Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Veterinary Microbiology and Immunobiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2,097 Full-Text Articles 5,766 Authors 145,476 Downloads 22 Institutions

All Articles in Veterinary Microbiology and Immunobiology

Faceted Search

2,097 full-text articles. Page 4 of 49.

Testing A Key Assumption Of Using Drones As Frightening Devices: Do Birds Perceive Drones As Risky?, Conor C. Egan, Bradley Blackwell, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Page E. Klug 2020 North Dakota State University--Fargo

Testing A Key Assumption Of Using Drones As Frightening Devices: Do Birds Perceive Drones As Risky?, Conor C. Egan, Bradley Blackwell, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Page E. Klug

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wildlife managers have recently suggested the use of unmanned aircraft systems or drones as nonlethal hazing tools to deter birds from areas of human-wildlife conflict. However, it remains unclear if birds perceive common drone platforms as threatening. Based on field studies assessing behavioral and physiological responses, it is generally assumed that birds perceive less risk from drones than from predators. However, studies controlling for multiple confounding effects have not been conducted. Our goal was to establish the degree to which the perception of risk by birds would vary between common drone platforms relative to a predator model when flown at ...


The Parasite Giardia, Ashley Anderson 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Parasite Giardia, Ashley Anderson

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The focus of this research is to better understand how this parasite works. The protozoan Giardia spp is found all over the world and in many species such as dogs, cats, and humans. From its two different forms to the microscopic size of both forms to its ability to destroy intestinal villi and cause symptoms like other parasitic infections, Giardia spp is continuously misdiagnosed. Upon further observation at veterinary clinics and researching science articles, Giardia spp is most commonly found in pets but has the potential to spread to humans via contaminated water. The most commonly infected humans are hikers ...


Factors Affecting Bait Site Visitation: Area Of Influence Of Baits, Jacquelyn E. McRae, Peter E. Schlichting, Nathan P. Snow, Amy J. Davis, Kurt C. VerCautern, John C. Kilgo, David A. Keiter, James C. Beasley, Kim M. Pepin 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Factors Affecting Bait Site Visitation: Area Of Influence Of Baits, Jacquelyn E. Mcrae, Peter E. Schlichting, Nathan P. Snow, Amy J. Davis, Kurt C. Vercautern, John C. Kilgo, David A. Keiter, James C. Beasley, Kim M. Pepin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

ABSTRACT Baiting is a fundamental strategy for the global management of wild pigs (Sus scrofa); however, little information exists on how anthropogenic bait affects wild pig movements on a landscape. We investigated factors that are important in determining the spatial area of attraction for wild pigs to bait (‘area of influence’ of a bait site) using data from Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and locations of bait sites. We monitored movements of wild pigs in 2 distinct study areas in the United States from February to September 2016 and used locational data using GPS collars to analyze the influence of ...


A Rapid Population Assessment Method For Wild Pigs Using Baited Cameras At 3 Study Site, Peter E. Schlichting, James C. Beasley, Raoul K. Boughton, Amy J. Davis, Kim M. Pepin, Michael P. Glow, Ryan S. Miller, Kurt C. VerCautern, Jesse S. Lewis 2020 Arizona State University

A Rapid Population Assessment Method For Wild Pigs Using Baited Cameras At 3 Study Site, Peter E. Schlichting, James C. Beasley, Raoul K. Boughton, Amy J. Davis, Kim M. Pepin, Michael P. Glow, Ryan S. Miller, Kurt C. Vercautern, Jesse S. Lewis

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reliable and efficient population estimates are a critical need for effective management of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa). We evaluated the use of 10‐day camera grids for rapid population assessment (RPA) of wild pigs at 3 study sites that varied in vegetation communities and wild pig densities. Study areas included Buck Island Ranch, Florida; Tejon Ranch, California; and the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA, during 2016–2018. Rapid population assessments grids were composed of baited camera traps spaced approximately 500 or 750 m apart. Two RPA grids were deployed per study site and each grid was deployed twice ...


