stages of host-seeking I. scapularis were collected using dragging and flagging techniques in sites located near the Platte River in Douglas, Sarpy, and Saunders counties. This is ...


Development Of A Subcutaneous Ear Implant To Deliver An Anaplasmosis Vaccine To Dairy Steers, Andrew K. Curtis, Kathryn E. Reif, Michael D. Kleinhenz, Miriam S. Martin, Brandt Skinner, Sean M. Kelly, Douglas E. Jones, Emily J. Reppert, Shawnee R. Montgomery, Balaji Narasimhan, Tippawan Anantatat, Majid Jaberi-Douraki, Johann F. Coetzee 2019 Kansas State University

Development Of A Subcutaneous Ear Implant To Deliver An Anaplasmosis Vaccine To Dairy Steers, Andrew K. Curtis, Kathryn E. Reif, Michael D. Kleinhenz, Miriam S. Martin, Brandt Skinner, Sean M. Kelly, Douglas E. Jones, Emily J. Reppert, Shawnee R. Montgomery, Balaji Narasimhan, Tippawan Anantatat, Majid Jaberi-Douraki, Johann F. Coetzee

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Bovine anaplasmosis is the most prevalent tick-transmitted disease of cattle worldwide and a major obstacle to profitable beef production. Use of chlortetracycline-medicated feed to control active anaplasmosis infections during the vector season has raised concerns about the potential emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria that may pose a risk to human health. Furthermore, the absence of effectiveness data for a commercially available, conditionally licensed anaplasmosis vaccine is a major impediment to implementing anaplasmosis control programs. The primary objective of this study was to develop a single-dose vaccine delivery platform to produce long-lasting protective immunity against anaplasmosis infections. Twelve Holstein steers ...


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