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Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes 2018 University of Maine

Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial uterine infections inflict major losses on the equine breeding industry. These infections usually arise from bacteria introduced at breeding. Micro-currents propelled by ciliated cells between the folds of the uterus and cervix have been proposed as a means by which contaminants are expelled. Previous data have shown possible ciliary micro-currents propelling carbon particles, occasionally rotating, through cervical folds. However, adherence to the epithelium may have interfered with movement of carbon in these studies. Therefore, we tested potentially non-adherent substances to reveal ciliary micro-currents on the equine cervix under high magnification video-endoscopy. We hypothesized that polyethylene green microspheres 1 - 5 ...


Human Induced Rotation And Reorganization Of The Brain Of Domestic Dogs, Taryn Roberts, Paul McGreevy, Michael Valenzuela 2018 University of Sydney

Human Induced Rotation And Reorganization Of The Brain Of Domestic Dogs, Taryn Roberts, Paul Mcgreevy, Michael Valenzuela

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

Domestic dogs exhibit an extraordinary degree of morphological diversity. Such breed-to-breed variability applies equally to the canine skull, however little is known about whether this translates to systematic differences in cerebral organization. By looking at the paramedian sagittal magnetic resonance image slice of canine brains across a range of animals with different skull shapes (N = 13), we found that the relative reduction in skull length compared to width (measured by Cephalic Index) was significantly correlated to a progressive ventral pitching of the primary longitudinal brain axis (r = 0.83), as well as with a ventral shift in the position of ...


Absence Of Typical Haversian System From The Compact Bone Of Some Reptile And Bird Species, Yasser Ahmed, Mohamed Abdelsabourv Khalaf, Fatma Khalil 2017 South Valley University

Absence Of Typical Haversian System From The Compact Bone Of Some Reptile And Bird Species, Yasser Ahmed, Mohamed Abdelsabourv Khalaf, Fatma Khalil

Histology

Background and Objective: Mammalian compact bone is composed mostly of Haversian system. Although there are many studies describing the typical Haversian system in mammals, there are few studies conducted on bones from non-mammalian species. The objective of the current study was to investigate the existence of the typical Haversian system in compact bones from reptiles and birds.

Materials and Methods: Femora were collected from geckos, Nile monitors, sparrows, ducks and geese. Samples were then, fixed in 10% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Von Kossa and then examined using light microscopy.

Results ...


Developing Learning Models To Teach Equine Anatomy And Biomechanics, Zandalee E. Toothaker 2017 University of Maine

Developing Learning Models To Teach Equine Anatomy And Biomechanics, Zandalee E. Toothaker

Honors College

Animal owners and professionals benefit from an understanding of an animal’s anatomy and biomechanics. This is especially true of the horse. A better understanding of the horse’s anatomy and weight bearing capabilities will allow people to treat and prevent injuries in equine athletes and work horses. Currently, teaching anatomy is based on dissection of cadavers and study of figures in textbooks. Dissection is expensive and presents logistical difficulties associated with sourcing, storage, and disposal of cadavers. Also, post mortem tissue changes obscure how the muscles support the bones and make the specimens unsuitable for representing biomechanical principles. Cadavers ...


Methods And Processes Of Developing The Strengthening The Reporting Of Observational Studies In Epidemiology – Veterinary (Strobe-Vet) Statement, J. M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor, I. R. Dohoo, H. N. Erb, M. Cevallos, M. Egger, A. K. Ersboll, S. W. Martin, L. R. Nielsen, D. L. Pearl, D. U. Pfeiffer, J. Sanchez, M. E. Torrence, H. Vigre, C. Waldner, M. P. Ward 2016 Ontario Veterinary College

Methods And Processes Of Developing The Strengthening The Reporting Of Observational Studies In Epidemiology – Veterinary (Strobe-Vet) Statement, J. M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor, I. R. Dohoo, H. N. Erb, M. Cevallos, M. Egger, A. K. Ersboll, S. W. Martin, L. R. Nielsen, D. L. Pearl, D. U. Pfeiffer, J. Sanchez, M. E. Torrence, H. Vigre, C. Waldner, M. P. Ward

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents many challenges that often are not adequately addressed in published reporting guidelines. A consensus meeting of experts was organized to develop an extension of the STROBE statement to address observational studies in veterinary medicine with respect to animal health, animal production, animal welfare and food safety outcomes. The consensus meeting was held 11–13 May 2014 in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Seventeen experts from North America, Europe and Australia attended the meeting. The experts were epidemiologists and biostatisticians, many of whom hold or have held editorial positions with relevant journals. Prior to ...


Explanation And Elaboration Document For The Strobe-Vet Statement: Strengthening The Reporting Of Observational Studies In Epidemiology – Veterinary Extension, Annette M. O'Connor, J. M. Sargeant, I. R. Dohoo, H. N. Erb, M. Cevallos, M. Egger, A. K. Ersboll, S. W. Martin, L. R. Nielsen, D. L. Pearl, D. U. Pfeiffer, J. Sanchez, M. E. Torrence, H. Vigre, C. Waldner, M. P. Ward 2016 Iowa State University

Explanation And Elaboration Document For The Strobe-Vet Statement: Strengthening The Reporting Of Observational Studies In Epidemiology – Veterinary Extension, Annette M. O'Connor, J. M. Sargeant, I. R. Dohoo, H. N. Erb, M. Cevallos, M. Egger, A. K. Ersboll, S. W. Martin, L. R. Nielsen, D. L. Pearl, D. U. Pfeiffer, J. Sanchez, M. E. Torrence, H. Vigre, C. Waldner, M. P. Ward

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement was first published in 2007 and again in 2014. The purpose of the original STROBE was to provide guidance for authors, reviewers and editors to improve the comprehensiveness of reporting; however, STROBE has a unique focus on observational studies. Although much of the guidance provided by the original STROBE document is directly applicable, it was deemed useful to map those statements to veterinary concepts, provide veterinary examples and highlight unique aspects of reporting in veterinary observational studies. Here, we present the examples and explanations for the checklist items included ...


Morphological And Biochemical Adaptive Changes Associated With A Short-Period Starvation Of Adult Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica), Yasser Ahmed, Soha A. Soliman, Mohammed Abdelsabour-Khalaf 2016 South Valley University

Morphological And Biochemical Adaptive Changes Associated With A Short-Period Starvation Of Adult Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica), Yasser Ahmed, Soha A. Soliman, Mohammed Abdelsabour-Khalaf

Histology

Objective: The morphological and biochemical impact of a short-period of starvation on Japanese quail was investigated.

Materials and Methods: Ten adult male Japanese quail were divided into two groups; control fed and starved. The control-fed group was offered food and water ad libitum and the starved group was subjected to a short-period of food deprivation. After 2.5 days, the serum was obtained and different parameters including the total protein, AST, ALT, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, creatinine and urea were assessed. Gastrointestinal tract, stomach and liver were excised and their masses were estimated. Paraffin and resin embedded sections from the proventriculus ...


Potential For Meta-Analysis In The Realm Of Preharvest Food Safety, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor 2016 Ontario Veterinary College

Potential For Meta-Analysis In The Realm Of Preharvest Food Safety, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Meta-analysis, the statistical combination of results from multiple studies, can be used to summarize all of the available research on an intervention, etiology, descriptive, or diagnostic test accuracy question. Meta-analysis should be conducted as a component of a systematic review, to increase transparency in the selection of studies and to incorporate an evaluation of the risk of bias in the individual studies included in the meta-analysis. The process of meta-analysis may include a forest plot to graphically display the study results and the calculation of a weighted average summary effect size. Heterogeneity (differences in the effect size between studies) can ...


Social Deprivation Of Infant Rhesus Monkeys Alters The Chemoarchitecture Of The Brain: I. Subcortical Regions, Lee J. Martin, Dawn M. Spicer, Mark H. Lewis, John P. Gluck, Linda C. Cork 2016 Johns Hopkins University

Social Deprivation Of Infant Rhesus Monkeys Alters The Chemoarchitecture Of The Brain: I. Subcortical Regions, Lee J. Martin, Dawn M. Spicer, Mark H. Lewis, John P. Gluck, Linda C. Cork

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) reared during the first year of life without social contact develop persistent stereotyped movements, self-directed behaviors, and psychosocial abnormalities, but neurobiological mechanisms underlying the behaviors of socially deprived (SD) monkeys are unknown. Monkeys were reared in total social deprivation for the first 9 months of life; control monkeys were reared socially (SR) with mothers and peers. Subjects were killed at 19-24 yr of age. Because the behaviors of SD monkeys are reminiscent of changes in striatal or amygdalar function, we used immunocytochemistry for substance P (SP), leutine-enkephalin (LENK), somatostatin, calbindin, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to evaluate ...


The Relationship Between Canine Nasal Length And Second-Hand Smoke Cotinine Levels, Sierra Wilson, Terry Derting 2016 Murray State University

The Relationship Between Canine Nasal Length And Second-Hand Smoke Cotinine Levels, Sierra Wilson, Terry Derting

Scholars Week

Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been associated with respiratory cancers in canines, with the predisposed locations determined by the cephalic ratio (head length / head width). Exposure to SHS is frequently measured by analyzing urine or blood samples for the nicotine by-product cotinine. We investigated the suitability of saliva as an alternative source for cotinine analyses in dogs because obtaining saliva is less invasive and cotinine concentrations from SHS exposure are instantaneously measurable in saliva compared to other collection methods. Specifically, we tested for a quantitative relationship between cephalic ratio and the salivary concentration of cotinine. Our null hypothesis was that there ...


Differential Gene Expression In Equine Cartilaginous Tissues And Induced Chondrocytes, Emma N. Adam 2016 University of Kentucky

Differential Gene Expression In Equine Cartilaginous Tissues And Induced Chondrocytes, Emma N. Adam

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Degenerative joint disease, or osteoarthritis, is a major cause of lameness and morbidity in horses, humans, and dogs. There are no truly satisfactory cures for this widespread problem and current treatments all have limitations or unwanted side effects.

New cell-based strategies to repair joint surface lesions have generated a high level of interest, but have yet to achieve the full restoration of articular cartilage structure and function. Currently used therapy cells include autologous chondrocytes and adult mesenchymal cells such as bone marrow derived cells and adipose derived cells. Unfortunately, the resultant repair tissue is biomechanically inferior fibrocartilage. A critical gap ...


Retinal Detachment Post-Phacoemulsification In Bichons Frises: A Retrospective Study Of 54 Dogs, Silvia G. Pryor, Ellison Bentley, Gillian J. McLellan, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Amy J. Rankin, Amber L. Labelle, Kevin A. Buhr 2016 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Retinal Detachment Post-Phacoemulsification In Bichons Frises: A Retrospective Study Of 54 Dogs, Silvia G. Pryor, Ellison Bentley, Gillian J. Mclellan, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Amy J. Rankin, Amber L. Labelle, Kevin A. Buhr

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective—To compare rates of retinal detachment (RD) post phacoemulsification in American Bichons Frises with and without prophylactic retinopexy.

Procedures—Medical records of 54 Bichons Frises undergoing phacoemulsification with or without prophylactic retinopexy between 2003–2013 in one or both eyes were reviewed from five Midwestern university veterinary teaching hospitals. Inclusion criteria were pre-operative ERG, at least 6 months of follow up post phacoemulsification, and absence of pre-existing RD as determined by ophthalmic examination and/or ultrasound. Statistical analyses used chi-squared and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and Wilson confidence intervals with the p value

Results—Phacoemulsification was performed without retinopexy in ...


Severe Impairment Of Male Reproductive Organ Development In A Low Smn Expressing Mouse Model Of Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Eric W. Ottesen, Matthew D. Howell, Natalia N. Singh, Joonbae Seo, Elizabeth M. Whitley, Ravindra N. Singh 2016 Iowa State University

Severe Impairment Of Male Reproductive Organ Development In A Low Smn Expressing Mouse Model Of Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Eric W. Ottesen, Matthew D. Howell, Natalia N. Singh, Joonbae Seo, Elizabeth M. Whitley, Ravindra N. Singh

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN), a multifunctional protein essential for higher eukaryotes. While SMN is one of the most scrutinized proteins associated with neurodegeneration, its gender-specific role in vertebrates remains unknown. We utilized a mild SMA model (C/C model) to examine the impact of low SMN on growth and development of mammalian sex organs. We show impaired testis development, degenerated seminiferous tubules, reduced sperm count and low fertility in C/C males, but no overt sex organ phenotype in C/C females. Underscoring an increased requirement for SMN expression, wild ...


Anatomical And Electrophysiological Analysis Of The Trigeminal Nerve In A Teleost Fish, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Lynne U. Sneddon 2015 Roslin Institute

Anatomical And Electrophysiological Analysis Of The Trigeminal Nerve In A Teleost Fish, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne U. Sneddon, Ph.D.

The trigeminal nerve in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was examined for the presence of A-delta and C fibres. Sections of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve were found to comprise a range of fibre types including Adelta and C fibres. The size range of the cell bodies of the trigeminal ganglion reflected the fibre range since they correlated with the size range of axons in the nerve branches. Electrophysiological recordings of evoked activity from the ganglion confirmed the presence of these fibre types and the proportion of these mirrored the proportion of fibre types in the anatomical analyses ...


Variation In Brain Morphology Of Intertidal Gobies: A Comparison Of Methodologies Used To Quantitatively Assess Brain Volumes In Fish, Gemma E. White, Culum Brown 2015 Macquarie University

Variation In Brain Morphology Of Intertidal Gobies: A Comparison Of Methodologies Used To Quantitatively Assess Brain Volumes In Fish, Gemma E. White, Culum Brown

VETERINARY SCIENCE AND MEDICINE

When correlating brain size and structure with behavioural and environmental characteristics, a range of techniques can be utilised. This study used gobiid fishes to quantitatively compare brain volumes obtained via three different methods; these included the commonly used techniques of histology and approximating brain volume to an idealised ellipsoid, and the recently established technique of X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). It was found that all three methods differed significantly from one another in their volume estimates for most brain lobes. The ellipsoid method was prone to over- or under-estimation of lobe size, histology caused shrinkage in the telencephalon, and although micro-CT ...


Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of Dolphin Brains Reveals Direct Auditory Pathway To Temporal Lobe, Gregory S. Berns, Peter F. Cook, Sean Foxley, Saad Jbabdi, Karla L. Miller, Lori Marino 2015 Emory University

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of Dolphin Brains Reveals Direct Auditory Pathway To Temporal Lobe, Gregory S. Berns, Peter F. Cook, Sean Foxley, Saad Jbabdi, Karla L. Miller, Lori Marino

Lori Marino, Ph.D.

The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes’ auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this position induced by expansion of ‘associative0 regions in lateral and caudal directions. However, the precise location of the auditory cortex and its connections are still unknown. Here ...


Neuroanatomy Of The Subadult And Fetal Brain Of The Atlantic White-Sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus Acutus) From In Situ Magnetic Resonance Images, Eric W. Montie, Gerald E. Schneider, Darlene R. Ketten, Lori Marino, Katie E. Touhey, Mark E. Hahn 2015 University of South Florida

Neuroanatomy Of The Subadult And Fetal Brain Of The Atlantic White-Sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus Acutus) From In Situ Magnetic Resonance Images, Eric W. Montie, Gerald E. Schneider, Darlene R. Ketten, Lori Marino, Katie E. Touhey, Mark E. Hahn

Lori Marino, Ph.D.

This article provides the first anatomically labeled, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) -based atlas of the subadult and fetal Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) brain. It differs from previous MRI-based atlases of cetaceans in that it was created from images of fresh, postmortem brains in situ rather than extracted, formalin-fixed brains. The in situ images displayed the classic hallmarks of odontocete brains: fore-shortened orbital lobes and pronounced temporal width. Olfactory structures were absent and auditory regions (e.g., temporal lobes and inferior colliculi) were enlarged. In the subadult and fetal postmortem MRI scans, the hippocampus was identifiable, despite the relatively small ...


Neuroanatomy Of The Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) As Revealed By Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Mri), L. Marino, Keith Sudheimer, D. Ann Pabst, William A. McLellan, David Filsoof, John I. Johnson 2015 Emory University

Neuroanatomy Of The Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) As Revealed By Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Mri), L. Marino, Keith Sudheimer, D. Ann Pabst, William A. Mclellan, David Filsoof, John I. Johnson

Lori Marino, Ph.D.

In this study, magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain of an adult common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) were acquired in the coronal plane at 66 antero-posterior levels. From these scans a computer-generated set of resectioned virtual images in orthogonal planes was constructed using the programs VoxelView and VoxelMath (Vital Images, Inc., Michigan State Univ.). Sections in all three planes reveal major neuroanatomical structures. These structures in the adult common dolphin brain are compared with those from a fetal common dolphin brain from a previously published study as well as with MR images of adult brains of other odontocetes. This study ...


Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of Dolphin Brains Reveals Direct Auditory Pathway To Temporal Lobe, Gregory S. Berns, Peter F. Cook, Sean Foxley, Saad Jbabdi, Karla L. Miller, Lori Marino 2015 Emory University

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of Dolphin Brains Reveals Direct Auditory Pathway To Temporal Lobe, Gregory S. Berns, Peter F. Cook, Sean Foxley, Saad Jbabdi, Karla L. Miller, Lori Marino

VETERINARY SCIENCE AND MEDICINE

The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes’ auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this position induced by expansion of ‘associative0 regions in lateral and caudal directions. However, the precise location of the auditory cortex and its connections are still unknown. Here ...


Anatomy And Three-Dimensional Reconstructions Of The Brain Of The White Whale (Delphinapterus Leucas) From Magnetic Resonance Images, Lori Marino, Timothy L. Murphy, Amy L. Deweerd, John A. Morris, Archibald J. Fobbs, Nathalie Humbolt, Sam H. Ridgway, John I. Johnson 2015 Emory University

Anatomy And Three-Dimensional Reconstructions Of The Brain Of The White Whale (Delphinapterus Leucas) From Magnetic Resonance Images, Lori Marino, Timothy L. Murphy, Amy L. Deweerd, John A. Morris, Archibald J. Fobbs, Nathalie Humbolt, Sam H. Ridgway, John I. Johnson

Lori Marino, Ph.D.

Magnetic resonance imaging offers a means of observing the internal structure of the brain where traditional procedures of embedding, sectioning, staining, mounting, and microscopic examination of thousands of sections are not practical. Furthermore, internal structures can be analyzed in their precise quantitative spatial interrelationships, which is difficult to accomplish after the spatial distortions often accompanying histological processing. For these reasons, magnetic resonance imaging makes specimens that were traditionally difficult to analyze, more accessible. In the present study, images of the brain of a white whale (Beluga) Delphinapterus leucas were scanned in the coronal plane at 119 antero-posterior levels. Fromthese scans ...


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