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Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul 2017 The University of Edinburgh

Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Background

A unique clade of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), which causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry, has resulted in annual epidemics of conjunctivitis in North American house finches since the 1990s. Currently, few immunological tools have been validated for this songbird species. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during Mycoplasma infection. The overall goal of this study was to develop and validate a direct ELISA assay for house finch IL-1β (HfIL-1β) using a cross-reactive chicken antibody.

Methods

A direct ELISA approach was used to develop this system using two different coating ...


Senecavirus A: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis And Infection Dynamics, Lok Raj Joshi 2017 South Dakota State University

Senecavirus A: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis And Infection Dynamics, Lok Raj Joshi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Senecavirus A (SVA) is a positive sense single-stranded virus that belongs to the genus Senecavirus within the family Picornaviridae. Senecavirus has been present in US swine population since 1988. However, there have been only a few reports of SVA associated with disease in last two decades. In late 2014 early 2015, a sudden increase in the number of cases of Senecavirus A associated with vesicular disease was observed in Brazil, the US and China. Affected pigs presented vesicles on snout, coronary band, and dewclaw. Additionaly, increased neonatal mortality has been reported in the field. Many aspects of SVA epidemiology, infection ...


Intranasal Immunization Of Pigs With Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Like Particles Plus 2’, 3’ –Cgamp Vaccigrade™ Adjuvant Exacerbates Viremia After Virus Challenge, Alexandria Marie Van Noort 2017 South Dakota State University

Intranasal Immunization Of Pigs With Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Like Particles Plus 2’, 3’ –Cgamp Vaccigrade™ Adjuvant Exacerbates Viremia After Virus Challenge, Alexandria Marie Van Noort

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically devastating virus that causes a persistent infection and spreads quickly. The virus causes abortions in sows and respiratory diseases in young piglets. Current PRRSV vaccines appear to provide limited cross-protection. A virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccine is made up of key PRRSV structural proteins, which could be cross protective among the different strains. We tested PRRSV VLPs as a vaccine candidate with a 2’, 3’-cGAMP VacciGradeTM adjuvant against pigs infected with PRRSV after intranasal immunization to evaluate the immune response and protective efficacy by the VLPs and adjuvant. The VLPs ...


Surveillance Of Emerging Livestock Viruses, Faten A. Okda 2017 South Dakota State University

Surveillance Of Emerging Livestock Viruses, Faten A. Okda

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Accurate and rapid diagnostic tests are essential for the management and control of emerging infectious diseases. Therefore, the overall goals of studies presented in this dissertation were to provide improved diagnostic and surveillance capabilities for several emerging viral diseases impacting the livestock industry and to provide insight into appropriate control strategies. Recent, severe outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in Asia and North America highlighted the need for well-validated diagnostic tests for identification of PEDV infected animals and evaluation of their immune status. PEDV was first detected in the U.S. in May 2013 and another swine coronavirus, porcine ...


Understanding The Effect Of Bvdv On Innate Immune Response Of Neutrophils, Neelu Singh Thakur 2017 South Dakota State University

Understanding The Effect Of Bvdv On Innate Immune Response Of Neutrophils, Neelu Singh Thakur

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the highly prevalent and economically important diseases of cattle industry worldwide. The two major consequences of this disease are persistent infection and immunosuppression. Several studies have been done to determine the underline mechanisms of BVDV-induced immunosuppression targeting antigen presenting cells, adaptive immune system cells and cytokine gene expression. However, very little research has been done to determine the effect of BVDV on neutrophils. Neutrophils are one of the most abundant while blood cells (WBC) in the peripheral blood, which play a critical role in the innate as well as adaptive immune response ...


Methods And Processes Of Developing The Strengthening The Reporting Of Observational Studies In Epidemiology – Veterinary (Strobe-Vet) Statement, J. M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor, I. R. Dohoo, H. N. Erb, M. Cevallos, M. Egger, A. K. Ersboll, S. W. Martin, L. R. Nielsen, D. L. Pearl, D. U. Pfeiffer, J. Sanchez, M. E. Torrence, H. Vigre, C. Waldner, M. P. Ward 2016 Ontario Veterinary College

Methods And Processes Of Developing The Strengthening The Reporting Of Observational Studies In Epidemiology – Veterinary (Strobe-Vet) Statement, J. M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor, I. R. Dohoo, H. N. Erb, M. Cevallos, M. Egger, A. K. Ersboll, S. W. Martin, L. R. Nielsen, D. L. Pearl, D. U. Pfeiffer, J. Sanchez, M. E. Torrence, H. Vigre, C. Waldner, M. P. Ward

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents many challenges that often are not adequately addressed in published reporting guidelines. A consensus meeting of experts was organized to develop an extension of the STROBE statement to address observational studies in veterinary medicine with respect to animal health, animal production, animal welfare and food safety outcomes. The consensus meeting was held 11–13 May 2014 in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Seventeen experts from North America, Europe and Australia attended the meeting. The experts were epidemiologists and biostatisticians, many of whom hold or have held editorial positions with relevant journals. Prior to ...


Helicobacter Bilis Infection Alters Mucosal Bacteria And Modulates Colitis Development In Defined Microbiota Mice, Todd Atherly, Curtis Mosher, Chong Wang, Jesse M. Hostetter, Alexandra Proctor, Meghan W. Brand, Gregory J. Phillips, Michael Wannemeuhler, Albert E. Jergens 2016 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Helicobacter Bilis Infection Alters Mucosal Bacteria And Modulates Colitis Development In Defined Microbiota Mice, Todd Atherly, Curtis Mosher, Chong Wang, Jesse M. Hostetter, Alexandra Proctor, Meghan W. Brand, Gregory J. Phillips, Michael Wannemeuhler, Albert E. Jergens

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background: Helicobacter bilis infection of C3H/HeN mice harboring the altered Schaedler flora (ASF) triggers progressive immune responsiveness and the development of colitis. We sought to investigate temporal alterations in community structure of a defined (ASF-colonized) microbiota in normal and inflamed murine intestines and to correlate microbiota changes to histopathologic lesions.

Methods: The colonic mucosal microbiota of healthy mice and ASF mice colonized with H. bilis for 3, 6, or 12 weeks were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA genes of total bacteria, group-specific organisms, and individual ASF bacterial species. Microbial profiling of ASF and ...


Deciphering Digital Dermatitis, Paul J. Plummer, Jan K. Shearer 2016 Iowa State University

Deciphering Digital Dermatitis, Paul J. Plummer, Jan K. Shearer

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle throughout the world. Despite more than 40 years of research, the definitive etio- logic agent associated with the disease pro- cess is still unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that multiple bacterial species are associated with lesions, with spirochetes being the most reliably identified organism.

According to the most recent National Animal Health Monitoring System survey of U.S. dairy farms, lameness is the second most common health problem identified in dairy cattle. DD was found to be the primary cause of lameness within the study herds, account- ...


Experimental Infection Of Conventional Nursing Pigs And Their Dams With Porcine Deltacoronavirus, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce W. Brodersen, Clayton L. Kelling, Alan R. Doster, Christina L. Topliff, Eric A. Nelson, Jianfa Bai, Erin Schirtzinger, Elizabeth Poulsen, Barbara Meadors, Joseph Anderson, Benjamin Hause, Gary Anderson, Richard Hesse 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Experimental Infection Of Conventional Nursing Pigs And Their Dams With Porcine Deltacoronavirus, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce W. Brodersen, Clayton L. Kelling, Alan R. Doster, Christina L. Topliff, Eric A. Nelson, Jianfa Bai, Erin Schirtzinger, Elizabeth Poulsen, Barbara Meadors, Joseph Anderson, Benjamin Hause, Gary Anderson, Richard Hesse

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly identified virus that has been detected in swine herds of North America associated with enteric disease. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the pathogenicity, course of infection, virus kinetics, and aerosol transmission of PDCoV using 87 conventional piglets and their 9 dams, including aerosol and contact controls to emulate field conditions. Piglets 2–4 days of age and their dams were administered an oronasal PDCoV inoculum with a quantitative real-time reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR quantification cycle (Cq) value of 22 that was generated from a field sample having 100% nucleotide identity to ...


Whole Genomic Sequence Analysis Of Bacillus Infantis: Defining The Genetic Blueprint Of Strain Nrrl B-14911, An Emerging Cardiopathogenic Microbe, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Christy M. Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G. Barletta, Etsuko N. Moriyama, Timothy P.L. Smith, Jay Reddy 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Whole Genomic Sequence Analysis Of Bacillus Infantis: Defining The Genetic Blueprint Of Strain Nrrl B-14911, An Emerging Cardiopathogenic Microbe, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Christy M. Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G. Barletta, Etsuko N. Moriyama, Timothy P.L. Smith, Jay Reddy

Jay Reddy Publications

Background: We recently reported the identification of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 that induces heart autoimmunity by generating cardiac-reactive T cells through molecular mimicry. This marine bacterium was originally isolated from the Gulf of Mexico, but no associations with human diseases were reported. Therefore, to characterize its biological and medical significance, we sought to determine and analyze the complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911.

Results: Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacers, phenotypic microarray, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-offlight mass spectrometry, we propose that this ...


Absence Of Bactericidal Effect Of Focused Shock Waves On An In-Vitro Biofilm Model Of An Implant, Matthew S. Madron, Scott R. McClure, Ronald W. Griffith, Chong Wang 2016 Iowa State University

Absence Of Bactericidal Effect Of Focused Shock Waves On An In-Vitro Biofilm Model Of An Implant, Matthew S. Madron, Scott R. Mcclure, Ronald W. Griffith, Chong Wang

Chong Wang

The objective of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of shock waves (SWs) on gram-negative or gram-positive monocultured biofilms grown on an orthopedic implant in vitro. Cortical bone screws were individually cultured with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus epidermidis to produce a biofilm. In each run of 8 screws, 6 screws were treated with shock waves and then sonicated to disrupt the biofilm. One screw was sonicated only and one was not shock waved or sonicated before sampling for plate count dilutions. Post-treatment serial dilutions and plate counts were done on an aliquot from the vial containing each screw ...


Bacterial Isolates, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns, And Factors Associated With Infection And Outcome In Foals With Septic Arthritis: 83 Cases (1998–2013), Kate L. Hepworth-Warren, David M. Wong, Caroline V. Fulkerson, Chong Wang, Yaxuan Sun 2016 Iowa State University

Bacterial Isolates, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns, And Factors Associated With Infection And Outcome In Foals With Septic Arthritis: 83 Cases (1998–2013), Kate L. Hepworth-Warren, David M. Wong, Caroline V. Fulkerson, Chong Wang, Yaxuan Sun

Chong Wang

Objective—To determine clinical characteristics, clinicopathologic data, and bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results associated with septic arthritis in foals ≤ 180 days old. Design—Retrospective case series. Animals—83 foals with septic arthritis. Procedures—Medical records at 2 teaching hospitals between 1998 and 2013 were searched to identify those for foals ≤ 180 days old with confirmed infection of ≥ 1 synovial structure. Data extracted from the records included signalment, clinicopathologic information, bacteriologic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results, and outcome. Data were analyzed for all foals as a single population and for foals stratified into 3 age groups (≤ 7 days, 8 to ...


Effects Of Sample Handling Methods On Substance P Concentrations And Immunoreactivity In Bovine Blood Samples, Ruby A. Mosher, Johann F. Coetzee, Portia S. Allen, James A. Havel, Gary R. Griffith, Chong Wang 2016 Kansas State University

Effects Of Sample Handling Methods On Substance P Concentrations And Immunoreactivity In Bovine Blood Samples, Ruby A. Mosher, Johann F. Coetzee, Portia S. Allen, James A. Havel, Gary R. Griffith, Chong Wang

Chong Wang

Objective—To determine the effects of protease inhibitors and holding times and temperatures before processing on the stability of substance P in bovine blood samples. Samples—Blood samples obtained from a healthy 6-month-old calf. Procedures—Blood samples were dispensed into tubes containing exogenous substance P and 1 of 6 degradative enzyme inhibitor treatments: heparin, EDTA, EDTA with 1 of 2 concentrations of aprotinin, or EDTA with 1 of 2 concentrations of a commercially available protease inhibitor cocktail. Plasma was harvested immediately following collection or after 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 hours of holding at ambient (20.3° to 25 ...


Neuraminidase Inhibiting Antibody Responses In Pigs Differ Between Influenza A Virus N2 Lineages And By Vaccine Type, Matthew R. Sandbulte, Phillip C. Gauger, Pravina Kitikoon, Hongjun Chen, Daniel R. Perez, James A. Roth, Amy L. Vincent 2016 Iowa State University

Neuraminidase Inhibiting Antibody Responses In Pigs Differ Between Influenza A Virus N2 Lineages And By Vaccine Type, Matthew R. Sandbulte, Phillip C. Gauger, Pravina Kitikoon, Hongjun Chen, Daniel R. Perez, James A. Roth, Amy L. Vincent

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

The neuraminidase (NA) protein of influenza A viruses (IAV) has important functional roles in the viral replication cycle. Antibodies specific to NA can reduce viral replication and limit disease severity, but are not routinely measured. We analyzed NA inhibiting (NI) antibody titers in serum and respiratory specimens of pigs vaccinated with intramuscular whole-inactivated virus (WIV), intranasal live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV), and intranasal wild type (WT) IAV. NI titers were also analyzed in sera from an investigation of piglet vaccination in the presence of passive maternally-derived antibodies. Test antigens contained genetically divergent swine-lineage NA genes homologous or heterologous to the vaccines ...


Multiplex Method For Simultaneous Serological Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus And Porcine Circovirus Type 2, Xue Lin, Chong Wang, Michael P. Murtaugh, Sheela Ramamoorthy 2016 Iowa State University

Multiplex Method For Simultaneous Serological Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus And Porcine Circovirus Type 2, Xue Lin, Chong Wang, Michael P. Murtaugh, Sheela Ramamoorthy

Chong Wang

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Routine serological diagnosis and surveillance play an important role in the prevention of PRDC, as it is a leading cause of economic losses to the swine industry. We herein describe an advanced microsphere-based immunoassay that permits the simultaneous detection of antibodies to PCV2 and PRRSV, thereby reducing the time and effort involved in testing. Recombinant PRRSV nucleoprotein antigen and the PCV2 capsid antigen were coupled to fluorophore-dyed beads with distinct spectral addresses. Weekly serum samples from 72 ...


Evaluation And Use Of A Serological Assay For The Detection Of Antibodies To Lawsonia Intracellularis In Swine, Ronaldo L. Magtoto, Anuradha Vegi, Chong Wang, John K. Johnson, Sheela Ramamoorthy 2016 Iowa State University

Evaluation And Use Of A Serological Assay For The Detection Of Antibodies To Lawsonia Intracellularis In Swine, Ronaldo L. Magtoto, Anuradha Vegi, Chong Wang, John K. Johnson, Sheela Ramamoorthy

Chong Wang

Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) is a common and economically important gastro-intestinal disease of swine caused by the intracellular bacterium, Lawsonia intracellularis. Conventional tests to detect antibody responses to L. intracellularisinclude the immuno-peroxidase monolayer assay (IPMA), immuno-fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a lipopolysaccharide ELISA (LPS-ELISA). These tests are not commercially available. Therefore, objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of a commercial L. intracellularis blocking ELISA. Performance of the commercial ELISA was compared to the IPMA and LPS-ELISA using serum from experimentally infected animals (N = 40). The prevalence of L. intracellularis sero-positive animals was assessed by comparing suspect and ...


Effect Of Porcine Circovirus Type 2a Or 2b On Infection Kinetics And Pathogenicity Of Two Genetically Divergent Strains Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus In The Conventional Pig Model, Tanja Opriessnig, Phillip Charles Gauger, Kay S. Faaberg, Huigang Shen, Nathan M. Beach, Xiang-Jin Meng, Chong Wang, Patrick G. Halbur 2016 Iowa State University

Effect Of Porcine Circovirus Type 2a Or 2b On Infection Kinetics And Pathogenicity Of Two Genetically Divergent Strains Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus In The Conventional Pig Model, Tanja Opriessnig, Phillip Charles Gauger, Kay S. Faaberg, Huigang Shen, Nathan M. Beach, Xiang-Jin Meng, Chong Wang, Patrick G. Halbur

Chong Wang

To determine differences in infection kinetics of two temporally and genetically different type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates in vivo with and without concurrent porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2a or 2b infection, 62 pigs were randomly assigned to one of seven groups: negative controls (n = 8); pigs coinfected with a 1992 PRRSV strain (VR-2385) and PCV2a (CoI-92-2a; n = 9), pigs coinfected with VR-2385 and PCV2b (CoI-92-2b; n = 9), pigs coinfected with a 2006 PRRSV strain (NC16845b) and PCV2a (CoI-06-2a; n = 9), pigs coinfected with NC16845b and PCV2b (CoI-06-2b; n = 9), pigs infected with VR-2385 (n = 9 ...


Clinical And Immunomodulating Effects Of Ketamine In Horses With Experimental Endotoxemia, Cody J. Alcott, Brett A. Sponseller, David M. Wong, J. L. Davis, A. M. Soliman, Chong Wang, Walter H. Hsu 2016 Iowa State University

Clinical And Immunomodulating Effects Of Ketamine In Horses With Experimental Endotoxemia, Cody J. Alcott, Brett A. Sponseller, David M. Wong, J. L. Davis, A. M. Soliman, Chong Wang, Walter H. Hsu

Chong Wang

Background:  Ketamine has immunomodulating effects both in vitro and in vivo during experimental endotoxemia in humans, rodents, and dogs. Hypothesis:  Subanesthetic doses of ketamine will attenuate the clinical and immunologic responses to experimental endotoxemia in horses. Animals:  Nineteen healthy mares of various breeds. Methods:  Experimental study. Horses were randomized into 2 groups: ketamine-treated horses (KET; n = 9) and saline-treated horses (SAL; n = 10). Both groups received 30 ng/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, Escherichia coli, O55:B5) 1 hour after the start of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of racemic ketamine (KET) or physiologic saline (SAL). Clinical and hematological responses were ...


Comparison Of Commercial Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Pcr Assays For Reliable, Early, And Rapid Detection Of Heterologous Strains Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus In Experimentally Infected Or Noninfected Boars By Use Of Different Sample Types, Priscilla F. Gerber, Kevin O'Neill, Olajide Owolodun, Chong Wang, Karen M. Harmon, Jianqiang Zhang, Patrick G. Halbur, Lei Zhou, Xiang-Jin Meng, Tanja Opriessnig 2016 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Commercial Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Pcr Assays For Reliable, Early, And Rapid Detection Of Heterologous Strains Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus In Experimentally Infected Or Noninfected Boars By Use Of Different Sample Types, Priscilla F. Gerber, Kevin O'Neill, Olajide Owolodun, Chong Wang, Karen M. Harmon, Jianqiang Zhang, Patrick G. Halbur, Lei Zhou, Xiang-Jin Meng, Tanja Opriessnig

Chong Wang

The aims of this study were to compare three commercial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays for detection of genetically diverse PRRSV isolates in serum, semen, blood swabs, and oral fluids collected from experimentally infected boars and to evaluate the effects of sample pooling. Six groups of three boars negative for PRRSV were each inoculated with one of six PRRSV isolates (sharing 55 to 99% nucleotide sequence identity in ORF5). Samples were collected on days −2, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 postinoculation (p.i.) and tested by one of three commercially available ...


Bacterial Community Profiling Of Milk Samples As A Means To Understand Culture-Negative Bovine Clinical Mastitis, Joanna S. Kuehn, Patrick J. Gorden, Daniel Munro, Ruichen Rong, Qunfeng Dong, Paul Joseph Plummer, Chong Wang, Gregory J. Phillips 2016 Iowa State University

Bacterial Community Profiling Of Milk Samples As A Means To Understand Culture-Negative Bovine Clinical Mastitis, Joanna S. Kuehn, Patrick J. Gorden, Daniel Munro, Ruichen Rong, Qunfeng Dong, Paul Joseph Plummer, Chong Wang, Gregory J. Phillips

Chong Wang

Inflammation and infection of bovine mammary glands, commonly known as mastitis, imposes significant losses each year in the dairy industry worldwide. While several different bacterial species have been identified as causative agents of mastitis, many clinical mastitis cases remain culture negative, even after enrichment for bacterial growth. To understand the basis for this increasingly common phenomenon, the composition of bacterial communities from milk samples was analyzed using culture independent pyrosequencing of amplicons of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA). Comparisons were made of the microbial community composition of culture negative milk samples from mastitic quarters with that of non-mastitic quarters ...


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