Multiplex Method For Simultaneous Serological Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus And Porcine Circovirus Type 2, Xue Lin, Chong Wang, Michael P. Murtaugh, Sheela Ramamoorthy
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Routine serological diagnosis and surveillance play an important role in the prevention of PRDC, as it is a leading cause of economic losses to the swine industry. We herein describe an advanced microsphere-based immunoassay that permits the simultaneous detection of antibodies to PCV2 and PRRSV, thereby reducing the time and effort involved in testing. Recombinant PRRSV nucleoprotein antigen and the PCV2 capsid antigen were coupled to fluorophore-dyed beads with distinct spectral addresses. Weekly serum samples from 72 ...
Evaluation And Use Of A Serological Assay For The Detection Of Antibodies To Lawsonia Intracellularis In Swine, 2016 Iowa State University
Evaluation And Use Of A Serological Assay For The Detection Of Antibodies To Lawsonia Intracellularis In Swine, Ronaldo L. Magtoto, Anuradha Vegi, Chong Wang, John K. Johnson, Sheela Ramamoorthy
Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) is a common and economically important gastro-intestinal disease of swine caused by the intracellular bacterium, Lawsonia intracellularis. Conventional tests to detect antibody responses to L. intracellularisinclude the immuno-peroxidase monolayer assay (IPMA), immuno-fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a lipopolysaccharide ELISA (LPS-ELISA). These tests are not commercially available. Therefore, objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of a commercial L. intracellularis blocking ELISA. Performance of the commercial ELISA was compared to the IPMA and LPS-ELISA using serum from experimentally infected animals (N = 40). The prevalence of L. intracellularis sero-positive animals was assessed by comparing suspect and ...
Effect Of Porcine Circovirus Type 2a Or 2b On Infection Kinetics And Pathogenicity Of Two Genetically Divergent Strains Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus In The Conventional Pig Model, 2016 Iowa State University
Effect Of Porcine Circovirus Type 2a Or 2b On Infection Kinetics And Pathogenicity Of Two Genetically Divergent Strains Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus In The Conventional Pig Model, Tanja Opriessnig, Phillip Charles Gauger, Kay S. Faaberg, Huigang Shen, Nathan M. Beach, Xiang-Jin Meng, Chong Wang, Patrick G. Halbur
To determine differences in infection kinetics of two temporally and genetically different type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates in vivo with and without concurrent porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2a or 2b infection, 62 pigs were randomly assigned to one of seven groups: negative controls (n = 8); pigs coinfected with a 1992 PRRSV strain (VR-2385) and PCV2a (CoI-92-2a; n = 9), pigs coinfected with VR-2385 and PCV2b (CoI-92-2b; n = 9), pigs coinfected with a 2006 PRRSV strain (NC16845b) and PCV2a (CoI-06-2a; n = 9), pigs coinfected with NC16845b and PCV2b (CoI-06-2b; n = 9), pigs infected with VR-2385 (n = 9 ...
Clinical And Immunomodulating Effects Of Ketamine In Horses With Experimental Endotoxemia, 2016 Iowa State University
Clinical And Immunomodulating Effects Of Ketamine In Horses With Experimental Endotoxemia, Cody J. Alcott, Brett A. Sponseller, David M. Wong, J. L. Davis, A. M. Soliman, Chong Wang, Walter H. Hsu
Background: Ketamine has immunomodulating effects both in vitro and in vivo during experimental endotoxemia in humans, rodents, and dogs. Hypothesis: Subanesthetic doses of ketamine will attenuate the clinical and immunologic responses to experimental endotoxemia in horses. Animals: Nineteen healthy mares of various breeds. Methods: Experimental study. Horses were randomized into 2 groups: ketamine-treated horses (KET; n = 9) and saline-treated horses (SAL; n = 10). Both groups received 30 ng/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, Escherichia coli, O55:B5) 1 hour after the start of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of racemic ketamine (KET) or physiologic saline (SAL). Clinical and hematological responses were ...
Comparison Of Commercial Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Pcr Assays For Reliable, Early, And Rapid Detection Of Heterologous Strains Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus In Experimentally Infected Or Noninfected Boars By Use Of Different Sample Types, 2016 Iowa State University
Comparison Of Commercial Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Pcr Assays For Reliable, Early, And Rapid Detection Of Heterologous Strains Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus In Experimentally Infected Or Noninfected Boars By Use Of Different Sample Types, Priscilla F. Gerber, Kevin O'Neill, Olajide Owolodun, Chong Wang, Karen M. Harmon, Jianqiang Zhang, Patrick G. Halbur, Lei Zhou, Xiang-Jin Meng, Tanja Opriessnig
The aims of this study were to compare three commercial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays for detection of genetically diverse PRRSV isolates in serum, semen, blood swabs, and oral fluids collected from experimentally infected boars and to evaluate the effects of sample pooling. Six groups of three boars negative for PRRSV were each inoculated with one of six PRRSV isolates (sharing 55 to 99% nucleotide sequence identity in ORF5). Samples were collected on days −2, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 postinoculation (p.i.) and tested by one of three commercially available ...
