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The Pathology Of Natural And Experimentally Induced Campylobacter Jejuni Abortion In Sheep, Michael J. Yaeger, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Zuowei Wu, Judith A. Stasko, Qijing Zhang 2021 Iowa State University

The Pathology Of Natural And Experimentally Induced Campylobacter Jejuni Abortion In Sheep, Michael J. Yaeger, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Zuowei Wu, Judith A. Stasko, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

We describe here the gross and microscopic lesions in 18 experimentally induced and 120 natural Campylobacter abortions. In natural Campylobacter abortions, gross lesions were reported infrequently; placentitis was recorded in 6% and hepatic lesions in 4% of our field cases. Placentitis was the microscopic lesion identified most consistently in natural abortions (93%) and was often observed in association with abundant bacterial colonies in chorionic villi (54%) and less often with placental vasculitis (13%). In natural abortions, suppurative fetal pneumonia (48%), necrosuppurative hepatitis (16%), and purulent meningitis (7%) were also observed. The better-preserved specimens from experimentally induced abortions were utilized to ...


Component Causes Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis—Non-Moraxella Organisms In The Epidemiology Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, John Dustin Loy, Kristin A. Clothier, Gabriele Maier 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Component Causes Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis—Non-Moraxella Organisms In The Epidemiology Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, John Dustin Loy, Kristin A. Clothier, Gabriele Maier

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

• Non-Moraxella organisms are associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK).

Mycoplasma bovoculi can cause conjunctivitis and has a potential role in IBK pathogenesis.

• Other Non-Mycoplasma agents can cause disease that resembles IBK but is clinically different.

• Genomics and molecular technology are advancing research in this area.

• Classification and determination of pathogenesis potential of these organisms may be better understood through metagenomics and whole genome sequencing.


Nutritional Effects On The Gut Microbiome & The Brain-Gut Axis: Unlocking The Therapeutic And Preventative Potential Of Nutrition For Gut Dysbiosis Associated Diseases, Sarah Freund, Karin Allenspatch, Jonathan P. Mochel 2021 Iowa State University

Nutritional Effects On The Gut Microbiome & The Brain-Gut Axis: Unlocking The Therapeutic And Preventative Potential Of Nutrition For Gut Dysbiosis Associated Diseases, Sarah Freund, Karin Allenspatch, Jonathan P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Diet plays a pivotal role in the overall health of an individual. Not only does it help carry out and regulate certain physiological functions, but it also can determine the composition of the gut microbiome. While the relative number of microorganisms that make up the gut microbiome vary between individuals and can be dependent on different environmental factors, there is evidence to suggest that composition of the microbiome can correlate with overall health or disease. When the GI microbiome is disturbed or suddenly changes it results in microbiome dysbiosis, a condition that correlates with the presence of certain diseases. Diseases ...


Component Causes Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis - The Role Of Moraxella Species In The Epidemiology Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, John Dustin Loy, Matthew Hille, Gabriele Maier, Michael L. Clawson 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Component Causes Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis - The Role Of Moraxella Species In The Epidemiology Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, John Dustin Loy, Matthew Hille, Gabriele Maier, Michael L. Clawson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Moraxella bovis can cause infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK).

The role of M bovoculi in IBK is not fully understood.

M bovis and M bovoculi appear to undergo genetic recombination with each other or other members of the Moraxellaceae.

Recombination complicates their classification and potential role(s) in IBK pathogenesis.

MALDI-TOF MS is used to identify M bovis, 2 major strains or genotypes of M bovoculi, M ovis, and other members of the Moraxellaceae.

Classification and determination of pathogenesis potential within Moraxella species may be better understood through whole genome sequencing.


Distribution Of Crispr Types In Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Campylobacter Jejuni Isolates, Mehmet Cemal Adiguzel, Debora Brito Goulart, Zuowei Wu, Jinji Pang, Seyda Cengiz, Qijing Zhang, Orhan Sahin 2021 Ataturk University

Distribution Of Crispr Types In Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Campylobacter Jejuni Isolates, Mehmet Cemal Adiguzel, Debora Brito Goulart, Zuowei Wu, Jinji Pang, Seyda Cengiz, Qijing Zhang, Orhan Sahin

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

To aid development of phage therapy against Campylobacter, we investigated the distribution of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems in fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Campylobacter jejuni. A total of 100 FQ-resistant C. jejuni strains from different sources were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing to determine resistance-conferring mutation in the gyrA gene and the presence of various CRISPR systems. All but one isolate harbored 1–5 point mutations in gyrA, and the most common mutation was the Thr86Ile change. Ninety-five isolates were positive with the CRISPR PCR, and spacer sequences were found in 86 of them. Among the ...


Pioneer Science And The Great Plagues: How Microbes, War, And Public Health Shaped Animal Health, Norman F. Cheville, Purdue University Press 2021 Iowa State University

Pioneer Science And The Great Plagues: How Microbes, War, And Public Health Shaped Animal Health, Norman F. Cheville, Purdue University Press

Purdue University Press Books

Pioneer Science and the Great Plagues covers the century when infectious plagues—anthrax, tuberculosis, tetanus, plague, smallpox, and polio—were conquered, and details the important role that veterinary scientists played. The narrative is driven by astonishing events that centered on animal disease: the influenza pandemic of 1872, discovery of the causes of anthrax and tuberculosis in the 1880s, conquest of Texas cattle fever and then yellow fever, German anthrax attacks on the United States during World War I, the tuberculin war of 1931, Japanese biological warfare in the 1940s, and today’s bioterror dangers.

Veterinary science in the rural Midwest ...


Collagen Has A Unique Sec24 Preference For Efficient Export From The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Chung-Ling Lu, Jacob Cain, Jon Brudvig, Steven Ortmeier, Simeon A. Boyadjiev, Jill M. Weimer, Jinoh Kim 2021 Iowa State University

Collagen Has A Unique Sec24 Preference For Efficient Export From The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Chung-Ling Lu, Jacob Cain, Jon Brudvig, Steven Ortmeier, Simeon A. Boyadjiev, Jill M. Weimer, Jinoh Kim

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Procollagen requires COPII coat proteins for export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). SEC24 is the major component of the COPII proteins that selects cargo during COPII vesicle assembly. There are four paralogs (A to D) of SEC24 in mammals, which are classified into two subgroups. Pathological mutations in SEC24D cause osteogenesis imperfecta with craniofacial dysplasia in humans and sec24d mutant fish also recapitulate this phenotypes. Consistent with the skeletal phenotypes, the secretion of collagen was severely defective in mutant fish, emphasizing the importance of SEC24D in collagen secretion. However, SEC24D patient derived fibroblasts show only a mild secretion phenotype, suggesting ...


Altered Corneal Innervation And Ocular Surface Homeostasis In Fhv-1-Exposed Cats: A Preliminary Study Suggesting Metaherpetic Disease, Lionel Sebbag, Sara M. Thomasy, Adriana Leland, Madison Mukai, Soohyun Kim, David J. Maggs 2021 Hebrew University of Jerusalem, University of California-Davis, and Iowa State University

Altered Corneal Innervation And Ocular Surface Homeostasis In Fhv-1-Exposed Cats: A Preliminary Study Suggesting Metaherpetic Disease, Lionel Sebbag, Sara M. Thomasy, Adriana Leland, Madison Mukai, Soohyun Kim, David J. Maggs

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Metaherpetic disease is recognized in humans affected by herpes simplex virus-1 but is not reported in cats affected by feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) despite the high prevalence of herpetic disease in this species and strong similarities in viral biology between alphaherpesviruses of humans and cats. This preliminary work evaluated cats naïve to FHV-1 (n = 9 cats, 18 eyes; control population) and cats naturally exposed to FHV-1 (n = 4 cats, 7 eyes), as confirmed by serologic testing and review of medical records. Antemortem assessment included clinical scoring, blink rate, corneal aesthesiometry, tear film breakup time (TFBUT), and Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) with ...


Impact Of The Histidine‐Containing Phosphocarrier Protein Hpr On Carbon Metabolism And Virulence In Staphylococcus Aureus, Linda Pätzold, Anne-Christine Brausch, Evelyn-Laura Bielefeld, Lisa Zimmer, Greg A. Somerville, Markus Bischoff, Rosmarie Gaupp 2021 Saarland University

Impact Of The Histidine‐Containing Phosphocarrier Protein Hpr On Carbon Metabolism And Virulence In Staphylococcus Aureus, Linda Pätzold, Anne-Christine Brausch, Evelyn-Laura Bielefeld, Lisa Zimmer, Greg A. Somerville, Markus Bischoff, Rosmarie Gaupp

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a common mechanism pathogenic bacteria use to link central metabolism with virulence factor synthesis. In gram‐positive bacteria, catabolite control protein A (CcpA) and the histidine‐containing phosphocarrier protein HPr (encoded by ptsH) are the predominant mediators of CCR. In addition to modulating CcpA activity, HPr is essential for glucose import via the phosphotransferase system. While the regulatory functions of CcpA in Staphylococcus aureus are largely known, little is known about the function of HPr in CCR and infectivity. To address this knowledge gap, ptsH mutants were created in S. aureus that either lack the ...


Of Pigs And Men: The Best-Laid Plans For Prevention And Control Of Swine Fevers, Jishu Shi, Lihua Wang, David Scott McVey 2021 Kansas State University

Of Pigs And Men: The Best-Laid Plans For Prevention And Control Of Swine Fevers, Jishu Shi, Lihua Wang, David Scott Mcvey

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

John Steinbeck drew the title of his novel “Of Mice and Men” from a line in a Robert Burns poem “To a mouse”: “The best-laid plans of mice and men/Go often awry.” Unlike John Steinbeck who used the title to mirror the characters who were struggling during the Great Depression to the mouse whose nest was accidentally destroyed by the poet (Burns 1785), we chose this line to emphasize that the best-laid plan can go wrong in infectious disease control and prevention. Here, we will discuss the contributing factors behind the global successes and failures in the prevention and ...


Special Issue: Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli, Rodney A. Moxley 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Special Issue: Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli, Rodney A. Moxley

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Globally, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of diarrheal disease, most notably hemorrhagic colitis, and post-diarrheal sequela, such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) [1]. Cattle are a major reservoir of STEC, with approx- imately half of the cases in humans attributable to foodborne exposure [2]. Prevention of human illness has mainly been through food safety measures [2]. Despite extensive research, no other generally accepted and effective preventive measures or therapies for STEC infections in human patients are available [3]. Many questions remain about STEC virulence factors, pathogenesis, detection, and other aspects that necessitate a continua- tion of basic ...


An Evaluation Of The Anti-Carcinogenic Response Of Major Isothiocyanates In Non-Metastatic And Metastatic Melanoma Cells, Melina Mitsiogianni, Sotiris Kyriakou, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Maria V. Deligiorgi, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidi 2021 Northumbria University

An Evaluation Of The Anti-Carcinogenic Response Of Major Isothiocyanates In Non-Metastatic And Metastatic Melanoma Cells, Melina Mitsiogianni, Sotiris Kyriakou, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Maria V. Deligiorgi, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidi

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Malignant melanoma is one of the most deadly types of solid cancers, a property mainly attributed to its highly aggressive metastatic form. On the other hand, different classes of isothiocy- anates, a class of phytochemicals, present in cruciferous vegetables have been characterized by considerable anti-cancer activity in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. In the current study, we investigated the anti-cancer response of five isothiocyanates in an in vitro model of melanoma consisting of non-metastatic (A375, B16F-10) and metastatic (VMM1, Hs294T) malignant melanoma as well as non-melanoma epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and non-tumorigenic melanocyte-neighboring keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Our aim ...


Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Prativa Majee, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak 2021 Indian Institute of Technology Indore

Inhibition Of Zika Virus Replication By G-Quadruplex-Binding Ligands, Prativa Majee, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Uma Shankar, Asit K. Pattnaik, Amit Kumar, Debasis Nayak

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus, emerged in the last decade causing serious diseases and affecting human health globally. Currently, no licensed vaccines or antivirals are available to combat ZIKV, although several vaccine candidates are in the pipeline. In recent years, the presence of non-canon- ical G-quadruplex (GQ) secondary structures in viral genomes has ignited significant attention as potential targets for anti- viral strategy. In this study, we identified several novel conserved potential GQ structures by analyzing published ZIKV genome sequences using an in-house algorithm. Bio- physical and biochemical analysis of the RNA sequences con- taining these potential GQ sequences ...


Female And Male-Controlled Livestock Holdings Impact Pastoralist Food Security And Women’S Dietary Diversity, Henriette Gitungwa, Christopher Gustafson, E.Y. Jimenez, E. Wesley F. Peterson, M. Mwanzalila, Asha Makweta, E. Komba, R.R. Kazwala, J.A.K. Mazet, Elizabeth VanWormer 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Female And Male-Controlled Livestock Holdings Impact Pastoralist Food Security And Women’S Dietary Diversity, Henriette Gitungwa, Christopher Gustafson, E.Y. Jimenez, E. Wesley F. Peterson, M. Mwanzalila, Asha Makweta, E. Komba, R.R. Kazwala, J.A.K. Mazet, Elizabeth Vanwormer

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: Food insecurity is a global problem that requires a One Health approach. As many households in low- and middle-income nations rely on crops and livestock that they produce to meet their household’s needs, food security and nutrition are closely linked to the health of animals and the environment. Resources controlled by women are more often allocated to uses that benefit the entire household, such as food, health, and educating children, than men’s resources. However, studies of gender control of resources among pastoralist societies are scant. We examined the effect of female and male control of livestock resources ...


Dirofilaria Immitis Prevalence In Canis Latrans In Kentucky, Melanie Ann Brandon 2021 Murray State University

Dirofilaria Immitis Prevalence In Canis Latrans In Kentucky, Melanie Ann Brandon

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

Dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm) was found in forty-two (42) of the two hundred seventy-five (275) Canis latrans (coyote) necropsied in the state of Kentucky from November 27, 2019 through March 3, 2021. Thirty-five (35) of the positive cases were from western Kentucky region with the other seven spread across the state. With this group of coyotes, one hundred fifty-eight (158) were male and the other one hundred six-teen (116) were female. The estimated age ranged from a pup to senior dogs. A little over forty percent of the dogs were obtained through coyote/predator tournaments; the remaining were acquired from ...


Correction: Moxley, R.A., Et Al. Intimate Attachment Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 To Urinary Bladder Epithelium In The Gnotobiotic Piglet Model. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 263, Rodney A. Moxley, Tom W. Bargar, Stephen D. Kachman, Diane R. Baker, David Francis 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Correction: Moxley, R.A., Et Al. Intimate Attachment Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 To Urinary Bladder Epithelium In The Gnotobiotic Piglet Model. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 263, Rodney A. Moxley, Tom W. Bargar, Stephen D. Kachman, Diane R. Baker, David Francis

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: On page 2, the sentence that reads, “Hence, EHEC is a rare but established cause of HUS in children and adults.” should read, “Hence, EHEC is a rare but established cause of UTI-associated HUS in children and adults.” On page 4, the sentence that reads, “As noted previously, 14 of 126 (13.3%) piglets orally inoculated with EHEC O157:H7 strains developed mild to moderate purulent cystitis within 8 d PI [25] (Table 1).” should read, “As noted previously, 14 of 105 (13.3%) piglets orally inoculated with ...


Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel 2020 Bowling Green State University

Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel

Honors Projects

Building on field research in Costa Rica and Belize, this honors project analyzes environmental and endangered animal protection policies, rights, and practices in Central America and the Caribbean, and assesses the impact of veterinary science and biological research and practice, particularly conservation biology, on animal welfare concerns. Informed by the recent surge in awareness regarding zoonoses and zoonotic disease transmission, prevention and control, resulting from the current global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, the project assesses the need for new and innovative types of collaboration, particularly involving conservation biologists, environmental scientists, public health experts, law and policy makers, and global trade and ...


Utility Of Point‐Of‐Care Lung Ultrasound For Monitoring Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema In Dogs, Shane D. Murphy, Jessica L. Ward, Austin K. Viall, Melissa A. Tropf, Rebecca A. Walton, Jennifer L. Fowler, Wendy A. Ware, Teresa C. DeFrancesco 2020 Iowa State University

Utility Of Point‐Of‐Care Lung Ultrasound For Monitoring Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema In Dogs, Shane D. Murphy, Jessica L. Ward, Austin K. Viall, Melissa A. Tropf, Rebecca A. Walton, Jennifer L. Fowler, Wendy A. Ware, Teresa C. Defrancesco

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Background Point‐of‐care lung ultrasound (LUS) is an effective tool to diagnose left‐sided congestive heart failure (L‐CHF) in dogs via detection of ultrasound artifacts (B‐lines) caused by increased lung water.

Hypothesis/Objectives To determine whether LUS can be used to monitor resolution of cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs, and to compare LUS to other indicators of L‐CHF control.

Animals Twenty‐five client‐owned dogs hospitalized for treatment of first‐onset L‐CHF.

Methods Protocolized LUS, thoracic radiographs (TXR), and plasma N‐terminal pro‐B‐type natriuretic peptide were performed at hospital admission, hospital discharge, and ...


Emerging Roles Of Urine-Derived Components For The Management Of Bladder Cancer: One Man’S Trash Is Another Man’S Treasure, Sarah Minkler, Fabrice Lucien, Michael J. Kimber, Agnes Bourgois-Mochel, Margaret Musser, Chad M. Johannes, Igor Frank, John Cheville, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel 2020 Iowa State University

Emerging Roles Of Urine-Derived Components For The Management Of Bladder Cancer: One Man’S Trash Is Another Man’S Treasure, Sarah Minkler, Fabrice Lucien, Michael J. Kimber, Agnes Bourgois-Mochel, Margaret Musser, Chad M. Johannes, Igor Frank, John Cheville, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract in humans, with an estimated global prevalence of 1.1 million cases over 5 years. Due to high rates of recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy, UBC is one of the most expensive cancers to treat, resulting in significant health care costs. There is, therefore, a critical need to develop innovative molecular and cellular tools to refine patient stratification and help predict response to treatment. Urine is an underused resource of biological components shed from bladder tumors, such as exfoliated cells and extracellular vesicles, that could serve as ...


A Homologous Bacterin Protects Sheep Against Abortion Induced By A Hypervirulent Campylobacter Jejuni Clone, Zuowei Wu, Michael J. Yaeger, Orhan Sahin, Changyun Xu, Ashenafi F. Beyi, Paul J. Plummer, Melda Meral Ocal, Qijing Zhang 2020 Iowa State University

A Homologous Bacterin Protects Sheep Against Abortion Induced By A Hypervirulent Campylobacter Jejuni Clone, Zuowei Wu, Michael J. Yaeger, Orhan Sahin, Changyun Xu, Ashenafi F. Beyi, Paul J. Plummer, Melda Meral Ocal, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter jejuni clone SA has emerged as the predominant cause of ovine abortion outbreaks in the United States (US). Despite the fact that commercial Campylobacter vaccines are available, their efficacy in protecting abortion induced by C. jejuni clone SA is uncertain, and a protective vaccine is needed to control the disease. In this study, an experimental homologous bacterin (made of a clone SA isolate) and two commercial Campylobacter vaccines were evaluated for their protection against C. jejuni clone SA-induced sheep abortion. All vaccines induced high levels of antibodies against C. jejuni clone SA in pregnant ewes, but only the experimental ...


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