Relationships Between Survival And Habitat Suitability Of Semi- Aquatic Mammals, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Jimmy Taylor, Kristine O. Evans, Ryo Ogawa, Lance McClintic, Guiming Wang 2020 Mississippi State University, Mississippi State & Siskiyou County Department of Agriculture

Relationships Between Survival And Habitat Suitability Of Semi- Aquatic Mammals, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Jimmy Taylor, Kristine O. Evans, Ryo Ogawa, Lance Mcclintic, Guiming Wang

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Spatial distribution and habitat selection are integral to the study of animal ecology. Habitat selection may optimize the fitness of individuals. Hutchinsonian niche theory posits the fundamental niche of species would support the persistence or growth of populations. Although niche-based species distribution models (SDMs) and habitat suitability models (HSMs) such as maximum entropy (Maxent) have demonstrated fair to excellent predictive power, few studies have linked the prediction of HSMs to demographic rates. We aimed to test the prediction of Hutchinsonian niche theory that habitat suitability (i.e., likelihood of occurrence) would be positively related to survival of American beaver (Castor ...


Measuring Cmi Responses Using The Primeflow Rna Assay: A New Method Of Evaluating Bvdv Vaccination Response In Cattle, Shollie M. Falkenberg, Rohana P. Dassanayake, John D. Neill, Paul H. Walz, Eduardo Casas, Julia F. Ridpath, James A. Roth 2020 United States Department of Agriculture

Measuring Cmi Responses Using The Primeflow Rna Assay: A New Method Of Evaluating Bvdv Vaccination Response In Cattle, Shollie M. Falkenberg, Rohana P. Dassanayake, John D. Neill, Paul H. Walz, Eduardo Casas, Julia F. Ridpath, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Current methods for evaluating bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccination response typically rely on measurement of humoral responses as determined by virus neutralizing antibody titers (VNT) against BVDV. While VNT are correlated with increased protection, research has also shown that cell mediated immunity (CMI) is an important component of a protective response against BVDV. For example, improved protection against BVDV by modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines as compared to killed vaccines is thought to be due to better CMI induced by the MLV. The goal of this work was to evaluate the cell mediated response in vaccinated calves using a novel ...


Effects Of Inactivated Mycobacterium Bovis Vaccination On Molokai-Origin Wild Pigs Experimentally Infected With Virulent M. Bovis, Pauline Nol, Morgan Wehte, Richard A. Bowen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tyler Thacker, Kristina Lantz, Jack Rhyan, Laurie A. Baeten, Ramón A. Juste, Iker A. Sevilla, Christian Gortazar, Joaquín Vicente 2020 US Department of Agriculture , Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Wildlife Research Center

Effects Of Inactivated Mycobacterium Bovis Vaccination On Molokai-Origin Wild Pigs Experimentally Infected With Virulent M. Bovis, Pauline Nol, Morgan Wehte, Richard A. Bowen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tyler Thacker, Kristina Lantz, Jack Rhyan, Laurie A. Baeten, Ramón A. Juste, Iker A. Sevilla, Christian Gortazar, Joaquín Vicente

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The wild pig population on Molokai, Hawaii, USA is a possible reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and has been implicated in decades past as the source of disease for the island’s domestic cattle. Heat-inactivated vaccines have been effective for reducing disease prevalence in wild boar in Spain and could prove useful for managing M. bovis in Molokai wild pigs. We designed an experiment to test this vaccine in wild pigs of Molokai genetics. Fifteen 3–4-month-old pigs were orally administered 106–107 colony forming units (cfu) of heat-inactivated M. bovis (Vaccinates; n = 8; 0 ...