Bacterial Community Profiling Of Milk Samples As A Means To Understand Culture-Negative Bovine Clinical Mastitis, 2016 Iowa State University
Bacterial Community Profiling Of Milk Samples As A Means To Understand Culture-Negative Bovine Clinical Mastitis, Joanna S. Kuehn, Patrick J. Gorden, Daniel Munro, Ruichen Rong, Qunfeng Dong, Paul Joseph Plummer, Chong Wang, Gregory J. Phillips
Inflammation and infection of bovine mammary glands, commonly known as mastitis, imposes significant losses each year in the dairy industry worldwide. While several different bacterial species have been identified as causative agents of mastitis, many clinical mastitis cases remain culture negative, even after enrichment for bacterial growth. To understand the basis for this increasingly common phenomenon, the composition of bacterial communities from milk samples was analyzed using culture independent pyrosequencing of amplicons of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA). Comparisons were made of the microbial community composition of culture negative milk samples from mastitic quarters with that of non-mastitic quarters ...
Vaccination With Ns1-Truncated H3n2 Swine Influenza Virus Primes T Cells And Confers Cross-Protection Against An H1n1 Heterosubtypic Challenge In Pigs, 2016 United States Department of Agriculture
Vaccination With Ns1-Truncated H3n2 Swine Influenza Virus Primes T Cells And Confers Cross-Protection Against An H1n1 Heterosubtypic Challenge In Pigs, Matthew Allan Kappes, Matthew Robert Sandbulte, Ratree Platt, Chong Wang, Kelly M. Lager, Jamie N. Henningson, Alessio Lorusso, Amy L. Vincent, Crystal Lynn Loving, James A. Roth, Marcus E. Kehrli Jr.
The diversity of contemporary swine influenza virus (SIV) strains impedes effective immunization of swine herds. Mucosally delivered, attenuated virus vaccines are one approach with potential to provide broad cross-protection. Reverse genetics-derived H3N2 SIV virus with truncated NS1 (NS1Δ126 TX98) is attenuated and immunogenic when delivered intranasally in young pigs. We analyzed T-cell priming and cross-protective efficacy in weanling piglets after intranasal inoculation with NS1Δ126 TX98 versus wild type TX98. In vivo replication of the truncation mutant was minimal compared to the wild type virus. T-cell responses were greater in magnitude in pigs infected with the wild type virus in in ...
Randomized Clinical Trial To Evaluate The Pathogenicity Of Bibersteinia Trehalosi In Respiratory Disease Among Calves, Christy Jo Hanthorn, Reneé Dewell, Vickie L. Cooper, Timothy S. Frana, Paul J. Plummer, Chong Wang, Grant A. Dewell
Bibersteinia trehalosi causes respiratory disease in ruminants particularly in wild and domestic sheep. Recently, there has been an increased number of B. trehalosi isolates obtained from diagnostic samples from bovine respiratory disease cases. This study evaluated the role of B. trehalosi in bovine respiratory disease using an intra-tracheal inoculation model in calves. Thirty six cross bred 2–3 month old dairy calves were inoculated intra-tracheally with either leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi, leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi isolate, Mannheimia haemolytica, a combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica or negative control. Calves were euthanized and necropsy performed on day 10 ...
Salmonella Enterica In Swine Production: Assessing The Association Between Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism And Epidemiological Units Of Concern, Bing Wang, Chong Wang, James D. Mckean, Catherine M. Logue, Wondwossen A. Gebreyes, Kelly A. Tivendale, Annette M. O'Connor
The aims of this study were to determine the ability of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to differentiate Salmonella isolates from different units of swine production and to demonstrate the relatedness of Salmonella between farms and abattoirs by AFLP. Twenty-four farms in the midwestern United States were visited four times from 2006 to 2009. At each farm or abattoir visit, 30 fecal samples or 30 mesenteric lymph nodes were collected, respectively. A total of 220 Salmonella isolates were obtained, serotyped, and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and AFLP. These 220 isolates clustered into 21 serotypes, 18 MLST types, and ...
Membrane Insertion For The Detection Of Lipopolysaccharides: Exploring The Dynamics Of Amphiphile-In-Lipid Assays, 2016 University of New Mexico
Membrane Insertion For The Detection Of Lipopolysaccharides: Exploring The Dynamics Of Amphiphile-In-Lipid Assays, Loreen R. Stromberg, Nicolas W. Hengartner, Kirstie L. Swingle, Rodney A. Moxley, Steven W. Graves, Gabriel A. Montaño, Harshini Mukundan
Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is an important cause of foodborne illness, with cases attributable to beef, fresh produce and other sources. Many serotypes of the pathogen cause disease, and differentiating one serotype from another requires specific identification of the O antigen located on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecule. The amphiphilic structure of LPS poses a challenge when using classical detection methods, which do not take into account its lipoglycan biochemistry. Typically, detection of LPS requires heat or chemical treatment of samples and relies on bioactivity assays for the conserved lipid A portion of the molecule. Our goal was to develop assays ...
A Comparative Analysis Of Methylome Profiles Of Campylobacter Jejuni Sheep Abortion Isolate And Gastroenteric Strains Using Pacbio Data, Kathy T. Y. Mou, Usha Muppirala, Andrew J. Severin, Tyson A. Clark, Matthew Boitano, Paul J. Plummer
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human gastrointestinal disease and small ruminant abortions in the United States. The recent emergence of a highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni subsp. jejunisheep abortion clone (clone SA) in the United States, and that strain's association with human disease, has resulted in a heightened awareness of the zoonotic potential of this organism. Pacific Biosciences' Single Molecule, Real-Time sequencing technology was used to explore the variation in the genome-wide methylation patterns of the abortifacient clone SA (IA3902) and phenotypically distinct gastrointestinal-specific C. jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176). Several notable differences were discovered that ...
Identifying Genetic Factors In Streptococcus Uberis That Enable Evasion Of The Host Immune Response, 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Identifying Genetic Factors In Streptococcus Uberis That Enable Evasion Of The Host Immune Response, Alexis Christine Burnham
University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects
No abstract provided.
Evaluation And Selection Of A Bacillus Based Direct-Fed Microbial Candidate For In Situ Enzyme Production To Improve Gut Health Integrity, Bone Quality And Growth Performance In Poultry, 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Evaluation And Selection Of A Bacillus Based Direct-Fed Microbial Candidate For In Situ Enzyme Production To Improve Gut Health Integrity, Bone Quality And Growth Performance In Poultry, Juan David Latorre Cardenas
Theses and Dissertations
During the last decade, the increasing interest in renewable energy sources has been changing the distribution of corn utilization from human and animal consumption to biofuel production, leading to a continuous rise in feed costs of livestock diets. Therefore, alternative feed ingredients such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), as well as cereals like wheat, barley, and sorghum have become part of the feed matrix to maintain or reduce production costs. However, these raw materials often contain a higher concentration of antinutritional factors in comparison to corn, including non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) which increase digesta viscosity and reduce nutrient absorption ...
A Highly Effective Protocol For The Rapid And Consistent Induction Of Digital Dermatitis In Holstein Calves, 2016 Iowa State University
A Highly Effective Protocol For The Rapid And Consistent Induction Of Digital Dermatitis In Holstein Calves, Adam C. Krull, Vickie L. Cooper, John W. Coatney, Jan K. Shearer, Patrick J. Gorden, Paul J. Plummer
Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications
Bovine Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle. DD is reportedly increasing in prevalence in beef cattle feedlots of the US. The exact etiologic agent(s) responsible for the disease have yet to be determined. Multiple studies have demonstrated the presence of a variety of Treponema spp. within lesions. Attempts to reproduce clinically relevant disease using pure cultures of these organisms has failed to result in lesions that mirror the morphology and severity of naturally occurring lesions. This manuscript details the systematic development of an experimental protocol that reliably induces digital dermatitis lesions on a ...
Divergent Responses Of Viral And Bacterial Communities In The Gut Microbiome To Dietary Disturbances In Mice, 2016 Iowa State University
Divergent Responses Of Viral And Bacterial Communities In The Gut Microbiome To Dietary Disturbances In Mice, Adina C. Howe, Daina L. Ringus, Ryan J. Williams, Zi-Ning Choo, Stephanie M. Greenwald, Sarah M. Owens, Maureen L. Coleman, Folker Meyer, Eugene B. Chang
To improve our understanding of the stability of mammalian intestinal communities, we characterized the responses of both bacterial and viral communities in murine fecal samples to dietary changes between high- and low-fat (LF) diets. Targeted DNA extraction methods for bacteria, virus-like particles and induced prophages were used to generate bacterial and viral metagenomes as well as 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons. Gut microbiome communities from two cohorts of C57BL/6 mice were characterized in a 6-week diet perturbation study in response to high fiber, LF and high-refined sugar, milkfat (MF) diets. The resulting metagenomes from induced bacterial prophages and extracellular viruses ...
Heterologous Challenge In The Presence Of Maternally-Derived Antibodies Results In Vaccine-Associated Enhanced Respiratory Disease In Weaned Piglets, 2016 U.S. Department of Agriculture
Heterologous Challenge In The Presence Of Maternally-Derived Antibodies Results In Vaccine-Associated Enhanced Respiratory Disease In Weaned Piglets, Daniela S. Rajao, Matthew R. Sandbulte, Phillip C. Gauger, Pravina Kitikoon, Ratree Platt, James A. Roth, Daniel R. Perez, Crystal L. Loving, Amy L. Vincent
Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications
Control of influenza A virus (IAV) in pigs is done by vaccination of females to provide maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) through colostrum. Our aim was to evaluate if MDA interfere with IAV infection, clinical disease, and transmission in non-vaccinated piglets. In the first study, naïve sows were vaccinated with H1N2-δ1 whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine. In a follow-up study seropositive sows to 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) were boosted with H1N1pdm09 WIV or secondary experimental infection (EXP). MDA-positive pigs were challenged with homologous or heterologous virus, and MDA-negative control groups were included. WIV-MDA piglets were protected from homologous infection. However, piglets with ...
Inflammatory Biomarkers Of Hydrogen Sulfide Induced Neurotoxicity And Degeneration, 2016 Iowa State University
Inflammatory Biomarkers Of Hydrogen Sulfide Induced Neurotoxicity And Degeneration, Belinda Mahama
Honors Projects and Posters
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has dual actions in the human body as an endogenously produced signaling molecule and a toxic xenobiotic. It is a byproduct of several industries, including oil, petroleum and paper milling and natural forms of exposure are of concern for individuals living near landfills or volcanos. That hydrogen sulfide has potential for use as a chemical weapon is disconcerting. The gas is colorless and has a characteristic rotten egg odor. Acute H2S intoxication can lead to both short and long term neurological sequelae, including neurodegeneration, memory and motor impairment, however, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Our hypothesis ...
The Pseudorabies Virus Protein, Pul56, Enhances Virus Dissemination And Virulence But Is Dispensable For Axonal Transport, Gina R. Daniel, Patricia J. Sollars, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith
Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science
Neurotropic herpesviruses exit the peripheral nervous system and return to exposed body surfaces following reactivation from latency. The pUS9 protein is a critical viral effector of the anterograde axonal transport that underlies this process. We recently reported that while pUS9 increases the frequency of sorting of newly assembled pseudorabies virus particles to axons from the neural soma during egress, subsequent axonal transport of individual virus particles occurs with wild-type kinetics in the absence of the protein. Here, we examine the role of a related pseudorabies virus protein, pUL56, during neuronal infection. The findings indicate that pUL56 is a virulence factor ...
Noninvasive Assessment Of Cardiac Abnormalities In Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis By Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Imaging In The Mouse, 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Noninvasive Assessment Of Cardiac Abnormalities In Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis By Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Imaging In The Mouse, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Vahid Khalilzad-Sharghi, Arunakumar Gangaplara, David Steffen, Shadi F. Othman, Jay Reddy
Jay Reddy Publications
Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, but only ~10% of those affected show clinical manifestations of the disease. To study the immune events of myocardial injuries, various mouse models of myocarditis have been widely used. This study involved experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) induced with cardiac myosin heavy chain (Myhc)-α 334-352 in A/J mice; the affected animals develop lymphocytic myocarditis but with no apparent clinical signs. In this model, the utility of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) as a non-invasive modality to determine the cardiac structural and functional changes in animals immunized with Myhc-α 334-352 is shown. EAM and ...
Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, 2016 Otterbein University
Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, Danielle L. Keating
Honors Thesis Projects
With an increase in anthelmintic resistance and decreased efficacy of many commercial dewormers, understanding factors that contribute to parasite infestations in horses is integral to their management. The goal of this study was to look at the potential relationship between parasites and stress response by evaluating salivary cortisol levels and cyathostome egg shedding levels. Using a sample size of n = 200 horses from the state of Ohio, fecal and saliva samples were collected from each horse. Fecal egg counts were performed for each horse with a modified Stoll method, and saliva samples were tested with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ...