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Altered Electroretinogram B-Wave In A Suffolk Sheep Experimentally Infected With Scrapie, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, M. H. West Greenlee 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Altered Electroretinogram B-Wave In A Suffolk Sheep Experimentally Infected With Scrapie, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, M. H. West Greenlee

Jodi Smith

TRANSMISSIBLE spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases in which an abnormal isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrPSc) accumulates in tissues of the central nervous system. Accumulation of PrPSc occurs in the retina, a rostral projection of the central nervous system, of both natural and nonnatural host species with TSEs (Foster and others 1999, Spraker and others 2002, Head and others 2003, 2005, Hamir and others 2004, 2005, Kercher and others 2004, Greenlee and others 2006, Hortells and others 2006). In retinas from scrapie-affected sheep, PrPSc accumulation is primarily observed in the inner and outer plexiform ...


Clinical And Pathologic Features Of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated With E211k Prion Protein Polymorphism, Justin J. Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, M. Heather West Greenlee, Eric M. Nicholson 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Clinical And Pathologic Features Of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated With E211k Prion Protein Polymorphism, Justin J. Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, M. Heather West Greenlee, Eric M. Nicholson

Jodi Smith

The majority of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases have been ascribed to the classical form of the disease. H-type and L-type BSE cases have atypical molecular profiles compared to classical BSE and are thought to arise spontaneously. However, one case of H-type BSE was associated with a heritable E211K mutation in the prion protein gene. The purpose of this study was to describe transmission of this unique isolate of H-type BSE when inoculated into a calf of the same genotype by the intracranial route. Electroretinograms were used to demonstrate preclinical deficits in retinal function, and optical coherence tomography was used ...


Peritoneal Fibrosarcomatous Mesothelioma In A Cat, Tammy M-J Heerkens, Jodi D. Smith, Leslie Fox, Jesse M. Hostetter 2017 Iowa State University

Peritoneal Fibrosarcomatous Mesothelioma In A Cat, Tammy M-J Heerkens, Jodi D. Smith, Leslie Fox, Jesse M. Hostetter

Jodi Smith

Primary tumors of serosal surfaces are uncommon in veterinary medicine. Mesothelial neoplasms can be benign or malignant, and are classified as predominantly epitheloid, mixed (biphasic), or fibrous (spindle cell, fibrosarcomatous), with fibrous mesotheliomas reported least in domestic species. A 9-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat presented on emergency with a brief history of weakness and lethargy. On presentation, the cat was semicomatose, hypothermic, and hypotensive with a markedly distended abdomen. Approximately 1 liter of serosanguineous fluid was removed via abdominocentesis. Diagnostic imaging and cytologic evaluation of fine-needle aspirates were suggestive of neoplasia, and the cat was subsequently euthanized. At necropsy, the omentum ...


Retinal Function And Morphology Are Altered In Cattle Infected With The Prion Disease Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, J. A. Richt, M. H. West Greenlee 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Retinal Function And Morphology Are Altered In Cattle Infected With The Prion Disease Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, J. A. Richt, M. H. West Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of diseases that result in progressive and invariably fatal neurologic disease in both animals and humans. TSEs are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the prion protein in the central nervous system. Transmission of infectious TSEs is believed to occur via ingestion of prion protein–contaminated material. This material is also involved in the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow disease”) to humans, which resulted in the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Abnormal prion protein has been reported in the retina of TSE-affected cattle, but despite these observations ...


Evaluation Of A Combinatorial Approach To Prion Inactivation Using An Oxidizing Agent, Sds, And Proteinase K, Jodi D. Smith, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of A Combinatorial Approach To Prion Inactivation Using An Oxidizing Agent, Sds, And Proteinase K, Jodi D. Smith, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Background

Prions demonstrate an unusual resistance to methods effective at inactivating conventional microorganisms. This has resulted in a very tangible and difficult infection control challenge to the medical and veterinary communities, as well as animal agriculture and related industries. Currently accepted practices of harsh chemical treatments such as prolonged exposure to sodium hydroxide or sodium hypochlorite, or autoclaving are not suitable in many situations. Less caustic and more readily applicable treatments to contaminated environments are therefore desirable. We recently demonstrated that exposure of the RML scrapie agent to a commercial product containing sodium percarbonate (SPC-P) with or without sodium dodecyl ...


Changes In Retinal Function And Morphology Are Early Clinical Signs Of Disease In Cattle With Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Ekundayo M. Platt, Jessica R. Juarez, Leo L. Timms, Justin J. Greenlee 2017 Iowa State University

Changes In Retinal Function And Morphology Are Early Clinical Signs Of Disease In Cattle With Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Ekundayo M. Platt, Jessica R. Juarez, Leo L. Timms, Justin J. Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) belongs to a group of fatal, transmissible protein misfolding diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). All TSEs are caused by accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) throughout the central nervous system (CNS), which results in neuronal loss and ultimately death. Like other protein misfolding diseases including Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, TSEs are generally not diagnosed until the onset of disease after the appearance of unequivocal clinical signs. As such, identification of the earliest clinical signs of disease may facilitate diagnosis. The retina is the most accessible part of the central nervous system ...


Comparison Of Two Us Sheep Scrapie Isolates Supports Identification As Separate Strains, S. J. Moore, J. D. Smith, M. H. West Greenlee, E. M. Nicholson, J. A. Richt, J. J. Greenlee 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Comparison Of Two Us Sheep Scrapie Isolates Supports Identification As Separate Strains, S. J. Moore, J. D. Smith, M. H. West Greenlee, E. M. Nicholson, J. A. Richt, J. J. Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Scrapie is a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats. There are different strains of sheep scrapie that are associated with unique molecular, transmission, and phenotype characteristics. However, in the United States, very little is known about the potential presence of scrapie strains. Scrapie strain and PRNP genotype could both affect susceptibility, potential for transmission, incubation period (IP), and control measures required for eliminating scrapie from a flock. The investigators evaluated 2 US scrapie isolates, No. 13-7 and x124, after intranasal inoculation to compare clinical signs, IPs, spongiform lesions, and patterns of PrPSc deposition in sheep with ...


Genetic Variation Of The Prion Protein Gene (Prnp) In Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos), M. S. Vermette, J. A. Schleining, J. J. Greenlee, J. D. Smtih 2017 Iowa State University

Genetic Variation Of The Prion Protein Gene (Prnp) In Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos), M. S. Vermette, J. A. Schleining, J. J. Greenlee, J. D. Smtih

Jodi Smith

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are caused by accumulation of a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP). The normal cellular isoform of PrP is produced by the prion gene (PRNP) and is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Currently, there is an absence of information regarding the genetic sequence of alpaca PRNP and the potential susceptibility of this species to TSE. The objective of this study was to sequence the open reading frame of the alpaca prion gene and analyze this sequence for variation within the alpaca population and for homology to TSE-susceptible species. We sequenced the open reading ...


Temporal Resolution Of Misfolded Prion Protein Transport, Accumulation, Glial Activation, And Neuronal Death In The Retinas Of Mice Inoculated With Scrapie, M. Heather West Greenlee, Melissa Lind, Robyn Kokemuller, Najiba Mammadova, Naveen Kondru, Sireesha Manne, Jodi Smith, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Justin Greenlee 2017 Iowa State University

Temporal Resolution Of Misfolded Prion Protein Transport, Accumulation, Glial Activation, And Neuronal Death In The Retinas Of Mice Inoculated With Scrapie, M. Heather West Greenlee, Melissa Lind, Robyn Kokemuller, Najiba Mammadova, Naveen Kondru, Sireesha Manne, Jodi Smith, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Justin Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Currently, there is a lack of pathological landmarks to describe the progression of prion disease in vivo. Our goal was to use an experimental model to determine the temporal relationship between the transport of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) from the brain to the retina, the accumulation of PrPSc in the retina, the response of the surrounding retinal tissue, and loss of neurons. Retinal samples from mice inoculated with RML scrapie were collected at 30, 60, 90, 105, and 120 days post inoculation (dpi) or at the onset of clinical signs of disease (153 dpi). Retinal homogenates were tested ...


A Parapoxviral Virion Protein Inhibits Nf-Κb Signaling Early In Infection, Sushil Khatiwada, Gustavo A. Delhon, Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sabal Chaulagain, Shuhong Luo, Diego G. Diel, Eduardo F. Flores, D. L. Rock 2017 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

A Parapoxviral Virion Protein Inhibits Nf-Κb Signaling Early In Infection, Sushil Khatiwada, Gustavo A. Delhon, Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sabal Chaulagain, Shuhong Luo, Diego G. Diel, Eduardo F. Flores, D. L. Rock

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Poxviruses have evolved unique proteins and mechanisms to counteract the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is an essential regulatory pathway of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe a NF-κB inhibitory virion protein of orf virus (ORFV), ORFV073, which functions very early in infected cells. Infection with ORFV073 gene deletion virus (OV-IA82Δ073) led to increased accumulation of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), marked phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) subunits IKKα and IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65 (NF-κB-p65), and to early nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 in virusinfected cells (30 min post infection). Expression of ORFV073 alone was sufficient to ...


Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor 2017 Iowa State University

Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor

James M Reecy

Objective—To assess associations between infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) diagnosed at weaning and production traits in yearling beef calves. Design—Retrospective population-based cohort study. Animals—1,882 Angus calves. Procedures—Angus calves from 1 farm were evaluated over 7 years. The association between yearling body production traits and detection of IBK lesions at weaning was evaluated. Results—Yearlings that had evidence of IBK at weaning had less 12th rib fat depth, ribeye area, and body weight than did cohorts without evidence of IBK. Average daily gain was greater in cattle that had IBK lesions at weaning, but this did not ...


Kinetics Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv) Memphis Strain 37 (M37) Infection In The Respiratory Tract Of Newborn Lambs As An Rsv Infection Model For Human Infants, Alejandro Larios Mora, Laurent Detalle, Albert G. van Geelen, Michael S. Davis, Thomas Stohr, Jack M. Gallup, Mark R. Ackermann 2017 Iowa State University

Kinetics Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv) Memphis Strain 37 (M37) Infection In The Respiratory Tract Of Newborn Lambs As An Rsv Infection Model For Human Infants, Alejandro Larios Mora, Laurent Detalle, Albert G. Van Geelen, Michael S. Davis, Thomas Stohr, Jack M. Gallup, Mark R. Ackermann

Jack M Gallup

Rationale Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in preterm and newborn infants can result in severe bronchiolitis and hospitalization. The lamb lung has several key features conducive to modeling RSV infection in human infants, including susceptibility to human strains of RSV such as the A2, Long, and Memphis Strain 37 (M37). In this study, the kinetics of M37 infection was investigated in newborn lambs in order to better define clinical, viral, physiological, and immunological parameters as well as the pathology and lesions. Methods Newborn lambs were nebulized with M37 hRSV (6 mL of 1.27 x 107 FFU/mL), monitored daily ...


Mixed-Surface, Lipid-Tethered Quantum Dots For Targeting Cells And Tissues, Yanjie Zhang, Amanda Haage, Elizabeth M. Whitley, Ian C. Schneider, Aaron R. Clapp 2017 Iowa State University

Mixed-Surface, Lipid-Tethered Quantum Dots For Targeting Cells And Tissues, Yanjie Zhang, Amanda Haage, Elizabeth M. Whitley, Ian C. Schneider, Aaron R. Clapp

Ian C. Schneider

Quantum dots (QDs), with their variable luminescent properties, are rapidly transcending traditional labeling techniques in biological imaging and hold vast potential for biosensing applications. An obstacle in any biosensor development is targeted specificity. Here we report a facile procedure for creating QDs targeted to the cell membrane with the goal of cell-surface protease biosensing. This procedure generates water-soluble QDs with variable coverage of lipid functional groups. The resulting hydrophobicity is quantitatively controlled by the molar ratio of lipids per QD. Appropriate tuning of the hydrophobicity ensures solubility in common aqueous cell culture media and while providing affinity to the lipid ...


Investigation Of The Impact Of Increased Dietary Insoluble Fiber Through The Feeding Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) On The Incidence And Severity Of Brachyspira-Associated Colitis In Pigs, Bailey Lauren Wilberts, Paulo Elias Arruda, Joann M. Kinyon, Timothy S. Frana, Chong Wang, Drew Robert Magstadt, Darin M. Madson, John F. Patience, Eric Ryan Burrough 2017 Iowa State University

Investigation Of The Impact Of Increased Dietary Insoluble Fiber Through The Feeding Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) On The Incidence And Severity Of Brachyspira-Associated Colitis In Pigs, Bailey Lauren Wilberts, Paulo Elias Arruda, Joann M. Kinyon, Timothy S. Frana, Chong Wang, Drew Robert Magstadt, Darin M. Madson, John F. Patience, Eric Ryan Burrough

Bailey (Wilberts) Arruda

Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including “B. hampsonii” has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups ...


Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman 2017 Iowa State University

Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Objectives: To assess effects of swine respiratory disease (SRD) on nursery pig responses during gas euthanasia and to compare responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) and argon (Ar) gas euthanasia in terms of efficacy and welfare.

Materials and methods: Fifty-four pigs identified for euthanasia were classified as having SRD or euthanized for other reasons (OT). These pigs were distributed among three treatments: prefill CO2 (P-CO2), gradual fill CO2(G-CO2), and prefill Ar (P-Ar). Behavioral and physiological indicators of efficacy and welfare were assessed directly and from video. Modified atmosphere CO2 and O2concentrations (%) were collected throughout the process.

Results: Respiratory disease status ...


Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman 2017 Iowa State University

Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Objectives: To assess effects of swine respiratory disease (SRD) on nursery pig responses during gas euthanasia and to compare responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) and argon (Ar) gas euthanasia in terms of efficacy and welfare.

Materials and methods: Fifty-four pigs identified for euthanasia were classified as having SRD or euthanized for other reasons (OT). These pigs were distributed among three treatments: prefill CO2 (P-CO2), gradual fill CO2(G-CO2), and prefill Ar (P-Ar). Behavioral and physiological indicators of efficacy and welfare were assessed directly and from video. Modified atmosphere CO2 and O2concentrations (%) were collected throughout the process.

Results: Respiratory disease status ...


Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth 2017 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

The objective of this study was to determine and compare the humoral and cellular immune responses of calves exposed to a single dose of Bovela® bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) live double deleted vaccine or a field strain virus (FSV) of BVDV type 2 (strain 890). Thirty seronegative, colostrum-deprived 5 month-old Holstein steer calves that tested negative for persistent BVDV by ear notch immunohistochemistry and seronegative to BVDV types 1 and 2 were used. Calves were screened by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) 1 week before vaccination to ensure that they were negative for T cell responses to the BVDV types ...


Trophozoite Killing Assays For Tritrichomonas Foetus Parasites, Kaitlyn Murphy, Jessica Meseck 2017 Iowa State University

Trophozoite Killing Assays For Tritrichomonas Foetus Parasites, Kaitlyn Murphy, Jessica Meseck

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Tritrichomonas foetus is a sexually-transmitted protozoan parasite infecting cattle throughout the world. In cows, infection results in early embryonic death and abortion. Current control methods rely on culling infected animals and there is no curative treatment. We obtained a field strain of the parasite from an Iowa bull and isolated it in axenic culture. We then developed a trophozoite killing assay suitable for identifying compounds with anti-parasite activity. Current and future studies involve screening of antimicrobial agents and identification of lead compounds for future in vivo studies.


Is The Effectiveness Of Lecture Capture Related To Teaching Approach Or Content Type?, Jared A. Danielson, Vanessa Preast, Holly Bender, Lesya M. Hassall 2017 Iowa State University

Is The Effectiveness Of Lecture Capture Related To Teaching Approach Or Content Type?, Jared A. Danielson, Vanessa Preast, Holly Bender, Lesya M. Hassall

Lesya Hassall

The purpose of two related studies was to explore the relationships between course characteristics (teaching approach, content type, and level of curricular coordination), lecture-capture implementation, and learning in a veterinary medical education environment. Two hundred and twenty two students and 35 faculty members participated in the first study, which surveyed respondents regarding their perception of lecture-capture use and impact on learning. Four hundred and ninety one students participated in the second study, which compared scores on a standardized test of basic science knowledge among groups experiencing various levels of lecture-capture implementation. Students were most likely to view captured lectures in ...


Detoxification Of Mitochondrial Oxidants And Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated By Thioredoxin-2 And Peroxiredoxin-3 During Hyperoxic Injury, Benjamin J. Forred, Darwin R. Daugaard, Brianna K. Titus, Ryan R. Wood, Miranda J. Floen, Michelle L. Booze, Peter F. Vitiello 2017 Children's Health Research Center, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

Detoxification Of Mitochondrial Oxidants And Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated By Thioredoxin-2 And Peroxiredoxin-3 During Hyperoxic Injury, Benjamin J. Forred, Darwin R. Daugaard, Brianna K. Titus, Ryan R. Wood, Miranda J. Floen, Michelle L. Booze, Peter F. Vitiello

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the regulation of cell death during accumulation of oxidants. High concentrations of atmospheric oxygen (hyperoxia), used clinically to treat tissue hypoxia in premature newborns, is known to elicit oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury to pulmonary epithelial cells. A consequence of oxidative stress in mitochondria is the accumulation of peroxides which are detoxified by the dedicated mitochondrial thioredoxin system. This system is comprised of the oxidoreductase activities of peroxiredoxin-3 (Prx3), thioredoxin-2 (Trx2), and thioredoxin reductase-2 (TrxR2). The goal of this study was to understand the role of the mitochondrial thioredoxin system and mitochondrial injuries during ...


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