Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, 2018 University of Maine
Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Bacterial uterine infections inflict major losses on the equine breeding industry. These infections usually arise from bacteria introduced at breeding. Micro-currents propelled by ciliated cells between the folds of the uterus and cervix have been proposed as a means by which contaminants are expelled. Previous data have shown possible ciliary micro-currents propelling carbon particles, occasionally rotating, through cervical folds. However, adherence to the epithelium may have interfered with movement of carbon in these studies. Therefore, we tested potentially non-adherent substances to reveal ciliary micro-currents on the equine cervix under high magnification video-endoscopy. We hypothesized that polyethylene green microspheres 1 - 5 ...
Human Induced Rotation And Reorganization Of The Brain Of Domestic Dogs, 2018 University of Sydney
Human Induced Rotation And Reorganization Of The Brain Of Domestic Dogs, Taryn Roberts, Paul Mcgreevy, Michael Valenzuela
Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.
Domestic dogs exhibit an extraordinary degree of morphological diversity. Such breed-to-breed variability applies equally to the canine skull, however little is known about whether this translates to systematic differences in cerebral organization. By looking at the paramedian sagittal magnetic resonance image slice of canine brains across a range of animals with different skull shapes (N = 13), we found that the relative reduction in skull length compared to width (measured by Cephalic Index) was significantly correlated to a progressive ventral pitching of the primary longitudinal brain axis (r = 0.83), as well as with a ventral shift in the position of ...
Long-Term Outcome And Complications Of 32 Distal Femoral Osteotomies Performed For Correction Of Mpl In Dogs Without Cranial Cruciate Disease, Nicholas Crawfis
Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects
Many canines suffer severe, grade I-IV, medial patella luxation causing a persistent lameness, severely reducing the quality of life for the dog (Linney et al 2011). For these patients surgical intervention is recommended to alleviate these symptoms. The procedure used to do so is a distal femoral osteotomy (DFO). This procedure allows for correction of torsion in the femur and quadriceps mechanism, and frontal plane abnormalities at the same time. The present study aims to describe the long-term outcome and related complications of 32 DFOs, without concomitant Cranial Cruciate Ligament rupture (CCLR), in a large private practice referral hospital based ...
Tear Fluid Collection In Dogs And Cats Using Ophthalmic Sponges, 2017 Iowa State University
Tear Fluid Collection In Dogs And Cats Using Ophthalmic Sponges, Lionel Sebbag, Danielle M. Harrington, Jonathan P. Mochel
Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications
Objective - To compare the use of two ophthalmic sponges for tear collection in dogs and cats. Animals studied - Ten healthy dogs and 10 healthy cats.
Procedures - A strip (4x10 mm) of either cellulose or polyvinyl acetal (PVA) sponge was inserted into the ventral fornix of each eye for either 15, 30 or 60 seconds. The wetted strip was placed into a 0.2-mL tube that was first punctured at its bottom. Tears were eluted through the drainage hole into a 1.5-mL tube via centrifugation. Tear volume absorbed (VA) and tear volume recovered (VR) were calculated as the difference of ...
Absence Of Typical Haversian System From The Compact Bone Of Some Reptile And Bird Species, 2017 South Valley University
Absence Of Typical Haversian System From The Compact Bone Of Some Reptile And Bird Species, Yasser Ahmed, Mohamed Abdelsabourv Khalaf, Fatma Khalil
Background and Objective: Mammalian compact bone is composed mostly of Haversian system. Although there are many studies describing the typical Haversian system in mammals, there are few studies conducted on bones from non-mammalian species. The objective of the current study was to investigate the existence of the typical Haversian system in compact bones from reptiles and birds.
Materials and Methods: Femora were collected from geckos, Nile monitors, sparrows, ducks and geese. Samples were then, fixed in 10% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Von Kossa and then examined using light microscopy.
Developing Learning Models To Teach Equine Anatomy And Biomechanics, 2017 University of Maine
Developing Learning Models To Teach Equine Anatomy And Biomechanics, Zandalee E. Toothaker
Animal owners and professionals benefit from an understanding of an animal’s anatomy and biomechanics. This is especially true of the horse. A better understanding of the horse’s anatomy and weight bearing capabilities will allow people to treat and prevent injuries in equine athletes and work horses. Currently, teaching anatomy is based on dissection of cadavers and study of figures in textbooks. Dissection is expensive and presents logistical difficulties associated with sourcing, storage, and disposal of cadavers. Also, post mortem tissue changes obscure how the muscles support the bones and make the specimens unsuitable for representing biomechanical principles. Cadavers ...
