Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Veterinary Microbiology and Immunobiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2,097 Full-Text Articles 5,766 Authors 145,476 Downloads 22 Institutions

All Articles in Veterinary Microbiology and Immunobiology

Faceted Search

2,097 full-text articles. Page 5 of 49.

New Approach To Health And The Environment To Avoid Future Pandemics, Serge Morand 2020 CNRS-CIRAD-Montpellier University & Mahidol University

New Approach To Health And The Environment To Avoid Future Pandemics, Serge Morand

Animal Sentience

This commentary expands Wiebers & Feigin’s target article by pinpointing how declining wildlife, expanding livestock and globalisation contribute to the increase in epidemics of zoonotic diseases, the COVID-19 crisis and future health crises. Epidemics and the emergence of zoonoses are manifestations of dysfunctional links with animals, both wild and domestic, requiring a new approach to health and the environment.


Current Status Of Zika Virus Vaccines: Successes And Challenges, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Asit K. Pattnaik 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Current Status Of Zika Virus Vaccines: Successes And Challenges, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R. Sahoo, Asit K. Pattnaik

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The recently emerged Zika virus (ZIKV) spread to the Americas, causing a spectrum of congenital diseases including microcephaly in newborn and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults. The unprecedented nature of the epidemic and serious diseases associated with the viral infections prompted the global research community to understand the immunopathogenic mechanisms of the virus and rapidly develop safe and efficacious vaccines. This has led to a number of ZIKV vaccine candidates that have shown significant promise in human clinical trials. These candidates include nucleic acid vaccines, inactivated vaccines, viral-vectored vaccines, and attenuated vaccines. Additionally, a number of vaccine candidates have been ...


Genomic-Based Identification Of Environmental And Clinical Listeria Monocytogenes Strains Associated With An Abortion Outbreak In Beef Heifers, Katherine J. Whitman, James L. Bono, Michael L. Clawson, John D. Loy, Joseph M. Bosilevac, Terrance M. Arthur, Jeff D. Ondrak 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Genomic-Based Identification Of Environmental And Clinical Listeria Monocytogenes Strains Associated With An Abortion Outbreak In Beef Heifers, Katherine J. Whitman, James L. Bono, Michael L. Clawson, John D. Loy, Joseph M. Bosilevac, Terrance M. Arthur, Jeff D. Ondrak

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Background: In a beef cattle facility an outbreak of abortions occurred over a 36-day period and included samples from two aborted (non-viable) fetuses and 21 post-abortion clinical cases. There are numerous etiologies, including clinical listeriosis. At the species level, Listeria monocytogenes is ubiquitous in cattle production environments, including soil, feed, and occasionally water sources, and is a common enteric resident of cattle and other mammals. There are four genetically distinct lineages of L. monocytogenes (I-IV), with most lineage III and IV isolates obtained from ruminants. Definitive diagnosis of L. monocytogenes as a causative agent in disease outbreaks relies upon case ...


Intimate Attachment Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 To Urinary Bladder Epithelium In The Gnotobiotic Piglet Model, Rodney A. Moxley, Tom W. Bargar, Stephen D. Kachman, Diane R. Baker, David H. Francis 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Intimate Attachment Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 To Urinary Bladder Epithelium In The Gnotobiotic Piglet Model, Rodney A. Moxley, Tom W. Bargar, Stephen D. Kachman, Diane R. Baker, David H. Francis

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is an important cause of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic–uremic syndrome (HUS), and a rare cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) with associated HUS. EHEC strains attach intimately to intestinal epithelium with formation of actin pedestals (attaching-effacing (A/E) lesions); however, the mechanism of EHEC attachment to the uroepithelium is unknown. We conducted a retrospective study on archived urinary bladder specimens from gnotobiotic piglets that naturally developed cystitis associated with EHEC O157:H7 infection following oral inoculation and fecal shedding. Paraffin-embedded bladder tissues from three piglets with ...


Host-Parasite Interaction In Horses: Mucosal Responses To Naturally Acquired Cyathostomin Infections And Anthelmintic Treatment, Ashley Elaine Steuer 2020 University of Kentucky

Host-Parasite Interaction In Horses: Mucosal Responses To Naturally Acquired Cyathostomin Infections And Anthelmintic Treatment, Ashley Elaine Steuer

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Cyathostomins are ubiquitous parasites in equids. In rare cases, cyathostomins lead to a generalized typhlocolitis and death. In healthy horses, local reactions are noted to the mucosal larvae; however, the mechanisms and importance of these reactions have not been elucidated. It has been hypothesized that anthelmintics can alter these reactions. Currently, three drug classes are approved for use in horses against cyathostomins; while all products target the adults, only two products are labeled as larvicidal. Adulticidal therapy is implicated in triggering the typhlocolitis, however, current evidence is contradictory. There is also conjecture that the larvicidal drugs can increase the risk ...


Uterine Torsion Dystocia Complicated By Perosomus Elumbis In An Angus Calf Associated With A Consanguineous Mating, Alyssa B. Helms, Riley E. Thompson, Sam Lawton, Jessica L. Petersen, Allison Watson, Mee-Ja Sula, David J. Steffen, Brian K. Whitlock 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Uterine Torsion Dystocia Complicated By Perosomus Elumbis In An Angus Calf Associated With A Consanguineous Mating, Alyssa B. Helms, Riley E. Thompson, Sam Lawton, Jessica L. Petersen, Allison Watson, Mee-Ja Sula, David J. Steffen, Brian K. Whitlock

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

A six-year-old multiparous Angus cow was presented for dystocia. Vaginal and rectal examinations revealed an approximately 360° counterclockwise uterine torsion. The torsion was corrected by rolling the cow counterclockwise (three episodes) with the aid of a plank coupled with manual detorsion via the vagina. The placement of obstetric chains followed by manual traction ultimately delivered a stillborn male calf with evidence of vertebral aplasia, arthrogryposis, and abdominal organ herniation. Patient history and subsequent parentage verification revealed that the calf was the result of a consanguineous (mother to son) mating. Tissue samples from the affected calf and blood samples from the ...


Triggers Of Inflammatory Heart Disease, Ninaad Lasrado, Bharathi Yalaka, Jay Reddy 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Triggers Of Inflammatory Heart Disease, Ninaad Lasrado, Bharathi Yalaka, Jay Reddy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Inflammatory heart disease (IHD) is a group of diseases that includes pericarditis, myocarditis, and endocarditis. Although males appear to be more commonly affected than females, IHD can be seen in any age group. While the disease can be self-limiting leading to full recovery, affected individuals can develop chronic disease, suggesting that identification of primary triggers is critical for successful therapies. Adding to this complexity, however, is the fact that IHD can be triggered by a variety of infectious and non-infectious causes that can also occur as secondary events to primary insults. In this review, we discuss the immunological insights into ...


Identification Of Immunogenic Epitopes That Permit The Detection Of Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses In Multiple Serotypes Of Group B Coxsackievirus Infections, Ninaad Lasrado, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Rajkumar Arumugam, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Sayli Pokal, Yuzhen Zhou, Shi-Hua Xiang, David Steffen, Jay Reddy 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Identification Of Immunogenic Epitopes That Permit The Detection Of Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses In Multiple Serotypes Of Group B Coxsackievirus Infections, Ninaad Lasrado, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Rajkumar Arumugam, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Sayli Pokal, Yuzhen Zhou, Shi-Hua Xiang, David Steffen, Jay Reddy

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Coxsackievirus group B (CVB) contains six serotypes that can affect various organs. Some of these organ-specific diseases such as myocarditis and pancreatitis can be caused by more than one serotype. Thus, development of immunological tools common to multiple serotypes is desired. This is especially critical for analyzing antigen-specific T cell responses at a single cell level. To this end, we made efforts to identify the immunogenic epitopes of CVB3 leading us to localize three T cell epitopes within the viral protein 1 (VP1) namely, VP1 681–700, VP1 721–740 and VP1 771–790. First, we confirmed their immunogenicity in ...


First Records Of Established Populations Of Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected From Three Nebraska Counties, Lindsey E. Nielsen, Roberto Cortinas, Paul D. Fey, Peter C. Iwen, David H. Nielsen 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

First Records Of Established Populations Of Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected From Three Nebraska Counties, Lindsey E. Nielsen, Roberto Cortinas, Paul D. Fey, Peter C. Iwen, David H. Nielsen

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Reported cases of Lyme disease in Nebraska have been assumed to be imported from other endemic areas. Previous surveillance efforts provided no evidence of established populations as only individual specimens of Ixodes scapularis (Say) had been collected. In the winter of 2018, adult I. scapularis were found on a dog at Two Rivers State Recreation Area, Douglas County, prompting tick collection at the site and nearby natural areas. In May 2019, all life stages of host-seeking I. scapularis were collected using dragging and flagging techniques in sites located near the Platte River in Douglas, Sarpy, and Saunders counties. This is ...


Experimental Study Using Multiple Strains Of Prion Disease In Cattle Reveals An Inverse Relationship Between Incubation Time And Misfolded Prion Accumulation, Neuroinflammation And Autophagy, Najiba Mammadova, M. Heather West Greenlee, S. Jo Moore, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Justin J. Greenlee 2020 Iowa State University

Experimental Study Using Multiple Strains Of Prion Disease In Cattle Reveals An Inverse Relationship Between Incubation Time And Misfolded Prion Accumulation, Neuroinflammation And Autophagy, Najiba Mammadova, M. Heather West Greenlee, S. Jo Moore, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Justin J. Greenlee

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Proteinopathies result from aberrant folding and accumulation of specific proteins. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge about the factors that influence disease progression making this a key challenge for the development of therapies for proteinopathies. Due to the similarities between transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and other protein misfolding diseases, TSEs can be used to understand other proteinopathies. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a TSE that occurs in cattle and can be subdivided into three strains: classical BSE, and atypical BSEs (H-type and L-type) that have shorter incubation periods. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical component of the innate immune ...


Comparison Of Intestinal Permeability, Morphology, And Ileal Microbial Communities Of Commercial Hens Housed In Conventional Cages And Cage-Free Housing Systems, Maddison L. Wiersema, Lucas Koester, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Dawn A. Koltes 2020 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Intestinal Permeability, Morphology, And Ileal Microbial Communities Of Commercial Hens Housed In Conventional Cages And Cage-Free Housing Systems, Maddison L. Wiersema, Lucas Koester, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Dawn A. Koltes

Animal Science Publications

The gastrointestinal health of poultry can be impacted by a variety of factors including their environment. As egg production moves from conventional cage housing (CC) towards cage-free housing (CF), it is important to understand this impact on intestinal health. This study was conducted to determine if housing type impacted intestinal permeability, morphology, and microbial communities in commercial hens across housing systems. Hens were randomly selected from 2 rooms of CC (n = 25) and CF (n = 25) at a commercial facility. Birds were given fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-D) by oral gavage to measure intestinal permeability. Jejunal and ileal samples were collected ...


One Step Closer To A Better Starling Trap, James R. Thiele 2020 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

One Step Closer To A Better Starling Trap, James R. Thiele

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are an invasive species in the United States that damage agriculture, personal property, and threaten human health and safety. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services provides technical support to mitigate damage by controlling starling populations at concentrated animal feeding operations, landfills, utilities, and urban areas. Wildlife Services uses DRC-1339, a registered toxicant, to reduce starling populations. Trapping can also be an effective tool but requires more time at a higher cost than DRC-1339. Trapping starlings, however, may be needed to provide a viable alternative to mitigate damage in areas where toxicant use may be ...


Invasive Wild Pigs As Primary Nest Predators For Wild Turkeys, Heather N. Sanders, David G. Hewitt, Humberto L. perotto-Baldivieso, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Nathan P. Snow 2020 Texas A&M University Kingsville

Invasive Wild Pigs As Primary Nest Predators For Wild Turkeys, Heather N. Sanders, David G. Hewitt, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Nathan P. Snow

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Depredation of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) nests is a leading cause of reduced recruitment for the recovering and iconic game species. invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are known to depredate nests, and have been expanding throughout the distributed range of wild turkeys in north America. We sought to gain better insight on the magnitude of wild pigs depredating wild turkey nests. We constructed simulated wild turkey nests throughout the home ranges of 20 GPS-collared wild pigs to evaluate nest depredation relative to three periods within the nesting season (i.e., early, peak, and late) and two nest densities (moderate = 12 ...


Avian Influenza A Virus Associations In Wild, Terrestrial Mammals: A Review Of Potential Synanthropic Vectors To Poultry Facilities, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner 2020 National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins

Avian Influenza A Virus Associations In Wild, Terrestrial Mammals: A Review Of Potential Synanthropic Vectors To Poultry Facilities, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The potential role of wild mammals in the epidemiology of influenza A viruses (IAVs) at the farm-side level has gained increasing consideration over the past two decades. In some instances, select mammals may be more likely to visit riparian areas (both close and distant to farms) as well as poultry farms, as compared to traditional reservoir hosts, such as waterfowl. Of significance, many mammalian species can successfully replicate and shed multiple avian IAVs to high titers without prior virus adaptation and often can shed virus in greater quantities than synanthropic avian species. Within this review, we summarize and discuss the ...


Historic And Contemporary Use Of Catfish Aquaculture By Piscivorous Birds In The Mississippi Delta, Paul C. Burr, Jimmy L. Avery, Garrett M. Street, Bronson K. Strickland, Brian S. Dorr 2020 Mississippi State University

Historic And Contemporary Use Of Catfish Aquaculture By Piscivorous Birds In The Mississippi Delta, Paul C. Burr, Jimmy L. Avery, Garrett M. Street, Bronson K. Strickland, Brian S. Dorr

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Piscivorous birds are the primary source of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) depredation at aquaculture facilities in northwestern Mississippi. Of particular concern is the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), which can cost aquaculture producers millions of dollars annually through the depredation of cultured fish. Historical research conducted in the early 2000s estimated cormorant use of aquaculture ponds in the region, but aquaculture area has decreased by more than 70% since those estimates were made. With less aquaculture available, we predicted cormorant densities on aquaculture would be greater today than historically. Applying a similar methodology as in historical studies, we used aerial surveys to ...


Invasive Species Control And Resolution Of Wildlife Damage Conflicts: A Framework For Chemical And Genetically Based Management Methods, Larry Clark, John Eisemann, John Godwin, Katherine Horak, Kevin Oh, Jeanette R. O'Hare, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Kim M. Pepin, Emily W. Ruell 2020 APHIS

Invasive Species Control And Resolution Of Wildlife Damage Conflicts: A Framework For Chemical And Genetically Based Management Methods, Larry Clark, John Eisemann, John Godwin, Katherine Horak, Kevin Oh, Jeanette R. O'Hare, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Kim M. Pepin, Emily W. Ruell

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Vertebrate wildlife damage management relates to developing and employing methods to mitigate against damage caused by wildlife in the areas of food production, property damage, and animal or human health and safety. Of the many management tools available, chemical methods (e.g., toxicants) draw the most attention owing to issues related to environmental burden, species specificity, and humaneness. Research and development focusing on RNA interference and gene drives may be able to address the technical aspects of performance goals. However, there remain many questions about regulation, environmental risk, and societal acceptance for these emerging biological technologies. Here we focus on ...


Movement Behavior Of Radio-Tagged European Starlings In Urban, Rural, And Exurban Landscapes, Page E. Klug, H. Jeffrey Homan 2020 NWRC, Fargo

Movement Behavior Of Radio-Tagged European Starlings In Urban, Rural, And Exurban Landscapes, Page E. Klug, H. Jeffrey Homan

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Since their intentional introduction into the United States in the 1800s, European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) have become the fourth most common bird species and a nuisance bird pest in both urban and rural areas. Managers require better information about starling movement and habit-use patterns to effectively manage starling populations and the damage they cause. Thus, we revisited 6 radio-telemetry studies conducted during fall or winter between 2005 and 2010 to compare starling movements (n = 63 birds) and habitat use in 3 landscapes. Switching of roosting and foraging sites in habitat-sparse rural landscapes caused daytime (0900–1500 hours) radio fixes to ...


Effect Of Vaccination With A Novel Gnrh-Based Immunocontraceptive On Immune Responses And Fertility In Rats, Giovanna Massei, D. Cowan, Douglas C. Eckery, Richard E. Mauldin, M. Gomm, P. Rochaix, Fergal Hill, R. Pinkham, Laura A. Miller 2020 National Wildlife Management Centre

Effect Of Vaccination With A Novel Gnrh-Based Immunocontraceptive On Immune Responses And Fertility In Rats, Giovanna Massei, D. Cowan, Douglas C. Eckery, Richard E. Mauldin, M. Gomm, P. Rochaix, Fergal Hill, R. Pinkham, Laura A. Miller

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

1. As human-wildlife conflicts increase worldwide, novel methods are required for mitigating these conflicts. Fertility control, based on immunocontraceptives, has emerged as an alternative option to lethal methods for managing wildlife.

2. Immunocontraceptives are vaccines that generate an immune response to key components of an animal's reproductive system. Some of these vaccines target the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and have been used successfully as contraceptives for many wildlife species. However, the need to capture animals for treatment limits the field applications of injectable vaccines. The availability of orally delivered immunocontraceptives would increase the breadth of applications of fertility control for ...


Ecological Drivers Of African Swine Fever Virus Persistence In Wild Boar Populations: Insight For Control, Kim M. Pepin, Andrew J. Golnar, Zaid Abdo, Tomasz Podgórski 2020 USA National Wildlife Research Center, USDA-APHIS

Ecological Drivers Of African Swine Fever Virus Persistence In Wild Boar Populations: Insight For Control, Kim M. Pepin, Andrew J. Golnar, Zaid Abdo, Tomasz Podgórski

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Environmental sources of infection can play a primary role in shaping epidemiological dynamics; however, the relative impact of environmental transmission on host-pathogen systems is rarely estimated. We developed and fit a spatially explicit model of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in wild boar to estimate what proportion of carcassbased transmission is contributing to the low-level persistence of ASFV in Eastern European wild boar. Our model was developed based on ecological insight and data from field studies of ASFV and wild boar in Eastern Poland. We predicted that carcass- based transmission would play a substantial role in persistence, especially in low-density ...


Influenza A Viruses In Peridomestic Mammals, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner 2020 National Wildlife Research Center

Influenza A Viruses In Peridomestic Mammals, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

During recent years, serological evidence has shown that a number of peridomestic mammals (e.g., those commonly found in or around human structures) are naturally exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs). In addition, experimental studies have demonstrated that many of these species can successfully replicate several different IAVs, including IAVs of high consequence to public or agricultural health. The replication of some IAVs within this group of mammals could have implications for biosecurity associated with poultry production and live bird markets in some regions of the world. Given this evidence, the need for further study and understanding of the role ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress