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Variation In Angiostrongylus Cantonensis Infection In Definitive And Intermediate Hosts In Hawaii, A Global Hotspot Of Rat Lungworm Disease, Chris Niebuhr, Shane R. Siers, Israel Leinbach, Lisa M. Kaluna, Susan I. Jarvi 2021 USDA, APHIS, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center

Variation In Angiostrongylus Cantonensis Infection In Definitive And Intermediate Hosts In Hawaii, A Global Hotspot Of Rat Lungworm Disease, Chris Niebuhr, Shane R. Siers, Israel Leinbach, Lisa M. Kaluna, Susan I. Jarvi

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) is a tropical and subtropical parasitic nematode, with infections in humans causing angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease), characterized by eosinophilic meningitis. Hawaii has been identified as a global hotspot of infection, with recent reports of high infection rates in humans, as well as rat definitive and snail intermediate hosts. This study investigated variation in A. cantonensis infection, both prevalence and intensity, in wild populations of two species of rats (Rattus exulans and R. rattus) and one species of snail (Parmarion martensi). An overall infection prevalence of 86.2% was observed in P. martensi and 63.8% in ...


Evidence For Continental-Scale Dispersal Of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria By Landfill-Foraging Gulls, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Mariëlle L. van Toor, Hanna Woksepp, Jeffrey C. Chandler, John A. Reed, Andrew B. Reeves, Jonas Waldenström, Alan B. Franklin, David C. Douglas, Jonas Bonnedahl, Andrew M. Ramey 2021 USGS Alaska Science Center, Anchorage

Evidence For Continental-Scale Dispersal Of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria By Landfill-Foraging Gulls, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Mariëlle L. Van Toor, Hanna Woksepp, Jeffrey C. Chandler, John A. Reed, Andrew B. Reeves, Jonas Waldenström, Alan B. Franklin, David C. Douglas, Jonas Bonnedahl, Andrew M. Ramey

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Anthropogenic inputs into the environment may serve as sources of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and alter the ecology and population dynamics of synanthropic wild animals by providing supplemental forage. In this study, we used a combination of phenotypic and genomic approaches to characterize antimicrobial resistant indicator bacteria, animal telemetry to describe host movement patterns, and a novel modeling approach to combine information fromthese diverse data streams to investigate the acquisition and long-distance dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria by landfill-foraging gulls. Our results provide evidence that gulls acquire antimicrobial resistant bacteria from anthropogenic sources, which they may subsequently disperse across and between ...


Environmental Correlates Of Genetic Variation In The Invasive European Starling In North America, Natalie R. Hofmeister, Scott J. Werner, Irby J. Lovette 2021 Cornell University

Environmental Correlates Of Genetic Variation In The Invasive European Starling In North America, Natalie R. Hofmeister, Scott J. Werner, Irby J. Lovette

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Populations of invasive species that colonize and spread in novel environments may differentiate both through demographic processes and local selection. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were introduced to New York in 1890 and subsequently spread throughout North America, becoming one of the most widespread and numerous bird species on the continent. Genome-wide comparisons across starling individuals and populations can identify demographic and/or selective factors that facilitated this rapid and successful expansion. We investigated patterns of genomic diversity and differentiation using reduced-representation genome sequencing of 17 winter-season sampling sites. Consistent with this species' high dispersal rate and rapid expansion history, we ...


Continental-Scale Dynamics Of Avian Influenza In U.S. Waterfowl Are Driven By Demography, Migration, And Temperature, Erin E. Gorsich, Colleen T. Webb, Andrew A. Merton, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew Farnsworth, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Kerri Pedersen, Alan B. Franklin, Robert G. McLean, Kenneth R. Wilson, Paul Doherty 2021 Colorado State University & University of Warwick

Continental-Scale Dynamics Of Avian Influenza In U.S. Waterfowl Are Driven By Demography, Migration, And Temperature, Erin E. Gorsich, Colleen T. Webb, Andrew A. Merton, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew Farnsworth, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. Deliberto, Kerri Pedersen, Alan B. Franklin, Robert G. Mclean, Kenneth R. Wilson, Paul Doherty

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Emerging diseases of wildlife origin are increasingly spilling over into humans and domestic animals. Surveillance and risk assessments for transmission between these populations are informed by a mechanistic understanding of the pathogens in wildlife reservoirs. For avian influenza viruses (AIV), much observational and experimental work in wildlife has been conducted at local scales, yet fully understanding their spread and distribution requires assessing the mechanisms acting at both local, (e.g., intrinsic epidemic dynamics), and continental scales, (e.g., long-distance migration). Here, we combined a large, continental-scale data set on low pathogenic, Type A AIV in the United States with a ...


Anthraquinone Repellent Seed Treatment On Corn Reduces Feeding By Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Scott J. Werner, Kurt C. Vercauteren 2021 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services NWRC

Anthraquinone Repellent Seed Treatment On Corn Reduces Feeding By Wild Pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Scott J. Werner, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a destructive invasive species that cause extensive damage to agriculture throughout many regions of the world. In particular wild pigs damage corn more than any other crop, and most of that damage occurs immediately after planting when wild pigs excavate and consume planted seeds. We evaluated whether anthraquinone (AQ), a repellent, could be useful for protecting seed corn from consumption by wild pigs. Specifically, we conducted cafeteria-style tests at 16 bait sites for 6 nights using concentrations of: untreated, 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0% AQ by weight sprayed on whole-kernel corn in AL ...


The Evolutionary Consequences Of Human–Wildlife Conflict In Cities, Christopher J. Schell, Lauren Stanton, Julie K. Young, Lisa Angeloni, Joanna E. Lambert, Stewart W. Breck, Maureen H. Murray 2021 University of Washington Tacoma,

The Evolutionary Consequences Of Human–Wildlife Conflict In Cities, Christopher J. Schell, Lauren Stanton, Julie K. Young, Lisa Angeloni, Joanna E. Lambert, Stewart W. Breck, Maureen H. Murray

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Human–wildlife interactions, including human–wildlife conflict, are increasingly common as expanding urbanization worldwide creates more opportunities for people to encounter wildlife. Wildlife–vehicle collisions, zoonotic disease transmission, property damage, and physical attacks to people or their pets have negative consequences for both people and wildlife, underscoring the need for comprehensive strategies that mitigate and prevent conflict altogether. Management techniques often aim to deter, relocate, or remove individual organisms, all of which may present a significant selective force in both urban and nonurban systems. Managementinduced selection may significantly affect the adaptive or nonadaptive evolutionary processes of urban populations, yet few ...


Factors Influencing Survival Rates Of Pronghorn Fawns In Idaho, Brett R. Panting, Eric M. Gese, Mary M. Conner, Scott Bergen 2021 Utah State University

Factors Influencing Survival Rates Of Pronghorn Fawns In Idaho, Brett R. Panting, Eric M. Gese, Mary M. Conner, Scott Bergen

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) occur throughout western North America. In Idaho, USA, following intensive hunting to reduce crop depredations in the late 1980s, pronghorn populations have not rebounded to desired levels. Because neonatal survival in ungulates is one factor limiting population growth, we evaluated cause‐specific mortality and the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on survival rates of 217 radio‐collared pronghorn fawns across 3 study areas in Idaho during 2015–2016. For intrinsic variables, we determined the sex and body mass index (BMI) for each fawn. For extrinsic variables, we determined the abundance of predators and alternate prey, estimated ...


Understanding Tolerance For An Invasive Species: An Investigation Of Hunter Acceptance Capacity For Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In Texas, Hailey E. McLean, Tara L. Teel, Alan Bright, Lauren M. Jaebker, John M. Tomecek, Maureen G. Frank, Rachael L. Connally, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Keith M. Carlisle 2021 U.S.Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center

Understanding Tolerance For An Invasive Species: An Investigation Of Hunter Acceptance Capacity For Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In Texas, Hailey E. Mclean, Tara L. Teel, Alan Bright, Lauren M. Jaebker, John M. Tomecek, Maureen G. Frank, Rachael L. Connally, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Keith M. Carlisle

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive species and their establishment in new areas have significant impacts on the ecological, economic, and social well-being of our planet. Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are one of the world’s most formidable invasive species, particularly in the United States. They cause significant damage to agriculture and ecosystems, and can transmit diseases to livestock, wildlife, and people. There is an inherent social dimension to the issue of wild pigs due in part to the fact that people hunt them. Hunting contributes to both the control and spread of this species. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine hunters ...


Peptide Elisa And Fret-Qpcr Identified A Significantly Higher Prevalence Of Chlamydia Suis In Domestic Pigs Than In Feral Swine From The State Of Alabama, Usa, Md Monirul Hoque, Folasade Adekanmbi, Subarna Barua, Kh. Shamsur Rahman, Virginia Aida, Brian Anderson, Anil Poudel, Anwar Kalalah, Sara Bolds, Steven Madere, Steven Kitchens, Stuart Price, Vienna Brown, B. Graeme Lockaby, Constantinos S. Kyriakis, Bernhard Kaltenboeck, Chengming Wang 2021 Auburn University

Peptide Elisa And Fret-Qpcr Identified A Significantly Higher Prevalence Of Chlamydia Suis In Domestic Pigs Than In Feral Swine From The State Of Alabama, Usa, Md Monirul Hoque, Folasade Adekanmbi, Subarna Barua, Kh. Shamsur Rahman, Virginia Aida, Brian Anderson, Anil Poudel, Anwar Kalalah, Sara Bolds, Steven Madere, Steven Kitchens, Stuart Price, Vienna Brown, B. Graeme Lockaby, Constantinos S. Kyriakis, Bernhard Kaltenboeck, Chengming Wang

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Chlamydia suis is an important, highly prevalent, and diverse obligate intracellular pathogen infecting pigs. In order to investigate the prevalence and diversity of C. suis in the U.S., 276 whole blood samples from feral swine were collected as well as 109 fecal swabs and 60 whole blood samples from domestic pigs. C. suis-specific peptide ELISA identified anti-C. suis antibodies in 13.0% of the blood of feral swine (26/276) and 80.0% of the domestic pigs (48/60). FRET-qPCR and DNA sequencing found C. suis DNA in 99.1% of the fecal swabs (108/109) and ...


Serological Responses Of Raccoons And Striped Skunks To Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait In West Virginia During 2012–2016, Shylo R. Johnson, Dennis Slate, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy J. Davis, Samual A. Mills, John T. Forbes, Kurt VerCauteren, Amy T. Gilbert, Richard B. Chipman 2021 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Serological Responses Of Raccoons And Striped Skunks To Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait In West Virginia During 2012–2016, Shylo R. Johnson, Dennis Slate, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy J. Davis, Samual A. Mills, John T. Forbes, Kurt Vercauteren, Amy T. Gilbert, Richard B. Chipman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Since the 1990s, oral rabies vaccination (ORV) has been used successfully to halt the westward spread of the raccoon rabies virus (RV) variant from the eastern continental USA. Elimination of raccoon RV from the eastern USA has proven challenging across targeted raccoon (Procyon lotor) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) populations impacted by raccoon RV. Field trial evaluations of the Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (ONRAB) were initiated to expand ORV products available to meet the rabies management goal of raccoon RV elimination. This study describes the continuation of a 2011 trial inWest Virginia. Our objective was to evaluate raccoon and skunk ...


Core Commitments For Field Trials Of Gene Drive Organisms, Kanya C. Long, Luke Alphey, George J. Annas, Cinnamon S. Bloss, Karl J. Campbell, Jackson Champer, Chun-Hong Chen, Amit Choudhary, George M. Church, James P. Collins, Kimberly L. Cooper, Jason A. Delborne, Owain R. Edwards, Claudia I. Emerson, Kevin Esvelt, Sam Weiss Evans, Robert M. Friedman, Valentino M. Gantz, Fred Gould, Sarah Hartley, Elizabeth Heitman, Janet Hemingway, Hirotaka Kanuka, Jennifer Kuzma, James V. Lavery, Yoosook Lee, Marce Lorenzen, Jeantine E. Lunshof, John M. Marshall, Philipp W. Messer, Craig Montell, Kenneth A. Oye, Megan J. Palmer, Philippos Aris Papathanos, Prasad N. Paradkar, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Jason L. Rasgon, Gordana Rašić, Larisa Rudenko, J. Royden Saah, Maxwell J. Scott, Jolene T. Sutton, Adam E, Vorsino, Omar S. Akbari 2020 University of California, San Diego

Core Commitments For Field Trials Of Gene Drive Organisms, Kanya C. Long, Luke Alphey, George J. Annas, Cinnamon S. Bloss, Karl J. Campbell, Jackson Champer, Chun-Hong Chen, Amit Choudhary, George M. Church, James P. Collins, Kimberly L. Cooper, Jason A. Delborne, Owain R. Edwards, Claudia I. Emerson, Kevin Esvelt, Sam Weiss Evans, Robert M. Friedman, Valentino M. Gantz, Fred Gould, Sarah Hartley, Elizabeth Heitman, Janet Hemingway, Hirotaka Kanuka, Jennifer Kuzma, James V. Lavery, Yoosook Lee, Marce Lorenzen, Jeantine E. Lunshof, John M. Marshall, Philipp W. Messer, Craig Montell, Kenneth A. Oye, Megan J. Palmer, Philippos Aris Papathanos, Prasad N. Paradkar, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Jason L. Rasgon, Gordana Rašić, Larisa Rudenko, J. Royden Saah, Maxwell J. Scott, Jolene T. Sutton, Adam E, Vorsino, Omar S. Akbari

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We must ensure that trials are scientifically, politically, and socially robust, publicly accountable, and widely transparent.

Gene drive organisms (GDOs), whose genomes have been genetically engineered to spread a desired allele through a population, have the potential to transform the way societies address a wide range of daunting public health and environmental challenges. The development, testing, and release of GDOs, however, are complex and often controversial. A key challenge is to clarify the appropriate roles of developers and others actively engaged in work with GDOs in decision-making processes, and, in particular, how to establish partnerships with relevant authorities and other ...


Correction: Moxley, R.A., Et Al. Intimate Attachment Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 To Urinary Bladder Epithelium In The Gnotobiotic Piglet Model. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 263, Rodney A. Moxley, Tom W. Bargar, Stephen D. Kachman, Diane R. Baker, David Francis 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Correction: Moxley, R.A., Et Al. Intimate Attachment Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 To Urinary Bladder Epithelium In The Gnotobiotic Piglet Model. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 263, Rodney A. Moxley, Tom W. Bargar, Stephen D. Kachman, Diane R. Baker, David Francis

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: On page 2, the sentence that reads, “Hence, EHEC is a rare but established cause of HUS in children and adults.” should read, “Hence, EHEC is a rare but established cause of UTI-associated HUS in children and adults.” On page 4, the sentence that reads, “As noted previously, 14 of 126 (13.3%) piglets orally inoculated with EHEC O157:H7 strains developed mild to moderate purulent cystitis within 8 d PI [25] (Table 1).” should read, “As noted previously, 14 of 105 (13.3%) piglets orally inoculated with ...


Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel 2020 Bowling Green State University

Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel

Honors Projects

Building on field research in Costa Rica and Belize, this honors project analyzes environmental and endangered animal protection policies, rights, and practices in Central America and the Caribbean, and assesses the impact of veterinary science and biological research and practice, particularly conservation biology, on animal welfare concerns. Informed by the recent surge in awareness regarding zoonoses and zoonotic disease transmission, prevention and control, resulting from the current global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, the project assesses the need for new and innovative types of collaboration, particularly involving conservation biologists, environmental scientists, public health experts, law and policy makers, and global trade and ...


Linking Mosquito Surveillance To Dengue Fever Through Bayesian Mechanistic Modeling, Clinton B. Leach, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Kim M. Pepin, Alvaro E. Eiras, Mevin B. Hooten, Colleen T. Webb 2020 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Linking Mosquito Surveillance To Dengue Fever Through Bayesian Mechanistic Modeling, Clinton B. Leach, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Kim M. Pepin, Alvaro E. Eiras, Mevin B. Hooten, Colleen T. Webb

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Our ability to effectively prevent the transmission of the dengue virus through targeted control of its vector, Aedes aegypti, depends critically on our understanding of the link between mosquito abundance and human disease risk. Mosquito and clinical surveillance data are widely collected, but linking them requires a modeling framework that accounts for the complex non-linear mechanisms involved in transmission. Most critical are the bottleneck in transmission imposed by mosquito lifespan relative to the virus’ extrinsic incubation period, and the dynamics of human immunity. We developed a differential equation model of dengue transmission and embedded it in a Bayesian hierarchical framework ...


A Homologous Bacterin Protects Sheep Against Abortion Induced By A Hypervirulent Campylobacter Jejuni Clone, Zuowei Wu, Michael J. Yaeger, Orhan Sahin, Changyun Xu, Ashenafi F. Beyi, Paul J. Plummer, Melda Meral Ocal, Qijing Zhang 2020 Iowa State University

A Homologous Bacterin Protects Sheep Against Abortion Induced By A Hypervirulent Campylobacter Jejuni Clone, Zuowei Wu, Michael J. Yaeger, Orhan Sahin, Changyun Xu, Ashenafi F. Beyi, Paul J. Plummer, Melda Meral Ocal, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter jejuni clone SA has emerged as the predominant cause of ovine abortion outbreaks in the United States (US). Despite the fact that commercial Campylobacter vaccines are available, their efficacy in protecting abortion induced by C. jejuni clone SA is uncertain, and a protective vaccine is needed to control the disease. In this study, an experimental homologous bacterin (made of a clone SA isolate) and two commercial Campylobacter vaccines were evaluated for their protection against C. jejuni clone SA-induced sheep abortion. All vaccines induced high levels of antibodies against C. jejuni clone SA in pregnant ewes, but only the experimental ...


Spotted Owls And Forest Fire: Comment, Gavin M. Jones, R. J. Gutiérrez, William M. Block, Peter C. Carlson, Emily J. Comfort, Samuel A. Cushman, Raymond J. Davis, Stephanie A. Eyes, Alan B. Franklin, Joseph L. Ganey, Shaula Hedwall, John J. Keane, Rodd Kelsey, Damon B, Lesmeister, Malcolm P. North, Susan L. Roberts, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Jamie S. Sanderlin, Sarah C. Sawyer, Ben Solvesky, Douglas J. Tempel, Ho Yi Wan, A. LeRoy Westerling, Gary C. White, M. Zachariah Peery 2020 USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Albuquerque

Spotted Owls And Forest Fire: Comment, Gavin M. Jones, R. J. Gutiérrez, William M. Block, Peter C. Carlson, Emily J. Comfort, Samuel A. Cushman, Raymond J. Davis, Stephanie A. Eyes, Alan B. Franklin, Joseph L. Ganey, Shaula Hedwall, John J. Keane, Rodd Kelsey, Damon B, Lesmeister, Malcolm P. North, Susan L. Roberts, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Jamie S. Sanderlin, Sarah C. Sawyer, Ben Solvesky, Douglas J. Tempel, Ho Yi Wan, A. Leroy Westerling, Gary C. White, M. Zachariah Peery

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Western North American forest ecosystems are experiencing rapid changes in disturbance regimes because of climate change and land use legacies (Littell et al. 2018). In many of these forests, the accumulation of surface and ladder fuels from a century of fire suppression, coupled with a warming and drying climate, has led to increases in the number of large fires (Westerling 2016) and the proportion of areas burning at higher severity (Safford and Stevens 2017, Singleton et al. 2018). While the annual area burned by fire is still below historical levels (Taylor et al. 2016), some forest types in the west ...


Loci Associated With Antibody Response In Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) Infected With Brucella Suis, Courtney F. Pierce, Vienna R. Brown, Steven C. Olsen, Paola Boggiatto, Kerri Pedersen, Ryan S. Miller, Scott E. Speidel, Timothy J. Smyser 2020 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Loci Associated With Antibody Response In Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) Infected With Brucella Suis, Courtney F. Pierce, Vienna R. Brown, Steven C. Olsen, Paola Boggiatto, Kerri Pedersen, Ryan S. Miller, Scott E. Speidel, Timothy J. Smyser

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are a destructive invasive species widespread throughout the United States that disrupt ecosystems, damage crops, and carry pathogens of concern for the health of domestic stock and humans including Brucella suis—the causative organism for swine brucellosis. In domestic swine, brucellosis results in reproductive failure due to abortions and infertility. Contact with infected feral swine poses spillover risks to domestic pigs as well as humans, companion animals, wildlife, and other livestock. Genetic factors influence the outcome of infectious diseases; therefore, genome wide association studies (GWAS) of differential immune responses among feral swine can provide an understanding ...


A Review Of Avian Influenza A Virus Associations In Synanthropic Birds, Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root 2020 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

A Review Of Avian Influenza A Virus Associations In Synanthropic Birds, Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Avian influenza A viruses (IAV) have received significant attention due to the threat they pose to human, livestock, and wildlife health. In this review, we focus on what is known about IAV dynamics in less common avian species that may play a role in trafficking IAVs to poultry operations. Specifically, we focus on synanthropic bird species. Synanthropic species, otherwise known as peridomestic, are species that are ecologically associated with humans and anthropogenically modified landscapes, such as agricultural and urban areas. Aquatic birds such as waterfowl and shorebirds are the species most commonly associated with avian IAVs, and are generally considered ...


Tools, Techniques And Teamwork: Transferring New Technologies For Wildlife Management, Conservation And Economic Development, John Eisemann, Gail Keirn 2020 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Tools, Techniques And Teamwork: Transferring New Technologies For Wildlife Management, Conservation And Economic Development, John Eisemann, Gail Keirn

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Did you ever wonder who invented radio telemetry? Or breakaway snares? What about the bird repellent methyl anthranilate or the livestock protection collar? These and many other tools used in wildlife damage management resulted from creative thinking by biologists, technicians, researchers and managers working to solve complex wildlife issues. Over the past 90 years, these “aha moments” within the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Wildlife Services program have ranged from developing novel scare devices, traps and vaccines to exploiting an animal’s visual capabilities to stop unwanted behaviors. Once discovered, these unique ideas may lead to practical, feasible and ...


Instability Of Glucocorticoid Metabolites In Coyote Scats: Implications For Field Sampling, Erika T. Stevenson, Eric M. Gese, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Susannah S. French 2020 USDA-ARS NWRC

Instability Of Glucocorticoid Metabolites In Coyote Scats: Implications For Field Sampling, Erika T. Stevenson, Eric M. Gese, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Susannah S. French

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Studying physiologic stress responses can assist in understanding the welfare of animals. One method of measuring the physiologic stress response is evaluating concentrations of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces. Previously, using an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge, we found fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were a reliable indicator of physiologic stress response in coyotes (Canis latrans). We determine whether glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations remain stable when collecting feces over a 2-week period, a timeframe commonly used in scat surveys for wild canids. We collected feces from 6 captive coyotes maintained at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Predator Research ...


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