Effects Of 17Β Estradiol In The Metabolism And Morphology Of Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), 2017 Eastern Illinois University
Effects Of 17Β Estradiol In The Metabolism And Morphology Of Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), Neeta Parajulee Karki
Fish natural habitats are increasingly contaminated with various estrogenic compounds, including 17β estradiol (E2). This compound causes adverse effects on the reproductive system of male fish; however, the effects of E2 on other aspects of fish metabolism, morphology and histopathological changes in internal organs are not well known. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of E2 exposure on the basal and stressed metabolic rate, morphological changes in body shapes, and histological changes in the liver tissues of sunfish species. Fish were held individually in ten gallon tanks under two treatments of 40 and 80 ng/L ...
Explanation And Elaboration Document For The Strobe-Vet Statement: Strengthening The Reporting Of Observational Studies In Epidemiology – Veterinary Extension, Annette M. O'Connor, J. M. Sargeant, I. R. Dohoo, H. N. Erb, M. Cevallos, M. Egger, A. K. Ersboll, S. W. Martin, L. R. Nielsen, D. L. Pearl, D. U. Pfeiffer, J. Sanchez, M. E. Torrence, H. Vigre, C. Waldner, M. P. Ward
Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications
The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement was first published in 2007 and again in 2014. The purpose of the original STROBE was to provide guidance for authors, reviewers and editors to improve the comprehensiveness of reporting; however, STROBE has a unique focus on observational studies. Although much of the guidance provided by the original STROBE document is directly applicable, it was deemed useful to map those statements to veterinary concepts, provide veterinary examples and highlight unique aspects of reporting in veterinary observational studies. Here, we present the examples and explanations for the checklist items included ...
Methods And Processes Of Developing The Strengthening The Reporting Of Observational Studies In Epidemiology – Veterinary (Strobe-Vet) Statement, J. M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor, I. R. Dohoo, H. N. Erb, M. Cevallos, M. Egger, A. K. Ersboll, S. W. Martin, L. R. Nielsen, D. L. Pearl, D. U. Pfeiffer, J. Sanchez, M. E. Torrence, H. Vigre, C. Waldner, M. P. Ward
Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications
The reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents many challenges that often are not adequately addressed in published reporting guidelines. A consensus meeting of experts was organized to develop an extension of the STROBE statement to address observational studies in veterinary medicine with respect to animal health, animal production, animal welfare and food safety outcomes. The consensus meeting was held 11–13 May 2014 in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Seventeen experts from North America, Europe and Australia attended the meeting. The experts were epidemiologists and biostatisticians, many of whom hold or have held editorial positions with relevant journals. Prior to ...
Morphological And Biochemical Adaptive Changes Associated With A Short-Period Starvation Of Adult Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica), Yasser Ahmed, Soha A. Soliman, Mohammed Abdelsabour-Khalaf
Objective: The morphological and biochemical impact of a short-period of starvation on Japanese quail was investigated.
Materials and Methods: Ten adult male Japanese quail were divided into two groups; control fed and starved. The control-fed group was offered food and water ad libitum and the starved group was subjected to a short-period of food deprivation. After 2.5 days, the serum was obtained and different parameters including the total protein, AST, ALT, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, creatinine and urea were assessed. Gastrointestinal tract, stomach and liver were excised and their masses were estimated. Paraffin and resin embedded sections from the proventriculus ...
Potential For Meta-Analysis In The Realm Of Preharvest Food Safety, 2016 Ontario Veterinary College
Potential For Meta-Analysis In The Realm Of Preharvest Food Safety, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor
Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications
Meta-analysis, the statistical combination of results from multiple studies, can be used to summarize all of the available research on an intervention, etiology, descriptive, or diagnostic test accuracy question. Meta-analysis should be conducted as a component of a systematic review, to increase transparency in the selection of studies and to incorporate an evaluation of the risk of bias in the individual studies included in the meta-analysis. The process of meta-analysis may include a forest plot to graphically display the study results and the calculation of a weighted average summary effect size. Heterogeneity (differences in the effect size between studies) can ...
Social Deprivation Of Infant Rhesus Monkeys Alters The Chemoarchitecture Of The Brain: I. Subcortical Regions, 2016 Johns Hopkins University
Social Deprivation Of Infant Rhesus Monkeys Alters The Chemoarchitecture Of The Brain: I. Subcortical Regions, Lee J. Martin, Dawn M. Spicer, Mark H. Lewis, John P. Gluck, Linda C. Cork
John P. Gluck, Ph.D.
Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) reared during the first year of life without social contact develop persistent stereotyped movements, self-directed behaviors, and psychosocial abnormalities, but neurobiological mechanisms underlying the behaviors of socially deprived (SD) monkeys are unknown. Monkeys were reared in total social deprivation for the first 9 months of life; control monkeys were reared socially (SR) with mothers and peers. Subjects were killed at 19-24 yr of age. Because the behaviors of SD monkeys are reminiscent of changes in striatal or amygdalar function, we used immunocytochemistry for substance P (SP), leutine-enkephalin (LENK), somatostatin, calbindin, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to evaluate ...
Endoscopic Assessment Of The Duodenum In Dogs With Inflammatory Bowel Disease, 2016 Iowa State University
Endoscopic Assessment Of The Duodenum In Dogs With Inflammatory Bowel Disease, J. E. Slovak, Chong Wang, J. A. Morrison, K. L. Deitz, Dana N. Levine, C. Otoni, R. R. King, L. E. Gerber, K. R. Hanson, A. P. Lundberg, Albert E. Jergens
Background: Endoscopy is performed for direct inspection of the mucosa and acquisition of biopsies in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Aim: To evaluate the interobserver agreement in the endoscopic assessment of duodenal mucosa in dogs with IBD. Methods: Thirty-five archived endoscopic images of grossly normal (n = 6) and inflamed (n = 29) duodenal mucosa were displayed to 3 expert and 5 trainee endoscopists. Each image was assessed independently by endoscopists for mucosal abnormalities using established indices (of hyperemia, granularity, friability, lymphatic dilatation, and erosions) or interpreted as normal mucosa (trial 1). A repeated trial (trial 2) was performed with the ...
Frequency Of And Risk Factors Associated With Catastrophic Musculoskeletal Injuries In Quarter Horses At Two Midwestern Racetracks: 67 Cases (2000–2011), Andrea Beisser, Scott Mcclure, Grant Rezabek, Keith H. Soring, Chong Wang
Objective—To determine the incidence and anatomic location of and potential risk factors for catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries (CMIs) in racing Quarter Horses. Design—Retrospective matched case-control study. Animals—67 racing Quarter Horse racehorses euthanized because of CMIs and 134 matched controls. Procedures—Data for Quarter Horses that sustained CMIs and the total number of race starts for each year were obtained from 2 Midwestern racing jurisdictions from 2000 through 2011. Information for each horse with a CMI and for 2 randomly selected control horses that ran in the same race but did not incur a CMI were obtained from race ...
Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction For Detecting Mycoplasma Hyosynoviae And Mycoplasma Hyorhinis In Pen-Based Oral, Tonsillar, And Nasal Fluids, Joao C. Gomes Neto, Leslie Bower, Barbara Z. Erickson, Chong Wang, Matthew Raymond, Erin L. Strait
Mycoplasma (M.) hyorhinis and M. hyosynoviae are pathogens known to cause disease in pigs post-weaning. Due to their fastidious nature, there is increased need for culture-independent diagnostic platforms to detect these microorganisms. Therefore, this study was performed to develop and optimize quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays to rapidly detect M. hyorhinis and M. hyosynoviae in pen-based oral fluids as well as nasal and tonsillar fluids as proxies for samples used in swine herd surveillance. Two methods of genomic DNA extraction, automated versus manual, were used to compare diagnostic test performance. A wean-to-finish longitudinal study was also carried out to demonstrate ...
Evaluation Of Catastrophic Musculoskeletal Injuries In Thoroughbreds And Quarter Horses At Three Midwestern Racetracks, Andrea L. Beisser, Scott R. Mcclure, Chong Wang, Keith Soring, Rudy Garrison, Bryce Peckham
Objective—To determine the incidence of and compare the types of catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries (CMIs) sustained in Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses during racing at 3 Midwestern racetracks from 2000 to 2006. Design—Retrospective cohort study. Animals—139 Thoroughbred and 50 Quarter Horse racehorses euthanized because of CMIs. Procedures—Veterinary officials from 3 Midwestern racing jurisdictions provided injury reports for Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses that sustained CMIs (which required euthanasia) and the total number of race starts for each year. The number of CMIs/1,000 starts was determined for each racetrack. Past performance reports for each horse with a CMI ...
Agreement Between Arterial Partial Pressure Of Carbon Dioxide And Saturation Of Hemoglobin With Oxygen Values Obtained By Direct Arterial Blood Measurements Versus Noninvasive Methods In Conscious Healthy And Ill Foals, 2016 Iowa State University
Agreement Between Arterial Partial Pressure Of Carbon Dioxide And Saturation Of Hemoglobin With Oxygen Values Obtained By Direct Arterial Blood Measurements Versus Noninvasive Methods In Conscious Healthy And Ill Foals, David M. Wong, Cody J. Alcott, Chong Wang, Jennifer L. Bornkamp, Jessica L. Young, Brett A. Sponseller
Objective—To determine agreement between indirect measurements of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Petco2) and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen as measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2) with direct measurements of Paco2 and calculated saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in arterial blood (Sao2) in conscious healthy and ill foals. Design—Validation study. Animals—10 healthy and 21 ill neonatal foals. Procedures—Arterial blood gas analysis was performed on healthy and ill foals examined at a veterinary teaching hospital to determine direct measurements of Paco2 and Pao2 along with Sao2. Concurrently, Petco2 was measured with a capnograph inserted into a naris ...
Comparative Effects Of Castration And Dehorning In Series Or Concurrent Castration And Dehorning Procedures On Stress Responses And Production In Holstein Calves, R. A. Mosher, Chong Wang, P. S. Allen, J. F.. Coetzee
The study objective was to compare serum cortisol as an acute stress measure, chute exit velocity as a behavioral measure, and ADG as an indicator of performance and well-being after castration, dehorning, or concurrent castration/dehorning of calves when performed in parallel and in series. Intact male Holstein calves, 3 to 4 mo, underwent sham handling before 2 procedures performed in series separated by 2 to 3 wk. In Period 1, calves were either dehorned by amputation, surgically castrated, concurrently castrated/dehorned, or served as nonsurgical controls (n = 10/treatment). In Period 2, calves that had been dehorned, castrated, or ...
Impact Of Oral Meloxicam Administered Alone Or In Combination With Gabapentin On Experimentally Induced Lameness In Beef Calves, J. F. Coetzee, R. A. Mosher, D. E. Anderson, B. Robert, L. E. Kohake, R. Gehring, B. J. White, B. Kukanich, Chong Wang
This study examined the pharmacokinetics and analgesic effect of oral meloxicam (MEL) administered alone or in combination with gabapentin (GABA) in an experimental bovine lameness model. Eighteen male British × Continental beef calves aged 4 to 6 mo and weighing 297 to 392 kg were randomly assigned to receive either 1) 0.5 mg/kg lactose monohydrate placebo (PLBO; n = 6), 2) 0.5 mg/kg MEL (n = 6), or 3) 0.5 mg/kg MEL combined with 15 mg/kg GABA (MEL-GABA; n = 6) once daily for 4 d. The first treatment was administered 4 h after a chemical synovitis ...
A Clinical Index For Disease Activity In Cats With Chronic Enteropathy, 2016 Iowa State University
A Clinical Index For Disease Activity In Cats With Chronic Enteropathy, Albert E. Jergens, J. M. Crandell, R. Evans, Mark R. Ackermann, Kristina G. Miles, Chong Wang
Background: There is a need for a clinically useful, quantitative index for measurement of disease activity in cats with chronic enteropathy (CE). Objective: To develop a numerical activity index that is of practical value to clinicians treating CE in cats. Animals: Eighty-two cats with CE. Methods: Retrospective case review of 59 cats diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Prospective validation study of 23 cats having either IBD or food-responsive enteropathy (FRE). Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify which combination of clinical and laboratory variables were best associated with intestinal inflammation of IBD. This combination of variables was expressed in ...