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Complete Genome Sequence Of Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Type Strain Lmg 22219, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen Kania, D A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley 2017 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Complete Genome Sequence Of Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Type Strain Lmg 22219, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen Kania, D A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences

We report the first complete genome sequence of LMG 22219 (=ON 86T = CCUG 49543T), the Staphylococcus pseudintermedius type strain isolated from feline lung tissue. This sequence information will facilitate phylogenetic comparisons of staphylococcal species and other bacteria at the genome level.


The Effect Of Feed Form On Diet Digestibility And Cecal Parameters In Rabbits, Isabella Corsato Alvarenga, Charles Gregory Aldrich, Michal Kohles 2017 Kansas State University

The Effect Of Feed Form On Diet Digestibility And Cecal Parameters In Rabbits, Isabella Corsato Alvarenga, Charles Gregory Aldrich, Michal Kohles

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to one of 3 dietary treatment groups of 5 animals each and fed pelleted, extruded, or muesli diets in a completely randomized design experiment. Rabbits were placed in individual cages with ad libitum access to water and food for 45 days acclimation followed by 30 days experimental period. Feed intake of rabbits fed pelleted and extruded diets was greater (p < 0.05) than rabbits fed the muesli diet (125.6 and 130.4 vs. 91.9 g/d), but weight change and feed efficiency were not affected by treatment. Diet digestibility among the treatments was inconsistent when comparing results obtained from total fecal collection and AIA (please define) as an internal marker. Rabbits fed extruded and pelleted diets had lower (p < 0.05) cecal pH (6.42 and 6.38 vs. 7.02, respectively), and higher (p < 0.05) production of SCFA (18.5 and 19.0 vs. 11.7 mM, respectively) than those fed muesli. The fermentation products from rabbits fed pelleted and extruded diets had a greater proportion of butyrate and less propionate than rabbits fed muesli. The results of this study indicate that the basal dietary composition had a greater impact on diet utilization and cecal fermentation than food form.


The Pul37 Tegument Protein Guides Alphaherpesvirus Retrograde Axonal Transport To Promote Neuroinvasion, Alexsia L. Richards, Patricia J. Sollars, Jared D. Pitts, Austin M. Stults, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith 2017 Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

The Pul37 Tegument Protein Guides Alphaherpesvirus Retrograde Axonal Transport To Promote Neuroinvasion, Alexsia L. Richards, Patricia J. Sollars, Jared D. Pitts, Austin M. Stults, Ekaterina E. Heldwein, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

A hallmark property of the neurotropic alpha-herpesvirinae is the dissemination of infection to sensory and autonomic ganglia of the peripheral nervous system following an initial exposure at mucosal surfaces. The peripheral ganglia serve as the latent virus reservoir and the source of recurrent infections such as cold sores (herpes simplex virus type I) and shingles (varicella zoster virus). However, the means by which these viruses routinely invade the nervous system is not fully understood. We report that an internal virion component, the pUL37 tegument protein, has a surface region that is an essential neuroinvasion effector. Mutation of this region rendered ...


An Investigation Into Specific Seminal Plasma Proteins And Their Effect On The Innate Immune Response To Breeding In The Mare, Carleigh Elizabeth Fedorka 2017 University of Kentucky

An Investigation Into Specific Seminal Plasma Proteins And Their Effect On The Innate Immune Response To Breeding In The Mare, Carleigh Elizabeth Fedorka

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

The mare experiences a transient innate immune response to breeding, the resolution of which is crucial for optimal fertility. The majority of mares are able to modulate this inflammation in a timely fashion, but a subpopulation exists which fail to do so and are considered susceptible to persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE). Seminal plasma has been shown to modulate aspects of this inflammation. Recently, two seminal plasma proteins have garnered interest for their immune modulating properties: cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3) and lactoferrin. These proteins have been found to alter the binding between sperm and neutrophils based on sperm viability in vitro ...


Analysis Of Humoral Immune Responses In Horses With Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, Catherine-Jane Angwin 2017 University of Kentucky

Analysis Of Humoral Immune Responses In Horses With Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, Catherine-Jane Angwin

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), caused by the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona, is one of the most important neurological diseases of horses in the Americas. While seroprevalence of S. neurona in horses is high, clinical manifestation of EPM occurs in less than 1% of infected horses. Factors governing the occurrence and severity of EPM are largely unknown, although horse immunity might play an important role in clinical outcome. We hypothesize that EPM occurs due to an aberrant immune response, which will be discernable in the equine IgG subisotypes a, b, and (T) that recognize S. neurona in infected diseased horses versus ...


Inflammation And Insulin Dysregulation In The Horse, Sarah E. Elzinga 2017 University of Kentucky

Inflammation And Insulin Dysregulation In The Horse, Sarah E. Elzinga

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Insulin dysregulation (ID) in the horse is receiving increasing attention as a serious health concern, in particular due to its association with the potentially career or life ending condition, laminitis. The role of inflammation and the immune system in ID as well as its associated health concerns has also been raised. However, the involvement of inflammation in and mechanisms behind ID in the horse remain unclear. Therefore, our overall hypothesis was that due in part to changes in their gut microbiota and plasma lipidome, horses with ID have changes in circulating proinflammatory markers, in particular in response to glycemic challenge ...


Integrated Genomic And Proteomic Analyses Of High-Level Chloramphenicol Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Hui Li, Yingyu Wang, Qin Fu, Yang Wang, Xiaowei Li, Congming Wu, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang, Peibin Qin, Jianzhong Shen, Xi Xia 2017 China Agricultural University

Integrated Genomic And Proteomic Analyses Of High-Level Chloramphenicol Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Hui Li, Yingyu Wang, Qin Fu, Yang Wang, Xiaowei Li, Congming Wu, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang, Peibin Qin, Jianzhong Shen, Xi Xia

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen, and its resistance to antibiotics is of great concern for public health. However, few studies have investigated the global changes of the entire organism with respect to antibiotic resistance. Here, we provide mechanistic insights into high-level resistance to chloramphenicol in C. jejuni, using integrated genomic and proteomic analyses. We identified 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as an efflux pump cmeBmutation that conferred modest resistance. We determined two radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes, one each from an SNP gene and a differentially expressed protein. Validation of major metabolic pathways demonstrated alterations in ...


Rapid Typing Of Mannheimia Haemolytica Major Genotypes 1 And 2 Using Maldi-Tof Mass Spectrometry, John Dustin Loy, Michael L. Clawson 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Rapid Typing Of Mannheimia Haemolytica Major Genotypes 1 And 2 Using Maldi-Tof Mass Spectrometry, John Dustin Loy, Michael L. Clawson

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Genotype 2 M. haemolytica predominantly associate over genotype 1 with the lungs of cattle with respiratory disease and ICEs containing antimicrobial resistance genes. Distinct protein masses were detected by MALDI-TOF MS between genotype 1 and 2 strains. MALDI-TOF MS could rapidly differentiate genotype 2 strains in veterinary diagnostic laboratories.


Branched Chain Α-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Kinase 111–130, A T Cell Epitope That Induces Both Autoimmune Myocarditis And Hepatitis In A/J Mice, Bharathi Krishnan, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Francisco A. Uzal, Jennifer L. Strande, Gustavo A. Delhon, Jean-Jack Riethoven, David J. Steffen, Jay Reddy 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Branched Chain Α-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Kinase 111–130, A T Cell Epitope That Induces Both Autoimmune Myocarditis And Hepatitis In A/J Mice, Bharathi Krishnan, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Francisco A. Uzal, Jennifer L. Strande, Gustavo A. Delhon, Jean-Jack Riethoven, David J. Steffen, Jay Reddy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Introduction: Organ-specific autoimmune diseases are believed to result from immune responses generated against self-antigens specific to each organ. However, when such responses target antigens expressed promiscuously in multiple tissues, then the immune-mediated damage may be wide spread.

Methods: In this report, we describe a mitochondrial protein, branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDk) that can act as a target autoantigen in the development of autoimmune inflammatory reactions in both heart and liver.

Results: We demonstrate that BCKDk protein contains at least nine immunodominant epitopes, three of which, BCKDk 71–90, BCKDk 111–130 and BCKDk 141 ...


Randomized, Controlled Trial Evaluating The Effect Of Multi-Strain Probiotic On The Mucosal Microbiota In Canine Idiopathic Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Robin White, Todd Atherly, Blake Guard, Giacomo Rossi, Chong Wang, Curtis Mosher, Craig Webb, Steve Hill, Mark Ackermann, Peter Sciabarra, Karin Allenspach, Jan Suchodolski, Albert E. Jergens 2017 Iowa State University

Randomized, Controlled Trial Evaluating The Effect Of Multi-Strain Probiotic On The Mucosal Microbiota In Canine Idiopathic Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Robin White, Todd Atherly, Blake Guard, Giacomo Rossi, Chong Wang, Curtis Mosher, Craig Webb, Steve Hill, Mark Ackermann, Peter Sciabarra, Karin Allenspach, Jan Suchodolski, Albert E. Jergens

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The intestinal microbiota is increasingly linked to the pathogenesis of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs. While studies have reported alterations in fecal (luminal) microbial populations, only limited information is available about the mucosal microbiota of IBD dogs at diagnosis and following medical therapy. Our aim was to characterize the mucosal microbiota and determine the clinical, microbiological, and mucosal homeostatic effects of probiotic treatment in dogs with IBD. Thirty four IBD dogs were randomized to receive standard therapy (ST = diet + prednisone) with or without probiotic. Tissue sections from endoscopic biopsies were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on ...


Cytolytic Toxin Production By Staphylococcus Aureus Is Dependent Upon The Activity Of The Protoheme Ix Farnesyltransferase, Emily Stevens, Maisem Laabei, Stewart Gardner, Greg A. Somerville, Ruth C. Massey 2017 University of Bristol

Cytolytic Toxin Production By Staphylococcus Aureus Is Dependent Upon The Activity Of The Protoheme Ix Farnesyltransferase, Emily Stevens, Maisem Laabei, Stewart Gardner, Greg A. Somerville, Ruth C. Massey

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Staphylococcus aureus is a medically important pathogen with an abundance of virulence factors that are necessary for survival within a host, including the production of cytolytic toxins. The regulation of toxin production is mediated by the Agr quorum sensing system, and a poorly defined post-exponential growth phase signal independent of Agr. As part of a recent genome wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel loci that alter the expression of cytolytic toxins, a polymorphism in the cyoE gene, which encodes a protoheme IX farnesyltransferase, was identified. This enzyme is essential for processing heme into the electron transport chain for use ...


Effectiveness Of Composting As A Biosecure Disposal Method For Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv)-Infected Pig Carcasses, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent M. Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effectiveness Of Composting As A Biosecure Disposal Method For Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv)-Infected Pig Carcasses, Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent M. Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric disease of swine that has emerged as a worldwide threat to swine herd health and production. Substantial research has been conducted to assess viability of the virus on surfaces of vehicles and equipment, in feed and water, and on production building surfaces, but little is known about the persistence in PEDV-infected carcasses and effective disposal methods thereof. This study was conducted to quantify the persistence of PEDV RNA via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at various time-temperature combinations and in infected piglet carcasses subjected to composting. Although this ...


Detoxification Of Mitochondrial Oxidants And Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated By Thioredoxin-2 And Peroxiredoxin-3 During Hyperoxic Injury, Benjamin J. Forred, Darwin R. Daugaard, Brianna K. Titus, Ryan R. Wood, Miranda J. Floen, Michelle L. Booze, Peter F. Vitiello 2017 Children's Health Research Center, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

Detoxification Of Mitochondrial Oxidants And Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated By Thioredoxin-2 And Peroxiredoxin-3 During Hyperoxic Injury, Benjamin J. Forred, Darwin R. Daugaard, Brianna K. Titus, Ryan R. Wood, Miranda J. Floen, Michelle L. Booze, Peter F. Vitiello

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the regulation of cell death during accumulation of oxidants. High concentrations of atmospheric oxygen (hyperoxia), used clinically to treat tissue hypoxia in premature newborns, is known to elicit oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury to pulmonary epithelial cells. A consequence of oxidative stress in mitochondria is the accumulation of peroxides which are detoxified by the dedicated mitochondrial thioredoxin system. This system is comprised of the oxidoreductase activities of peroxiredoxin-3 (Prx3), thioredoxin-2 (Trx2), and thioredoxin reductase-2 (TrxR2). The goal of this study was to understand the role of the mitochondrial thioredoxin system and mitochondrial injuries during ...


Maternal Inflammation At Mid-Gestation In Pregnant Rats Impairs Fetal Muscle Growth And Development At Term, C. N. Cadaret, K. A. Beede, E. M. Merrick, T. L. Barnes, J. D. Loy, D. T. Yates 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Maternal Inflammation At Mid-Gestation In Pregnant Rats Impairs Fetal Muscle Growth And Development At Term, C. N. Cadaret, K. A. Beede, E. M. Merrick, T. L. Barnes, J. D. Loy, D. T. Yates

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Low birth weight resulting from preterm birth and/or IUGR is an underlying factor in 60–80% of perinatal death worldwide, and is particularly common in developing countries (UNICEF, 2008). Furthermore, studies have linked IUGR and the associated fetal malnutrition to increased incidence of metabolic syndrome in adult life (Barker et al., 1993; Godfrey and Barker, 2000). The “thrifty phenotype hypothesis” developed by David Barker (Hales et al., 1991) states that IUGR-associated fetal malnutrition forces the fetus to spare nutrients by altering tissue-specific metabolism in order to ...


Efficacy Of Urtoxazumab (Tma-15 Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Specific For Shiga Toxin 2) Against Post-Diarrheal Neurological Sequelae Caused By Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Infection In The Neonatal Gnotobiotic Piglet Model, Rodney A. Moxley, David H. Francis, Mizuho Tamura, David B. Marx, Kristina Santiago-Mateo, Mojun Zhao 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Efficacy Of Urtoxazumab (Tma-15 Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Specific For Shiga Toxin 2) Against Post-Diarrheal Neurological Sequelae Caused By Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Infection In The Neonatal Gnotobiotic Piglet Model, Rodney A. Moxley, David H. Francis, Mizuho Tamura, David B. Marx, Kristina Santiago-Mateo, Mojun Zhao

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the most common cause of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in human patients, with brain damage and dysfunction the main cause of acute death. We evaluated the efficacy of urtoxazumab (TMA-15, Teijin Pharma Limited), a humanized monoclonal antibody against Shiga toxin (Stx) 2 for the prevention of brain damage, dysfunction, and death in a piglet EHEC infection model. Forty-five neonatal gnotobiotic piglets were inoculated orally with 3 x 109 colony-forming units of EHEC O157:H7 strain EDL933 (Stx1+, Stx2+) when 22–24 h old. At 24 h post-inoculation, piglets were intraperitoneally administered placebo ...


A Parapoxviral Virion Protein Targets The Retinoblastoma Protein To Inhibit Nf-Κb Signaling, Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sushil Khatiwada, Sabal Chaulagain, Gustavo A. Delhon, Daniel L. Rock 2017 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

A Parapoxviral Virion Protein Targets The Retinoblastoma Protein To Inhibit Nf-Κb Signaling, Ponnuraj Nagendraprabhu, Sushil Khatiwada, Sabal Chaulagain, Gustavo A. Delhon, Daniel L. Rock

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Poxviruses have evolved multiple strategies to subvert signaling by Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB), a crucial regulator of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe an orf virus (ORFV) virion-associated protein, ORFV119, which inhibits NF-κB signaling very early in infection (≤30 min post infection). ORFV119 NF-κB inhibitory activity was found unimpaired upon translation inhibition, suggesting that virion ORFV119 alone is responsible for early interference in signaling. A C-terminal LxCxE motif in ORFV119 enabled the protein to interact with the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) a multifunctional protein best known for its tumor suppressor activity. Notably, experiments using a recombinant virus containing an ORFV119 ...


Β1-Adrenergic Receptor Contains Multiple IaK And IeK Binding Epitopes That Induce T Cell Responses With Varying Degrees Of Autoimmune Myocarditis In A/J Mice, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Bharathi Krishnan, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Rajkumar A. Rajasekaran, Muhammad Z. Afzal, Jean-Jack Riethoven, Jennifer L. Strande, David J. Steffen, Jay Reddy 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Β1-Adrenergic Receptor Contains Multiple IaK And IeK Binding Epitopes That Induce T Cell Responses With Varying Degrees Of Autoimmune Myocarditis In A/J Mice, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Bharathi Krishnan, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Rajkumar A. Rajasekaran, Muhammad Z. Afzal, Jean-Jack Riethoven, Jennifer L. Strande, David J. Steffen, Jay Reddy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Myocarditis/dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients can develop autoantibodies to various cardiac antigens and one major antigen is β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR). Previous reports indicate that animals immunized with a β1AR fragment encompassing, 197–222 amino acids for a prolonged period can develop DCM by producing autoantibodies, but existence of T cell epitopes, if any, were unknown. Using A/J mice that are highly susceptible to lymphocytic myocarditis, we have identified β1AR 171–190, β1AR 181–200, and β1AR 211–230 as the major T cell epitopes that bind major histocompatibility complex ...


Wide But Variable Distribution Of A Hypervirulent Campylobacter Jejuni Clone In Beef And Dairy Cattle In The United States, Yizhi Tang, Richard J. Meinersmann, Orhan Sahin, Zuowei Wu, Lei Dai, James Carlson, Jodie Plumblee, Linda Genzlinger, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Wide But Variable Distribution Of A Hypervirulent Campylobacter Jejuni Clone In Beef And Dairy Cattle In The United States, Yizhi Tang, Richard J. Meinersmann, Orhan Sahin, Zuowei Wu, Lei Dai, James Carlson, Jodie Plumblee, Linda Genzlinger, Jeffrey T. Lejeune, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter jejuni clone SA is the major cause of sheep abortion and contributes significantly to foodborne illnesses in the United States. Clone SA is hypervirulent because of its distinct ability to produce systemic infection and its predominant role in clinical sheep abortion. Despite the importance of clone SA, little is known about its distribution and epidemiological features in cattle. Here, we describe a prospective study on C. jejuni clone SA prevalence in 35 feedlots in 5 different states in the U.S. and a retrospective analysis of clone SA in C. jejuni isolates collected by National Animal Health Monitoring System ...


Reagents And Tools To Identify Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus-2, Meghan Syrstad 2017 South Dakota State University

Reagents And Tools To Identify Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus-2, Meghan Syrstad

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this project was to define monoclonal antibodies against viral proteins from Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) to be used in quality control of vaccines produced by an industrial partner, and development of tools to identify EHDV. EHDV is an Orbivirus, which also includes Bluetongue Virus and African Horse Sickness, which are all transmitted through arthropod vectors. EHDV causes significant morbidity and mortality in white-tailed deer, but has recently been found to infect cattle. EHDV recently caused significant outbreaks affecting both the farmed and wild cervid industry, however few reagents and tools exist to protect against this disease ...


The Indirect Effect Of Bvdv On Immune Suppression: The Role Of Infected Macrophages In Lymphocyte Apoptosis, Karim Abdelsalam 2017 South Dakota State University

The Indirect Effect Of Bvdv On Immune Suppression: The Role Of Infected Macrophages In Lymphocyte Apoptosis, Karim Abdelsalam

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

BVDV is an important pathogen of cattle that affects both the dairy and beef industry causing severe economic losses. The main problem of BVDV is the immune suppression that is associated with lymphoid depletion shortly post infection. The mechanism of this immune suppression is not well understood. In this in vitro study, we sought to determine the indirect effect of BVDV infection in macrophages as a key player in the pathogenesis of BVD especially, the apoptotic effect induced on lymphocytes. We infected bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) with either high or low virulent strains of cytopathogenic or non-cytopathogenic strains of BVDV ...


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