Vaginal Microbiota Diverges In Sows With Low And High Reproductive Performance After Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Vaccination, L. P. Sanglard, S. Schmitz-Esser, K. A. Gray, D. C. L. Linhares, C. J. Yeoman, J. C. M. Dekkers, M. C. Niederwerder, N. V. L. Serão 2020 Iowa State University

Vaginal Microbiota Diverges In Sows With Low And High Reproductive Performance After Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Vaccination, L. P. Sanglard, S. Schmitz-Esser, K. A. Gray, D. C. L. Linhares, C. J. Yeoman, J. C. M. Dekkers, M. C. Niederwerder, N. V. L. Serão

Animal Science Publications

Previous studies have demonstrated evidence for a relationship between the vaginal microbiome and reproductive performance, suggesting the vaginal microbiota may serve as a tool to predict farrowing outcomes in commercial pigs. In this study, we compared the vaginal microbiome in sows with low and high farrowing performance and used it to classify animals with contrasting reproductive outcomes in commercial sows following immune challenge with porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS) vaccination. Eighteen microbes were differentially abundant (q-value < 0.05) between the Low and High farrowing performance groups. Among them, Campylobacter, Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Lachnospiraceae unclassified, Prevotella, and Phascolarctobacterium were also selected in the discriminant and linear regression analyses, and could be used ...


Economic Estimates Of Invasive Wild Pig Damage To Crops In 12 Us States, Sophie McKee, Aaron Anderson, Keith Carlisle, Stephanie A. Shwiff 2020 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center & Colorado State University

Economic Estimates Of Invasive Wild Pig Damage To Crops In 12 Us States, Sophie Mckee, Aaron Anderson, Keith Carlisle, Stephanie A. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We report the results of a survey on invasive wild pig (Sus scrofa L.) damage and control in 12 US states (Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Texas). The crops chosen for this study represent the “second-tier” in terms of economic importance after the six crops that were the subject of Anderson et al. (2016). The survey was distributed by the USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) in the summer of 2019 to a sample of producers in each of the states (except California) of the following six crops: hay, pecans (Carya ...


Rabies Management Implications Based On Raccoon Population Density Indexes, Dennis Slate, Brandi D. Saidy, Ashlee Simmons, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy Davis, Timothy P. Algeo, Stacey A. Elmore, Richard B. Chipman 2020 USDA, APHIS & Chippewa Bay Wildlife Art and Science LLC

Rabies Management Implications Based On Raccoon Population Density Indexes, Dennis Slate, Brandi D. Saidy, Ashlee Simmons, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy Davis, Timothy P. Algeo, Stacey A. Elmore, Richard B. Chipman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

An estimate or index of target species density is important in determining oral rabies vaccination (ORV) bait densities to control and eliminate specific rabies variants. From 1997–2011, we indexed raccoon (Procyon lotor) densities 253 times based on cumulative captures on 163 sites from Maine to Alabama, USA, near ORV zones created to prevent raccoon rabies from spreading to new areas. We conducted indexing under a common cage trapping protocol near the time of annual ORV to aid in bait density decisions. Unique raccoons (n = 8,415) accounted for 68.0% of captures (n = 12,367). We recaptured raccoons 2 ...


A Single Dose Polyanhydride-Based Nanovaccine Against Paratuberculosis Infection, Akanksha Thukral, Kathleen Ross, Chungyi Hansen, Yashdeep Phanse, Balaji Narasimhan, Howard Steinberg, Adel M. Talaat 2020 University of Wisconsin, Madison

A Single Dose Polyanhydride-Based Nanovaccine Against Paratuberculosis Infection, Akanksha Thukral, Kathleen Ross, Chungyi Hansen, Yashdeep Phanse, Balaji Narasimhan, Howard Steinberg, Adel M. Talaat

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne’s disease in ruminants and is characterized by chronic gastroenteritis leading to heavy economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. The currently available vaccine (inactivated bacterin in oil base) is not effective in preventing pathogen shedding and is rarely used to control Johne’s disease in dairy herds. To develop a better vaccine that can prevent the spread of Johne’s disease, we utilized polyanhydride nanoparticles (PAN) to encapsulate mycobacterial antigens composed of whole cell lysate (PAN-Lysate) and culture filtrate (PAN-Cf) of M. paratuberculosis. These nanoparticle-based vaccines (i.e., nanovaccines) were well ...


