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Evaluating Red Wolf Scat To Deter Coyote Access To Urban Pastureland, Meghan M. Louis, Samuel M. Tucker, Michael K. Stoskopf, Suzanne Kennedy-Stoskopf 2020 North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine

Evaluating Red Wolf Scat To Deter Coyote Access To Urban Pastureland, Meghan M. Louis, Samuel M. Tucker, Michael K. Stoskopf, Suzanne Kennedy-Stoskopf

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Depredation of domestic livestock by wildlife is a leading source of human–wildlife conflict, often requiring intervention at the local level. Historically, these interventions have resulted in the use of lethal methods to remove the offending animal. In response to increased public opposition to lethal control methods, wildlife managers have sought to identify effective nonlethal biological options to mitigate wildlife depredations. In 2018, we tested the concept of a biological deterrent using red wolf (Canis rufus) scat that had historically been spread along fence lines to prevent depredation of lambs (Ovis aries) and kid goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) at the ...


Effects Of Freshwater Crayfish On Influenza A Virus Persistence In Water, J. Jeffrey Roots, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner 2020 National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins

Effects Of Freshwater Crayfish On Influenza A Virus Persistence In Water, J. Jeffrey Roots, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Several investigations have recently assessed the ability of some aquatic invertebrates to act as tools for avian influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance as well as their potential role(s) in IAV ecology. Because of this, as well as the high IAV seroprevalence rates noted in select mesocarnivores that commonly inhabit aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats, we evaluated the effects that freshwater crayfish have on IAV in water at three dose levels and monitored for the presence of IAV in crayfish tissues (gill and green gland) and haemolymph at multiple time points. At relatively high, medium 432 and low (approximately 10 , 10 ...


Genetic Biocontrol For Invasive Species, John L. Teem, Luke Alphey, Sarah Descamps, Matt P. Edgington, Owain Edwards, Neil Gemmell, Tim Harvey-Samuel, Rachel L. Melnick, Kevin P. Oh, Antoinette J. Piaggio, J. Royden Saah, Dan Schill, Paul Thomas, Trevor Smith, Andrew Roberts 2020 ILSI Research Foundation

Genetic Biocontrol For Invasive Species, John L. Teem, Luke Alphey, Sarah Descamps, Matt P. Edgington, Owain Edwards, Neil Gemmell, Tim Harvey-Samuel, Rachel L. Melnick, Kevin P. Oh, Antoinette J. Piaggio, J. Royden Saah, Dan Schill, Paul Thomas, Trevor Smith, Andrew Roberts

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive species are increasingly affecting agriculture, food, fisheries, and forestry resources throughout the world. As a result of global trade, invasive species are often introduced into new environments where they become established and cause harm to human health, agriculture, and the environment. Prevention of new introductions is a high priority for addressing the harm caused by invasive species, but unfortunately efforts to prevent new introductions do not address the economic harm that is presently manifested where invasive species have already become established. Genetic biocontrol can be defined as the release of organisms with genetic methods designed to disrupt the reproduction ...


Photographic Validation Of Target Versus Nontarget Take Of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, Stephen M. Mosher 2020 USDA, APHIS, WS, National Wildlife Research Center

Photographic Validation Of Target Versus Nontarget Take Of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, Stephen M. Mosher

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Use of toxic baits or other tools for managing nuisance species must ensure that the species of interest is adequately targeted while exposure to nontarget species is minimized. Nontarget takes of acetaminophen‐laced baits for control of invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam may put those animals at risk of lethal intoxication and render the bait unavailable to the intended target species. We used wildlife cameras to identify species removing toxic and nontoxic baits from brown treesnake bait stations designed to exclude nontarget taxa in 2015 and 2016. Throughout various sites and habitat types, and balanced by season (wet ...


Time Allocation To Resources By Three Species Of Rats (Rattus Spp.) In A Radial Arm Maze, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton 2020 USDA/APHIS Wildlife Services National Wildlife Research Center

Time Allocation To Resources By Three Species Of Rats (Rattus Spp.) In A Radial Arm Maze, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Context. Introduced rats (Rattus spp.) can pose a serious threat to native flora and fauna, especially on islands where most species have evolved in the absence of terrestrial predators. Effective detection and eradication methods for introduced rats are essential to the maintenance of insular ecosystem integrity. Thus, it is important to better understand the behaviour of rats when they first arrive in a new setting.

Aims. To determine whether rats would find some novel stimuli to be significantly more attractive than other novel stimuli.

Methods. An eight-arm radial maze was used to study the behaviour of three species of Rattus ...


Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Medium and large carnivores coexist with people in urban areas globally, occasionally resulting in

negative interactions that prompt questions about how to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Hazing,

i.e., scaring wildlife, is frequently promoted as an important non-lethal means for urbanites to reduce

conflict but there is limited scientific evidence for its efficacy. We used a population of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) to simulate urban human-coyote interactions and subsequent effects of hazing on coyote behavior. Past experiences with humans significantly affected the number of times a coyoteapproached a human to necessitate hazing. coyotes that had been hand fed by adults had ...


Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels 2020 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive species are a leading driver of global change, with consequences for biodiversity and society. Because of extraordinary rates of endemism, introduction, and extinction, Hawaii offers a rich platform for exploring the cross-disciplinary challenges of managing invasive species in a dynamic world. We highlight key successes and shortcomings to share lessons learned and inspire innovation and action in and beyond the archipelago. We then discuss thematic challenges and opportunities of broad relevance to invaded ecosystems and human communities. Important research needs and possible actions include eradicating mammals from mainland island sanctuaries, assessing hidden threats from poorly known introduced species, harnessing ...


Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center & Nelson Mandela University

Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Deer-vehicle collisions are a major transportation hazard, but factors affecting deer escape decision-making in response to vehicle approach remain poorly characterized. We made opportunistic observations of deer response to vehicle approach during daylight hours on a restricted- access facility in Ohio, USA (vehicle speeds were ≤64 km/h). We hypothesized that animal proximity to the road, group size, vehicle approach, and ambient conditions would affect perceived risk by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach, as measured by flight-initiation distance (FID). We constructed a priori models for FID, as well as road-crossing behavior. Deer responses were variable and did not ...


Evaluating Moose Alces Alces Population Response To Infestation Level Of Winter Ticks Dermacentor Albipictus, Daniel D. Ellingwood, Peter J. Pekins, Henry Jones, Anthony R. Musante 2020 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Evaluating Moose Alces Alces Population Response To Infestation Level Of Winter Ticks Dermacentor Albipictus, Daniel D. Ellingwood, Peter J. Pekins, Henry Jones, Anthony R. Musante

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Many wildlife populations are experiencing a variety of environmental pressures due to the direct and indirect consequences of a changing climate. In the northeast, USA, moose Alces alces are declining in large part because of the increasing parasitism by winter tick Dermacentor albipictus, facilitated by high host density and optimal environmental conditions. To test this hypothesis, and better understand the influence of this interaction on the stability of the regional population, we constructed a population viability model using data collected through comprehensive survival and productivity studies in 2002–2005 and 2014–2018 in northern New Hampshire. Years of heavy tick ...


Spillover Of Sars-Cov-2 Into Novel Wild Hosts In North America: A Conceptual Model For Perpetuation Of The Pathogen, Alan B. Franklin, Sarah N. Bevins 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins

Spillover Of Sars-Cov-2 Into Novel Wild Hosts In North America: A Conceptual Model For Perpetuation Of The Pathogen, Alan B. Franklin, Sarah N. Bevins

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

There is evidence that the current outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, is of animal origin. As with a number of zoonotic pathogens, there is a risk of spillover into novel hosts. Here, we propose a hypothesized conceptual model that illustrates the mechanism whereby the SARS-CoV-2 could spillover from infected humans to naive wildlife hosts in North America. This proposed model is premised on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from human feces through municipal wastewater treatment plants into the natural aquatic environment where potential wildlife hosts become infected. We use the existing literature on human coronaviruses, including SARS CoV ...


Public Perspectives And Media Reporting Of Wolf Reintroduction In Colorado, Rebecca Niemiec, Richard E.W. Berl, Mireille Gonzalez, Tara Teel, Cassiopeia Camara, Matthew Collins, Jonathan Salerno, Kevin Crooks, Courtney Schultz, Stewart Breck, Dana Hoag 2020 Colorado State University, Fort Collins

Public Perspectives And Media Reporting Of Wolf Reintroduction In Colorado, Rebecca Niemiec, Richard E.W. Berl, Mireille Gonzalez, Tara Teel, Cassiopeia Camara, Matthew Collins, Jonathan Salerno, Kevin Crooks, Courtney Schultz, Stewart Breck, Dana Hoag

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In the state of Colorado, a citizen ballot initiative to reintroduce gray wolves (Canis lupus) is eliciting polarization and conflict among multiple stakeholder and interest groups. Given this complex social landscape, we examined the social context surrounding wolf reintroduction in Colorado as of 2019. We used an online survey of 734 Coloradans representative in terms of age and gender, and we sampled from different regions across the state, to examine public beliefs and attitudes related to wolf reintroduction and various wolf management options. We also conducted a content analysis of media coverage on potential wolf reintroduction in 10 major daily ...


Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) urges alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) are more efficacious when used with other dewormers and little is known on efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) to control gastrointestinal parasites. The objective was to examine the effects of DE and COWP on GIN control. Katahdin lambs (n = 32; ~150 d of age; 25.0 ± 1.8 kg) were randomly assigned to receive: 1) DE fed at an estimated 2% dry matter intake (with the assumption of moderate consumption of bermudagrass forage and provided supplement), 2) 1g COWP, 3) both 2% DE and ...


Drowning Of Pet Owners During Attempted Animal Rescues: The Avir-A Syndrome, John Pearn, Amy E. Peden, Richard Charles Franklin 2020 The University of Queensland, Royal Life Saving Society - Australia

Drowning Of Pet Owners During Attempted Animal Rescues: The Avir-A Syndrome, John Pearn, Amy E. Peden, Richard Charles Franklin

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The rescuer who drowns can result from the attempted rescue of a human or an animal. We report here a total population analysis of all drowning fatalities for the 14-year period 1–July-2002 to 30-June-2016 which involved an attempted rescue of an animal. Cases were drawn from the Royal Life Saving National Fatal Drowning Database, which in turn, derived its data primarily from the National Coronial Information System (NCIS). Eight people drowned, all adults (ranging in age from 19-74 years), in the attempted rescue of an animal. Seven of the animals were domestic pet dogs, and in two cases farm ...


Talking Trash In The Big Apple: Mitigating Bird Strikes Near The North Shore Marine Transfer Station, Stephan J. Beffre, Brian E. Washburn 2020 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services

Talking Trash In The Big Apple: Mitigating Bird Strikes Near The North Shore Marine Transfer Station, Stephan J. Beffre, Brian E. Washburn

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Anthropogenic activities that concentrate wildlife near airports increases the risk of wildlife–aircraft collisions. Placing waste management facilities, natural areas, golf courses, and other landscape features near airports have the potential to attract wildlife hazardous to aviation. We conducted a 3-year study (March 2013–February 2016) to determine if the implementation of a Wildlife Hazard Mitigation Program (WHMP) would influence the bird use of a waste transfer station located near LaGuardia Airport, New York City, New York, USA. We conducted wildlife surveys during 3 phases: (1) no mitigation program and no waste transfer station, (2) active mitigation and no waste ...


Collective Effect Of Landfills And Landscape Composition On Bird–Aircraft Collisions, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault 2020 USDA, APHIS, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center

Collective Effect Of Landfills And Landscape Composition On Bird–Aircraft Collisions, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Ninety-three percent of all reported bird strikes occur below 1,067 m, which based on the typical approach and departure angles of aircraft is within 8–13 km of an airport. Concomitantly, the Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization recommend that any feature that would attract hazardous wildlife to the approach and departure airspace be restricted. Thus, preventing the establishment of wildlife attractants, such as municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) within 8 km or 13 km extents (U.S. and international recommendations, respectively) of airports, has been recommended to mitigate the risk of bird–aircraft collisions (strikes ...


The Parasite Giardia, Ashley Anderson 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Parasite Giardia, Ashley Anderson

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The focus of this research is to better understand how this parasite works. The protozoan Giardia spp is found all over the world and in many species such as dogs, cats, and humans. From its two different forms to the microscopic size of both forms to its ability to destroy intestinal villi and cause symptoms like other parasitic infections, Giardia spp is continuously misdiagnosed. Upon further observation at veterinary clinics and researching science articles, Giardia spp is most commonly found in pets but has the potential to spread to humans via contaminated water. The most commonly infected humans are hikers ...


Factors Affecting Bait Site Visitation: Area Of Influence Of Baits, Jacquelyn E. McRae, Peter E. Schlichting, Nathan P. Snow, Amy J. Davis, Kurt C. VerCautern, John C. Kilgo, David A. Keiter, James C. Beasley, Kim M. Pepin 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Factors Affecting Bait Site Visitation: Area Of Influence Of Baits, Jacquelyn E. Mcrae, Peter E. Schlichting, Nathan P. Snow, Amy J. Davis, Kurt C. Vercautern, John C. Kilgo, David A. Keiter, James C. Beasley, Kim M. Pepin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

ABSTRACT Baiting is a fundamental strategy for the global management of wild pigs (Sus scrofa); however, little information exists on how anthropogenic bait affects wild pig movements on a landscape. We investigated factors that are important in determining the spatial area of attraction for wild pigs to bait (‘area of influence’ of a bait site) using data from Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and locations of bait sites. We monitored movements of wild pigs in 2 distinct study areas in the United States from February to September 2016 and used locational data using GPS collars to analyze the influence of ...


A Rapid Population Assessment Method For Wild Pigs Using Baited Cameras At 3 Study Site, Peter E. Schlichting, James C. Beasley, Raoul K. Boughton, Amy J. Davis, Kim M. Pepin, Michael P. Glow, Ryan S. Miller, Kurt C. VerCautern, Jesse S. Lewis 2020 Arizona State University

A Rapid Population Assessment Method For Wild Pigs Using Baited Cameras At 3 Study Site, Peter E. Schlichting, James C. Beasley, Raoul K. Boughton, Amy J. Davis, Kim M. Pepin, Michael P. Glow, Ryan S. Miller, Kurt C. Vercautern, Jesse S. Lewis

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reliable and efficient population estimates are a critical need for effective management of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa). We evaluated the use of 10‐day camera grids for rapid population assessment (RPA) of wild pigs at 3 study sites that varied in vegetation communities and wild pig densities. Study areas included Buck Island Ranch, Florida; Tejon Ranch, California; and the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA, during 2016–2018. Rapid population assessments grids were composed of baited camera traps spaced approximately 500 or 750 m apart. Two RPA grids were deployed per study site and each grid was deployed twice ...


Relationships Between Survival And Habitat Suitability Of Semi- Aquatic Mammals, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Jimmy Taylor, Kristine O. Evans, Ryo Ogawa, Lance McClintic, Guiming Wang 2020 Mississippi State University, Mississippi State & Siskiyou County Department of Agriculture

Relationships Between Survival And Habitat Suitability Of Semi- Aquatic Mammals, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Jimmy Taylor, Kristine O. Evans, Ryo Ogawa, Lance Mcclintic, Guiming Wang

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Spatial distribution and habitat selection are integral to the study of animal ecology. Habitat selection may optimize the fitness of individuals. Hutchinsonian niche theory posits the fundamental niche of species would support the persistence or growth of populations. Although niche-based species distribution models (SDMs) and habitat suitability models (HSMs) such as maximum entropy (Maxent) have demonstrated fair to excellent predictive power, few studies have linked the prediction of HSMs to demographic rates. We aimed to test the prediction of Hutchinsonian niche theory that habitat suitability (i.e., likelihood of occurrence) would be positively related to survival of American beaver (Castor ...


Effects Of Inactivated Mycobacterium Bovis Vaccination On Molokai-Origin Wild Pigs Experimentally Infected With Virulent M. Bovis, Pauline Nol, Morgan Wehte, Richard A. Bowen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tyler Thacker, Kristina Lantz, Jack Rhyan, Laurie A. Baeten, Ramón A. Juste, Iker A. Sevilla, Christian Gortazar, Joaquín Vicente 2020 US Department of Agriculture , Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Wildlife Research Center

Effects Of Inactivated Mycobacterium Bovis Vaccination On Molokai-Origin Wild Pigs Experimentally Infected With Virulent M. Bovis, Pauline Nol, Morgan Wehte, Richard A. Bowen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tyler Thacker, Kristina Lantz, Jack Rhyan, Laurie A. Baeten, Ramón A. Juste, Iker A. Sevilla, Christian Gortazar, Joaquín Vicente

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The wild pig population on Molokai, Hawaii, USA is a possible reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and has been implicated in decades past as the source of disease for the island’s domestic cattle. Heat-inactivated vaccines have been effective for reducing disease prevalence in wild boar in Spain and could prove useful for managing M. bovis in Molokai wild pigs. We designed an experiment to test this vaccine in wild pigs of Molokai genetics. Fifteen 3–4-month-old pigs were orally administered 106–107 colony forming units (cfu) of heat-inactivated M. bovis (Vaccinates; n = 8; 0 ...


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