Individual And Population Fitness Consequences Associated With Large Carnivore Use Of Residential Development, Heather Johnson, David L. Lewis, Stewart W. Breck 2020 Alaska Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, Alaska 99508 USA Colorado Parks and Wildlife

Individual And Population Fitness Consequences Associated With Large Carnivore Use Of Residential Development, Heather Johnson, David L. Lewis, Stewart W. Breck

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Large carnivores are negotiating increasingly developed landscapes, but little is known about how such behavioral plasticity influences their demographic rates and population trends. Some investigators have suggested that the ability of carnivores to behaviorally adapt to human development will enable their persistence, and yet, others have suggested that such landscapes are likely to serve as population sinks or ecological traps. To understand how plasticity in black bear (Ursus americanus) use of residential development influences their population dynamics, we conducted a 6-yr study near Durango, Colorado, USA. Using space-use data on individual bears, we examined the influence of use of residential ...


Differentiation Of Mannheimia Haemolytica Genotype 1 And 2 Strains By Visible Phenotypic Characteristics On Solid Media, Emily L. Wynn, Gennie Schuller, John D. Loy, Aspen M. Workman, T. G. McDaneld, Michael L. Clawson 2020 USDA ARS. MARC

Differentiation Of Mannheimia Haemolytica Genotype 1 And 2 Strains By Visible Phenotypic Characteristics On Solid Media, Emily L. Wynn, Gennie Schuller, John D. Loy, Aspen M. Workman, T. G. Mcdaneld, Michael L. Clawson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Genotype 2 Mannheimia haemolytica associate with the lungs of cattle with bovine respiratory disease more frequently than genotype 1 strains. Different colony colors and morphologies were identified between genotype 1 and 2 solid media cultures. Genotype of strains, and frequency differences between them in mixed cultures are discernable by visual inspection.

Supplements attached


Effects Of Deepwater Horizon Oil On Feather Structure And Thermoregulation In Gulls: Does Rehabilitation Work?, Katherine Horak, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Emma M. Campbell, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Susan A. Shriner 2020 USDA APHIS National Wildlife Research Center

Effects Of Deepwater Horizon Oil On Feather Structure And Thermoregulation In Gulls: Does Rehabilitation Work?, Katherine Horak, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Emma M. Campbell, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Impacts of large-scale oil spills on avian species are far-reaching.While media attention often focuses on lethal impacts, sub-lethal effects and the impacts of rehabilitation receive less attention. The objective of our study was to characterize effects of moderate external oiling and subsequent rehabilitation on feather structure and thermoregulation in gulls. We captured 30 wild ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) and randomly assigned each individual to an experimental group: 1) controls, 2) rehabilitated birds (externally oiled, rehabilitated by washing), or 3) oiled birds (externally oiled, not rehabilitated). We externally oiled birds with weathered MC252 Deepwater Horizon oil (water for controls) and ...


Migratory Flyways May Affect Population Structure In Double‐Crested Cormorants, Steven J.A. Kimble, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Travis L. Devault 2020 Towson University

Migratory Flyways May Affect Population Structure In Double‐Crested Cormorants, Steven J.A. Kimble, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Double‐crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) recovered from a demographic bottleneck so well that they are now considered a nuisance species at breeding and wintering grounds across the United States and Canada. Management of this species could be improved by refining genetic population boundaries and assigning individuals to their natal population. Further, recent radio‐telemetry data suggest the existence of Interior and Atlantic migratory flyways, which could reduce gene flow and result in substantial genetic isolation. In this study, we used 1,784 individuals collected across the eastern United States, a large panel of microsatellite markers developed for this species, and ...


Optimal Bait Density For Delivery Of Acute Toxicants To Vertebrate Pests, Kim M. Pepin, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. VerCauteren 2020 USA National Wildlife Research Center, USDA-APHIS

Optimal Bait Density For Delivery Of Acute Toxicants To Vertebrate Pests, Kim M. Pepin, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Oral baiting is a fundamental method for delivering toxicants to pest species. Planning baiting strategies is challenging because bait-consumption rates depend on dynamic processes including space use and demographics of the target species. To determine cost-effective strategies for optimizing baiting, we developed a spatially explicit model of population dynamics using field-based measures of wild-pig (Sus scrofa) space use, bait consumption, and mortality probabilities. The most cost-effective baiting strategy depended strongly on the population reduction objective and initial density. A wide range of baiting strategies were cost-effective when the objective was 80% population reduction. In contrast, only a narrow range of ...


Brodifacoum Residues In Fish Three Years After An Island-Wide Rat Eradication Attempt In The Tropical Pacific, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Steven F. Volker, Kristen Rex, William C. Pitt 2020 USDA, APHIS, WS, National Wildlife Research Center

Brodifacoum Residues In Fish Three Years After An Island-Wide Rat Eradication Attempt In The Tropical Pacific, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Steven F. Volker, Kristen Rex, William C. Pitt

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive rats are known to threaten natural resources and human health and safety. Island-wide rat eradication attempts have been increasing in number and scale during the past several decades, as has the frequency of eradication success. The most common method to remove all rats from an island is to broadcast anticoagulant rodenticide bait into every rat’s home range on the island. Broadcast of toxicants can put humans and other nontarget species in marine and terrestrial environments at risk of exposure. The persistence of anticoagulant residues is somewhat unknown, particularly in marine environments. Three years after ~ 18,000 kg of ...


Local Adaptation Constrains Drought Tolerance In A Tropical Foundation Tree, Kasey E. Barton, Casey Jones, Kyle F. Edwards, Aaron B. Shiels, Tiffany Knight 2020 University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu

Local Adaptation Constrains Drought Tolerance In A Tropical Foundation Tree, Kasey E. Barton, Casey Jones, Kyle F. Edwards, Aaron B. Shiels, Tiffany Knight

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

  1. Plant species with broad climatic ranges might be more vulnerable to climate change than previously appreciated due to intraspecific variation in climatic stress tolerance. In tropical forests, drought is increasingly frequent and severe, causing widespread declines and altering community dynamics. Yet, little is known about whether foundation tropical trees vary in drought tolerance throughout their distributions, and how intraspecific variation in drought tolerance might contribute to their vulnerability to climate changE.
  2. We tested for local adaptation in seedling emergence and establishment with a full-factorial reciprocal transplant experiment including 27 populations and 109,350 seeds along a 3,500 mm precipitation ...


Evaluation Of Rhodococcus Equi Susceptibility To Silver Nanoparticle Antimicrobials, Elizabeth Boudaher 2020 University of Kentucky

Evaluation Of Rhodococcus Equi Susceptibility To Silver Nanoparticle Antimicrobials, Elizabeth Boudaher

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Rhodococcus equi is a significant cause of pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised humans. Antimicrobial resistance among R. equi isolates has developed as a consequence of inappropriate stewardship and bacterial evolution, leading to an increased rate of treatment failures that typically result in foal fatality. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of antimicrobial silver nanoparticle (AgNP) complexes in controlling R. equi growth. Previous studies characterizing AgNP-induced antibacterial effects in other Gram-positive pathogens led us to hypothesize that silver nanoparticle antimicrobials impact R. equi viability and intracellular replication. We therefore investigated the effect of silver nanoparticle complexes on R. equi ...


Rapid Differentiation Of Moraxella Bovoculi Genotypes 1 And 2 Using Maldi-Tof Mass Spectrometry Profiles, Matthew M. Hille, Aaron M. Dickey, Kara Robbins, Michael L. Clawson, John Dustin Loy 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Rapid Differentiation Of Moraxella Bovoculi Genotypes 1 And 2 Using Maldi-Tof Mass Spectrometry Profiles, Matthew M. Hille, Aaron M. Dickey, Kara Robbins, Michael L. Clawson, John Dustin Loy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Moraxella bovoculi is the most frequently isolated bacteria from the eyes of cattle with Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), also known as bovine pinkeye. Two distinct genotypes of M. bovoculi, genotype 1 and genotype 2, were characterized after whole genome sequencing showed a large degree of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity within the species. To date, both genotypes have been isolated from the eyes of cattle without clinical signs of IBK while only genotype 1 strains have been isolated from the eyes of cattle with clinical signs of IBK. We used 38 known genotype 1 strains and 26 known genotype 2 ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress